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Full text of "The apples of New York"

From the collection of the 



o Prelinger 

v JJibrary 
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San Francisco, California 
2006 







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STATE OF NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



THE 



APPLES OF NEW YORK 



VOLUME II 



BY 

S. A. BEACH 



Horticulturist 
ASSISTED BY 

N. O. BOOTH 

Assistant Horticulturist 
AND 

O. M. TAYLOR 

Foreman In Horticulture 



Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year J903 

II 



ALBANY 

J. B. LYON COMPANY, PRINTERS 
1905 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



HALF-TONE PLATES. 

FACING PAGE. 

Admirable 2 

Arctic 8 

Blenheim 22 

Cabashea 28 

Cox Orange 42 

Cranberry Pippin 44 

Early Harvest 50 

Early Joe 52 

Early Ripe 54 

Fall Orange 60 

Gladstone 76 

Golden Sweet 82 

Haas . . v 90 

Hawley 94 

Hoadley 100 

Hook 102 

Jefferis 108 

Jersey Sweet no 

Judson 1 12 

Landsberg 1 18 

Late Strawberry 120 

Longfield 122 

Lowell 128 

McMahon 136 

Magog 138 

Ohio Pippin 148 

Parry White 156 

Patten 158 

Pomona 164 

Porter 166 

Pumpkin Russet 170 

Sharp 198 

Sops of Wine 202 

Sour Bough 204 

Tetofsky 220 

Workaroe 246 

Montreal Beauty (Crab) . 262 

COLOR PLATES. 

Alexander 4 

Benoni 16 

Bismarck 20 

iii 



iv INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 

COLOR PLATES Continued. 

FACING PAGE. 

Champlain 30 

Chenango 34 

Collamer 36 

Constantine 40 

Cranberry Pippin ; . . . . 44 

Detroit Red 46 

Dudley . . ' 48 

Early Harvest 50 

Early Strawberry 56 

Fall Pippin 62 

Fameuse 66 

Fanny 68 

Fishkill 70 

Gravenstein 84 

Keswick 1 16 

Lee Sweet (section) 136 

Lee Sweet (whole fruit), see Volume 1 230 

Mclntosh ' 132 

McLellan ( Section) 136 

McLellan (whole fruit).- 134 

Maiden Blush 140 

Mother 144 

Munson 146 

Oldenburg 150 

Pease 160 

Primate 168 

Pumpkin Sweet 172 

Red Astrachan 178 

Red June 180 

Ribston $84 

Shiawassee 200 

Stump 208 

Sweet Bough 216 

Twenty Ounce 228 

Victoria 232 

Wealthy . 236 

Williams 242 

Wolf River 244 

Yellow Transparent 248 

Excelsior ( Crab) 254 

Hyslop (Crab) 256 

Large Red Siberian (Crab) 258 

Martha (Crab) 260 

Red Siberian (Crab) 264 

Transcendent (Crab) ,,.,,..,..,,.,....,,...,, ,.,..,,,. 266 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



ADIRONDACK. 

REFERENCE, i. Taylor, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1893:285. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

This variety is said to have originated in Clinton county. We have re- 
ceived no reports of its being grown outside of the locality of its origin. 
Taylor gives the following description of it. (i). "Roundish, conical; 
regular, of medium size, with smooth surface, becoming glossy when rubbed ; 
color rich yellow, washed and striped with red; dots small, straw color, 
slightly elevated; cavity large, round, deep, flaring; stem of medium length 
and thickness, slightly knobbed ; basin small, nearly round, very shallow, 
with convex sides, slightly and regularly ribbed and downy ; calyx segments 
rather small, meeting; eye small, closed. Skin thin, tough; core large, 
broad, heart-shaped, moderately open, clasping; seeds numerous, oval, plump, 
grayish brown; flesh yellowish white, granular, rather dry, tender; flavor 
mild subacid; quality good. Season, October to January in Clinton county, 
New York. Tree a good grower ; resembles Baldwin in its bearing habit ; 
hardy at its place of origin. This variety is said to have originated from 
seed of Westfield (Seek-No-Further) crossed with Hubbardston. It is a 
promising early winter apple for Northern New York and New England." 

ADMIRABLE. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869 1354. 2. Leroy, 1873 :8i3. fig. 3. Hogg, 
1884:214. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:339, 348. 1889. 5. Beach, Ib., n =589, 595, 
1892. 6. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:110. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. ADMIRABLE (6). SMALL'S ADMIRABLE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5). Small 
Admirable (6). 

Fruit green or yellow, not particularly attractive. At its best 
it is very good for dessert use, but as grown at this Station it 
usually ranks but fair to good in quality and the fruit is very apt 
to show imperfect spots in the flesh which are evidently due to 
some physiological defect. In England it is regarded as an ex- 
cellent kitchen and dessert apple and the tree is said to be an 
immense bearer and well adapted for dwarf culture (3). So far as 
tested at this Station the tree has been an annual cropper and very 
productive, often yielding full crops. A portion of the fruit may 



2 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

sometimes be kept through the winter, but ordinarily the season 
for this variety is November and December (6). Not recom- 
mended for cultivation in New York. 

Historical. This variety originated in England (2, 3). 

TREE. 

Tree dwarfish with short, stout, slow-growing branches. Form rather 
flat, spreading and somewhat drooping. Tivigs short, somewhat curved, 
stout to rather slender ; internodes short to above medium. Bark dark brown 
tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenti- 
cels numerous, small to medium, oval, slightly raised. Buds deeply set in 
bark, medium to small, broad, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, appressed 
or free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit quite uniform in size and shape for any particular crop but varies 
under different conditions from below medium to above. Form oblate conic 
to roundish conic, pretty regular but sometimes indistinctly ribbed. Stem 
medium to long, slender, pubescent. Cavity acute, moderately deep to deep, 
broad, smooth or thinly russeted. Calyx closed or open; lobes reflexed. 
Basin moderately shallow, rather narrow, sometimes abrupt, somewhat fur- 
rowed and wrinkled. 

Skin varies from pale green to attractive lemon-yellow, sometimes with 
brownish blush. Dots numerous, small, light or russet. 

Calyx tube rather narrow, elongated funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping. 
Carpels long, obovate. Seeds rather large, long, plump, pointed, medium 
brown. 

Flesh whitish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, quite juicy, mild subacid, 
very aromatic, good to very good in quality in well grown fruit. 

Season October to January. 

ALBION. 

Fruit intermediate in type between Fall Pippin and Lowell. In color it 
resembles Fall Pippin but in form it is more like Lowell. Season October 
to late fall or early winter. We have been unable to learn the origin of this 
variety. It is but little cultivated in this State. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large to very large. Form roundish oblong, irregular. Stem short 
to medium, slender. Cavity acuminate, deep, medium to wide, russeted. 
Calyx small to medium, tightly closed; lobes short, narrow, acute. Basin 
shallow, medium to narrow in width, obtuse, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, waxy, pale yellow mingled with green. Dots green or russet 
or submerged and whitish. 

Calyx tube narrow, cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens marginal. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 3 

Core large, abaxile ; cells open or partly closed ; core lines clasping. Car- 
pels elongated, ovate, pointed, mucronate. Seeds few, medium to large, 
rather narrow, long, acute. 

Flesh moderately coarse, very tender, juicy, mild subacid, good. 

ALEXANDER. 

REFERENCES, i. Forsyth, 1824:131. 2. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831: 
No. 10. 3. Kenrick, 1832:65. 4. Floy-Lindley, 1833:11. 5. Mag. Hort.,, 
i'395- 1835. 6. Downing, 1845:79. fig. 7. Thomas, 1849:146. 8. Cole, 
1849:118. 9. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:32. 1851. 10. Barry, 1851:282. 
ii. Elliott, 1854:120. 12. Gregg, 1857:41. 13. Hooper, 1857:11. 14. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 15. Warder, 1867:510. 16. Fitz, 1872:152. 17. Leroy, 
1873:333. fig. 18. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:538. 19. Downing, 1881:11 
index, app. 20. Hogg, 1884:72. 21. Roach, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1886-87:27. 22. Wickson, 1889:244. 23. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890 :288. 24. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :234. 25. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53 :278. 
1894. 26. Gaudier, 1894: No. 14. col. pi. 27. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. 
Rpt., 1:24. 1804. 28. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:312. 1896. 29. 
Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui., 43:102. 1896. 30. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui, 61:29. 1897. 
31. Can. Hort., 20:283. 1897. 32. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 5:5. 
1898. figs. 33. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:354. 34. Craig, Cyclo- 
pedia of Amer. Hort., 3:1404. 1901. 35. Hansen, 5\ D. Sta. Bui., 76:22. 
1902. 36. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902 :83, 85, 86. 37. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:36. fig. 38. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:36. 1903. 39. 
Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:111. 1904. 40. Scriber, Can. Hort., 
28:248. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Albertin (17, 26). ALEXANDER (i, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 
13, 14, 15, 1 6, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 
40). Alexander (34, 26). Alexander the First (31). Alexandre (17, 26). Aporta 
(3, 4, 6, 9, 13, 17, 20, 26, 31). Aporta Nalivia (26). Aubertin (17, 26). 
Beauty of Queen (17, 26). Belle d 'Orleans (17, 26). Comte Woronsoff 
(17, 26). Corail (17, 26). English King (19, 26). Empereur Alexandre I 
(17, 26). Empereur Alexandre de Russie (17, 26). Empereur de Russie 
(17,26). EMPEROR ALEXANDER (3, 4, 20, 33). Emperor Alexander (2, 6, 9, 
10, n, 13, 26, 32). Fin d'Automne (17, 26). Grand Alexander (26). GRAND- 
ALEX ANDRE (17). Grand Alexandre (26). Gros- Alexandre (17, 26). Jolly 
Gentleman (26). KAISER ALEXANDER (26). Korallen Apfel (26). Phoenix 
(26). Phdnix (17, 26). Pomona Britannica (17, 26). President Napoleon 
(17, 26). Russian Emperor (2, 6, 9, 13, 20, 26). Stoke Tulip (26). Wolf 
River incorrectly (39). Wundcrapfel (26). 

Alexander is a typical representative of the class of Russian 
apples commonly known as the Aport group. Fruit very large, 
attractive red or striped, coarse in texture, medium to good in 
quality, suitable for culinary rather than for dessert use. The 
fruit is apt to crack and decay about the stem and calyx and often 
becomes discolored where it is chafed by constantly rubbing 



4 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

against some twig or branch; there is also a considerable loss from 
premature dropping of the fruit. Notwithstanding these faults 
many fruit growers now regard Alexander favorably as a com- 
mercial variety as in some markets there is a strong demand for 
the fruit at good prices. It is being used to some extent for ex- 
port trade (40). Its season begins in September and extends 
through October or into November. It may be held in cold 
storage till November. It goes down quickly and as it does not 
stand heat well before going into storage it should be shipped the 
day it is picked and under ice (39). As it ripens continuously 
during a period of from four to six weeks it should have more 
than one picking. The tree is hardy, vigorous and moderately 
productive. In some localities it is subject to blight. It can be 
recommended for planting in commercial orchards to a limited 
extent. In the West it is now largely supplanted by its Wisconsin 
seedling Wolf River (34, 36). 

Historical. Introduced into England from Russia in 1817 (20). The 
exact date of the introduction of this variety into America is not known. 
The Massachusetts Horticultural Society made several importations of 
European varieties which were distributed among the members of the society. 
Mr. Manning exhibited what was supposed to be Alexander before the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society at its meeting on September 18, 1830. 
Whether this was Alexander or not, the shipment of varieties of which 
Alexander was one had evidently been made prior to that date. 1 

It has been widely disseminated and is now pretty well known in the apple 
growing districts from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Thus far it has not been 
grown to any considerable extent in New York state but at the present time 
its cultivation is on the increase. 

TREE. 

Tree large to medium, vigorous to moderately vigorous with long, stout 
branches. Form upright spreading to roundish, open and somewhat inclined 
to droop after bearing heavy crops. Tzvigs short, curved, stout with large 
terminal buds ; internodes medium. Bark brown mingled with olive-green, 
lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lcniicels 
scattering, medium in size, oval, raised. Buds medium in size, plump, obtuse, 
free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic to slightly 
oblate conic, regular or approaching broadly angular, symmetrical. Stem 
medium to rather short, moderately thick. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, 
broad, symmetrical, occasionally lipped, russeted, often with broad, con- 

1JV. E. Farmer, Sept. 24, 1830:78. 





ALEXANDER (Reduced Size) 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 5 

spicuous, outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to large, usually open; 
lobes medium to short, rather narrow, acute. Basin rather small, deep, 
narrow to nearly medium in width, abrupt, nearly smooth, symmetrical. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, glossy, somewhat waxy, greenish 
or pale yellow deepening to orange-yellow in the sun, often entirely over- 
spread with lively red or handsomely striped and splashed with bright car- 
mine. Dots inconspicuous, small, scattering. Prevailing effect red or 
striped. 

Calyx tube variable, long to short, wide to medium, conical to funnel- 
shape. Stamens median to basal. 

Core small, usually axile; cells often not uniformly developed, closed or 
very slightly open; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels elliptical to slightly 
ovate, emarginate. Seeds medium in size, wide, short, rather plump, obtuse 
to acute. 

Flesh nearly white with faint yellow tinge, firm, coarse, moderately crisp, 
tender, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good. 

Season September and October or early November. 

AMSTERDAM. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1876 143 app. 2. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 
56:26. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. AMSTERDAM (2). AMSTERDAM SWEET (i). Amsterdam 
Sweet (2). Hightop Sweet incorrectly (i). 

Downing describes this fruit as medium in size, pale greenish-yellow, 
striped and splashed with light and dark bright red; flesh white, half fine, 
tender, juicy, rather rich, sweet, slightly aromatic; season October and 
November. Origin Amsterdam, N. Y., on the farm of Joseph Britten (i). 
We find no account of Amsterdam except the one above mentioned, and 
have not seen the variety. 

ANISIM. 

REFERENCES, i. Schroeder, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:71. 2. Hos- 
kins, Rural N. Y., 52 :2Q9. 1893. figs- 3- Greene, Minn. Sta. Bui, 32 :24O. 
1893. 4. Budd, la. Sta. Bui., 31 :334. 1895. 5. Thomas, 1897 -.626. 6. Budd, 
la. Sta. Bui., 41:66, 69, 71. 1899. 7- Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:15. 8. Mun- 
son, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902 :83, 86, 95. 9. Hansen, 5\ D. Sta. Bui., 76 :23. 1902. 
fig. 10. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :38. fig. 

SYNONYMS. ANISIM (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). Anisim of Peterson (9). 
Borsdorfcr of Wragg (9). 18 M (3, 8, of Budd 9). 14 M of Budd (9). 
Good Peasant of Patten (9). Jonathan of the North (4). Swedish Borsdorf 
of Patten (9). Zusoff of Tuttle (9). 

Hansen (9) reports that this Russian apple is proving very valuable in 
Minnesota and other parts of the Northwest. It may be of some value in 
those portions of New York state where superior hardiness is a prime 
requisite. Hansen's description is given below. " Tree a strong grower in 
the nursery and orchard and a prodigious bearer ; young trees upright, 
spreading with age; limbs long, slender with a very strong shoulder; leaves 



6 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

narrow, pointed, dark green. The beautiful color of the fruit attracts favor- 
able attention Fruit below medium, roundish conical, slightly angular ; 
surface greenish-yellow, covered almost wholly with a beautiful dark crim- 
son, with heavy blue bloom ; dots white, minute ; cavity regular, acute, 
usually slightly russeted; stem medium; basin narrow, very shallow, corru- 
gated, sometimes flat; calyx closed. Core closed, clasping; tube short, 
broad; stamens median, flesh greenish white, with green veins, good. Early 
winter." 

ANTONOVKA. 

REFERENCES, i. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:28, 70, 130. 1881-82. fig. 
2. Budd, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882 76. 3. Gibb, Ib., 1883 :432- 4- Budd, Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:71. 5. Ib., la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1883:22. 6. Ib., 1885:8. 
7. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1886:272. fig. 8. Schroeder, Montreal Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:72. 9. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 1890:24. 10. Can. Hort., 
13 '-175, 216. 1890. ii. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 19:537. 1892. 12. Taylor, Me. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57, 58. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 14. Can. 
Hort., 16 :359. 1893. 15. /fr., 17 1289, 290, 291. 1894. 16. Troop, hid. Sta. Bui., 
53:124. 1894. I 7- Nat. Nurseryman, 3:32. 1895. 18. Stinson, Ark. Sta. 
Bui, 43:104. 1896. 19. Hamilton, Can. Hort., 20:412. 1897. 20. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1897:11. 21. Thomas, 1897:286, 626. fig. 22. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 
41 :66, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74. 1899. 23. Troop, Ind. Sta. Rpt., 1899 79. 24. 
Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1899:78. 25. Hansen, 5\ D. Sta. Bui, 76:25. 
1902. fig. 26. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 205:43. 1903. 27. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:38. fig. 

SYNONYMS. ANTENOVKA (23). ANTONOVKA (T, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 
12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27). ANTONOWKA (15, 17). 
Antony (3, 14). Bcrgamot, 424 (25). Cinnamon (24). German Calville 
(24). German Calville, 324 (spurious) (25). No. 224 (25). No. 236 (i, 2, 4. 
5, 6, 9, 25). Possarts Nalivia (2, 4, 5). Russian Gravenstein, 105 (25). 
26 M (i, 2, 4, 5, 9, 25). Vargul, 277 (25). 

A Russian fruit of no practical value for this state. Hansen (25) de- 
scribes it as " large, roundish, irregular, obscurely angular ; surface yellow ; 
dots minute, raised, white, suffused; cavity deep, regular, with radiating, 
often large patch of russet, stem medium ; basin abrupt, corrugated or wavy ; 
calyx closed. Core closed; cells ovate, slit; tube funnel-shaped; stamens 
median; seeds ten to sixteen, small, pointed, plump, a few imperfect; flesh 
yellow, juicy, sprightly spicy subacid, good. October." 

APORT. 

REFERENCE, i. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:32. 1881-82. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

This name is applied to a pretty well defined group of Russian apples. 
Alexander is the typical variety of this group. 

The name Aport has also been applied to a particular Russian variety which 
resembles Alexander closely.l 

1 Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:26. 1902. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 7 

APORT ORIENT. 

REFERENCES, i. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:73. 1881-82. 2. la. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1882 78. 3. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1883 130. 4. Montreal Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 9 :82. 1883. fig. 5. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885 :Q. 6. Schroeder, 
Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 12:72. 1886-87. 7- Budd, la. Agr. Coll Bui, 
1890:24. 8. Ib., la. Sta> Bui, 19:538. 1892. 9. (?) Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. 
Rpt-, 13:579. 1894. 10. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 41:71. 1899. u. Munson, Me, 
Sta. Rpt., 1902:83. 12. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:26. 1902. 13. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903 :39. 

SYNONYMS. APORT (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, n, 12, 13). APORT ORIENT (8, 10). 
(APORT ORIENTAL, 9) ? No. 12 Orel (7). No. 252 (i, 2, 3, 4, 7, n). 23 M 
(i, 2, 3). Oporto (4). 

A Russian apple, large, yellow, mostly covered with mixed red, striped 
and splashed with dark crimson, very attractive but coarse-grained and in- 
ferior in quality. It begins to ripen about the middle of August. The tree 
comes into bearing rather young and gives full crops in alternate years. 
Not recommended for New York state. 

ARCTIC. 

REFERENCES, i. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:347. 1889. 2. Munson, Me. Sta 
Rpt., 1896:70. 3. Waugh, Ft. Sta. Bui., 61:29. 1897. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1899:15. 5. Beach, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:34. 6. Waugh, Vt. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 14:286. 1901. 7. Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902:83, 89, 95, 96. 8. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903 :39. 9. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48 :36. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

One of the most valuable characteristics of the Arctic is its 
ability to endure cold climates. It has probably been planted 
more extensively in Northern New York, New England and 
Canada than in any other regions. It is reported as being pretty 
hardy in Central Iowa where the climate is too severe for Baldwin, 
Rhode Island Greening and other varieties of a similar grade of 
hardiness. Munson (7) states that it is worthy of trial where 
Baldwin will not succeed. The tree is vigorous. In some dis- 
tricts it has the reputation of being productive, in others it is 
called a shy bearer. The fruit is very attractive, mild subacid, 
good but not high in quality. It somewhat resembles Baldwin 
in size and color, but is more oblate, and the skin is of a somewhat 
lighter and brighter red than that of Baldwin. The cavity is often 
marked with outspreading rays of reddish or green russet as 
in the Baldwin. The dots are round, scattering, whitish, often 



8 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

areolar and not elongated in the region of the cavity as they often 
are on the Baldwin. It does not keep so well as the Hubbardston. 
In Western New York its season may extend from October to 
February, but when grown farther north is later (6, 7). In some 
parts of Northern New York it is being grafted over to other 
sorts. Waugh (6) states that this is also being done in the Isle 
La Motte region of Vermont, nevertheless he believes it will be 
grown there in moderate quantities for years to come. 

Historical. The Arctic was introduced by Mr. O. K. Gerrish, now of Lake- 
ville, Mass. He states that it originated as a chance seedling in a garden 
near Cape Vincent, N. Y., about 1862. About 1887 he bought the tree 
from Mr. John H. Esseltyne on whose farm it was growing. After taking 
propagating wood from it, he destroyed the tree to prevent theft of scions. 

TREE. 

Tree a moderate grower with long, moderately stout branches. Form 
spreading and open somewhat like Tompkins King. Twigs short, stocky; 
internodes medium length ; slightly pubescent near tips. Bark dark reddish- 
brown, streaked and mottled with thin scarf-skin. Lenticels scattering, con- 
spicuous, medium to large, roundish to somewhat elongated, raised. Buds 
medium to large, broad, obtuse, flat, free, pubescent. Leaves large, dark 
green, broad and rather thick. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form oblate, sometimes roundish conic, often 
faintly ribbed; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem short and rather 
thick to medium. Cavity moderately shallow to rather deep, broad, usually 
symmetrical or slightly furrowed, and having outspreading rays of red or 
green russet. Calyx medium to rather large ; segments broad, obtuse, closed 
or partly open. Basin abrupt, medium to wide and deep, often compressed 
or slightly furrowed and corrugated. 

Skin nearly smooth, slightly roughened by the light russet or whitish 
dots ; deep yellow or greenish-yellow, often almost wholly covered with a 
bright red obscuring the stripes of deeper red. 

Calyx tube short, conical varying to funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium, axile or nearly so ; cells closed or partly open ; core lines 
clasping the cylinder of the tube. Carpels broadly roundish to nearly obcor- 
date, emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds often abortive; when normally 
developed they are medium to rather large, flat, obtuse, sometimes slightly 
tufted, dark. 

Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, juicy, 
mild subacid, good in quality. 

Uses. Adapted rather for market and culinary uses than for dessert. 

Season October to February or later. 





ARCTIC 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



AUGUST. 

REFERENCES, i. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:89. 1888. 2. Me. Sta. Rpt., 
1893:132. 3. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:586. 1894. 4- Mich. Sta. Bui, 118:59. 
1895- 5- Ib., 129:39. 1896. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:270. 1896. 7. Mich. 
Sta. Bui., 143:200. 1897. 8. Ib., 152:219. 1898. g. Ib., 205:47. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This hybrid is classed by some as an apple and by others as a crabapple. 
The tree is hardy, comes into bearing early and is reliably productive. The 
fruit is medium to small for an apple but very large for a crabapple. It has 
a slight crabapple flavor and is of fairly good quality for culinary use. 
Not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. Originated from seed of Wealthy by Peter M. Gideon, Ex- 
celsior, Minn., from whom it was received in 1888 for testing at this Station. 
It has been tested at experiment stations in different States but it appears 
to be practically unknown to fruit growers. 



TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading and somewhat droop- 
ing, open. Tzvigs short, curved, slender; internodes short. Bark clear 
brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels scat- 
tering, medium in size, oblong, slightly raised. Buds medium in size, 
plump, acute, free, not pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to small, occasionally above medium, uniform in size and 
shape. Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, nearly symmetrical, regu- 
lar or somewhat ribbed. Stem rather short to medium in length, mod- 
erately slender. Cavity acute approaching acuminate, medium to deep, mod- 
erately broad, symmetrical, usually not russeted. Calyx- rather large, closed ; 
lobes long, acute, reflexed. Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, mod- 
erately wide, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin pale yellow or greenish, sometimes almost entirely overspread and 
mottled with rather bright red, striped and splashed with carmine, covered 
with bloom. Dots whitish, small, scattering, inconspicuous. Prevailing color 
red in well colored specimens. 

Calyx tube rather small, short, conical. Stamens median to nearly basal. 

Core medium in size to above, usually axile; cells often unsymmetrical, 
usually closed, sometimes wide open; core lines clasping. Carpels ovate. 
Seeds light brown, medium to above, moderately wide, plump, acute. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, half-fine, moderately juicy, breaking, 
mild subacid, with a slight crabapple flavor; quality fairly good for culinary 
use. 

Season August and early September. 



io THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



AUGUSTINE. 

REFERENCES, i. Horticulturist, 1848 (cited by 5). 2. Downing, 1857:207. 
3. Warder, 1867711. 4. Thomas, 1885:502. 5. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
56:31. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A pleasant flavored dessert apple formerly grown to a very limited extent 
in some portions of the state but now practically unknown. Fruit medium 
to rather large, roundish conic or slightly inclined to oblong, yellow splashed 
and striped with red; flesh moderately juicy to rather dry, not crisp, tender, 
sweet; season August. 

AUTUMN BOUGH. 

REFERENCES, i. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 36. 2. Parsons, Horti- 
culturist, i :2og. 1846. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 4. Mag. Hort., 19 :68. 
1853. 5- Elliott, 1854:66. fig. 6. Downing, 1857:71. 7. Mag. Hort., 25:154. 
1859. 8. Warder, 1867:712. 9. Thomas, 1875:198. io. Downing, 1881:11 
index, app. n. Lyon, Midi. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 12. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892 :234. 

SYNONYMS. AUTUMN BOUGH (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, n, 12). Autumn Bough (9). 
AUTUMNAL BOUGH (8). AUTUMN SWEET BOUGH (6, 9, io). Autumn Sivect 
Bough (5). Fall Bough (6, 9). Late Bough (6, 9). Montgomery Sweet 
(io). Philadelphia Sweet (6, 9). Summer Bell-flower (6). 

This is regarded by many as one of the best sweet apples of its season 
for dessert use and is esteemed also for culinary purposes. The tree is 
medium in size, upright or roundish, moderately vigorous to vigorous, 
healthy, long-lived, comes into bearing fairly young and is reliably pro- 
ductive. The fruit hangs well to the tree. It is suitable for local market but 
it does not ship well. So far as we can learn it is not grown commercially 
but it is occasionally cultivated for home use and is still listed by some 
nurserymen. 

In 1846 Robert B. Parsons, of Flushing, N. Y., described it as " a very 
superior fruit, ranking indeed among our best sweet apples, and worthy of 
extensive cultivation. It is rather large, somewhat of a calville-shape, 
though with the ribs not quite so prominent as is usual with apples of that 
class ; oblong, diminishing very much to the eye. Skin smooth, pale yellow, 
with a few scattered dots. Eye of medium size, and very deeply sunken. 
Stalk rather slender, set in a deep narrow cavity. Flesh white, very tender, 
and with a rich and sweet, yet sprightly flavor. Ripens from 25th of Eighth 
month to the 2oth of Ninth month. The tree is exceedingly productive, and 
of very vigorous growth" (2). 

AUTUMN STREAKED. 

REFERENCES, i. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:50. 2. Lyon, U. S. Pom. 
Bui, 2:39. 1888. 3. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:349. 1889. 4. Ib., 13:579. 1894. 

SYNONYMS. AUTUMN STREAKED (i, 2, 3, 4). Herbst Strcfiing (i). Herbst 
StreMing (2). No. 964 (i). 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. n 

This fruit approaches the Oldenburg type in some respects. It is of good 
size and usually attractive in color, sprightly subacid, very good for culinary 
purposes; season September. The tree is hardy, comes into bearing young 
and is a good biennial bearer. 

Historical. A Russian apple received from T. H. Hoskins, Newport, Vt, 
in 1888 for testing at this Station (3, 4). 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short, stout branches. Form spreading, 
flat, rather dense. Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds ; 
internodes short. Bark dull brown, mingled with olive-green, heavily coated 
with gray scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticcls scattering, medium to large, 
oval, slightly raised. Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, 
pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large. Form roundish to roundish oblate, somewhat inclined to 
conic, regular or obscurely ribbed; sides often unequal. Stem short to 
medium, rather slender. Cavity medium to rather large, acute to acuminate, 
moderately deep, rather wide, slightly furrowed, greenish-russet. Calyx 
large, closed or partly open. Basin uneven, wide, abrupt, wrinkled. 

Skin yellow or pale yellow, shaded, striped and splashed with red and 
overspread with pinkish bloom. Prevailing effect striped red. 

Core large, open. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, a little coarse, rather crisp, moderately juicy, sprightly 
subacid, good. 

AUTUMN SWAAR. 

REFERENCES, i. Genesee Farmer, 1838 (cited by 10). 2. Downing, 1857:115. 
3. Hooper, 1857:14. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 5. Warder, 1867:572. 
fig. 6. Downing, 1869:82. 7. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 8. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:41. 10. Ragan, U. S. B. 
P. I. Bui, 56:107. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. AUTUMN SWAAR (4, 7, 8, 9). AUTUMNAL SWAAR (i, 2, 3, 6). 
Autumnal Swaar (10). FALL SWAAR (10, of the West 5). Fall Szvaar of 
West (6, 9, 10). 

This belongs to the Fall Orange group and the fruit resembles Fall Orange 
very closely. It is very good in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. 
The tree is hardy, vigorous and spreading; not satisfactorily productive (7). 
It is occasionally found in cultivation in this state but is now seldom or 
never planted. Its origin is unknown. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to medium, sometimes large. Form oblate to 
roundish conic. Stem often short, thick and irregularly knobbed. Cavity 
acute, deep, broad, often lipped or irregular, with concentric russet marks 
and with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to small, closed or slightly 
open. Basin medium in depth, medium to narrow, abrupt, slightly ridged. 

Skin orange-yellow or greenish, in some cases with a decided blush but 



12 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

not striped, roughened by almost invisible, capillary netted russet lines which 
become more distinct, larger and concentric about the base and apex. Dots 
conspicuous, irregular, russet or red areolar with russet center. Prevailing 
effect yellow. 

Calyx tube funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium to rather small, nearly axile ; cells partly open or closed ; 
core lines clasp the funnel-cylinder. Carpels emarginate, somewhat elliptical, 
tufted. Seeds numerous, large to medium, plump, tufted, brown. 

Flesh yellow, tender, breaking, juicy, agreeable, mild subacid, decidedly 
aromatic, sprightly, very good. 

Season September. 

AUTUMN SWAAR AND FALL ORANGE COMPARED. 

The fruit of Fall Orange as compared with that of Autumn Swaar is 
larger, more inclined to conic, has smaller seeds and a fleshy pistil point 
projecting into the base of the calyx tube. The flesh is whiter, more acid, 
less aromatic and less tender. The flesh of well grown and well ripened 
Autumn Swaar is decidely yellower, more tender and milder with a very 
pleasant, peculiarly aromatic flavor. 

AUTUMN SWEET SWAAR. 

REFERENCES, i. Albany Cultivator, 5:247. 1848. 2. Thomas, 1849:145. 
3. Barry, 1851:282. 4. Elliott, 1854:121. 5. Downing, 1857:115. 6. Gregg, 
1857:41. 7. Warder, 1867:471. fig. 8. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 
9. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56 133. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. AUTUMN SWAAR (3, 9). Autumn Sweet (9). AUTUMN SWEET 
SWAAR (8). AUTUMNAL SWAAR (i, 2, 4, 6). Autumnal Sweet (9). AU- 
TUMNAL SWEET SWAAR (5, 7). Autumnal Sweet Swaar (9). Sweet Golden 
Pippin (5, 9). Sweet Swaar (2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9). 

In 1848 Thomas described this as one of the finest autumnal sweet ap- 
ples (i). It is now seldom found in cultivation in this state. Its origin 
is unknown. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous to vigorous, productive. Form upright spreading. 

FRUIT (i, 2, 4, 6). 

Fruit large. Form roundish oblate, sometimes slightly ribbed. Stem 
varying from long and slender to thick and fleshy, yellow and red. Cavity 
acute, deep, wavy, green. Calyx medium in size, closed. Basin shallow, 
wide, slightly furrowed. 

Skin smooth, waxen yellow, sometimes blushed. Dots rare, minute. 

Core medium in size ; cells somewhat open ; core lines clasping. Seeds 
numerous, plump, pale. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, fine, moderately juicy, very sweet, spicy, 
agreeable, very good to best. 

Season September and October. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 13 



BAILEY SPICE. 

REFERENCES, i. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1849 :.35O. 2. Bailey, Horticul- 
turist, 5:286. 1850. fig. 3. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 16:542. 1850. fig. 4. Barry, 
1851:283. 5. Elliott, 1854:121. 6. Downing, 1857:116. 7. Hooper, 1857:14. 
8. Gregg, 1857:41. 9. Warder, 1867:712. 10. Thomas, 1875:205. 

SYNONYMS. BAILEY SPICE (2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8). BAILEY'S SPICE (i, 6, 9, 10). 

A dessert apple of medium size, light yellow color and subacid, spicy 
flavor, in season in September and October. 

Historical. In 1850 J. W. Bailey, of Plattsburgh, published the following 
account of the origin of this variety (2, 3). "The original tree is now 
growing in my grounds, and was planted there fifty years ago by my grand- 
father, Captain Nathaniel Platt. It is a great bearer, and I think I never 
knew an apple so invariably fair and perfect as this." 

So far as we have learned this variety is no longer planted and is nearly 
obsolete in New York. 

BAKER SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:117. 2. Warder, 1867:712. 3. Thomas, 
1875 :492. 

SYNONYMS. BAKER SWEET (2, 3). BAKER'S SWEET (i). Late Golden 
Sweet (i). Long Stem Sweet (i). Winter Golden Sweet (i, 3). 

A golden yellow apple of good size and attractive appearance. Because 
it is sweet, not a late keeper and drops readily from the tree it is of little 
commercial value except where it can be disposed of in local market, not- 
withstanding that the tree is very productive. It is a good variety for the 
home orchard where a sweet apple, ripening in late autumn, is desired. 

Historical. This is an old variety, formerly much grown in parts of New 
England (i). It is but little grown in New York state. 

TREE. 

Tree medium size, only moderately vigorous or a slow grower; branches 
dark, rather slender, somewhat resembling Jonathan (i). Form spreading. 
Twigs rather stout. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large to medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
to oblate, usually regular. Stem short to rather long, rather slender. Cavity 
large, acute to acuminate, deep, rather broad, sometimes partly russeted 
and with outspreading rays, symmetrical. Calyx pubescent, medium, closed ; 
lobes broad at base, acute. Basin shallow to moderately deep, narrow to 
above medium in width, somewhat abrupt, a little furrowed. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, nearly smooth except for some patcnes of 
russet and conspicuous russet dots, good yellow with shade of brownish-red 
blush on exposed cheek. Prevailing effect good yellow. 

Calyx tube medium, somewhat funnel-shape. Stamens median. 



14 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Core above medium to large, abaxile ; cells open, sometimes unsymmetrical ; 
cere lines meeting. Carpels very broadly ovate to roundish, tufted. Seeds 
dark, medium to rather small, plump, acute, tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine, rather tender, rather juicy, very 
sweet, pleasant, good to very good. 

Season October to December. 

BANKS. 

REFERENCES, i. Craig and Allen, Can. Hort., 16:420. 1893. fig. 2. Nova 
Scotia Fr. Gr. Assn. Rpt., 1894:81, 129. 3. Sears, Can. Hort., 22:476. 1899. 
4. Caston, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 9:55. 1902. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1903:166. 

SYNONYMS. BANKS (2, 3, 4, 5). BANKS GRAVENSTEIN (2). BANKS RED 
GRAVENSTEIN (i). Banks Red Gravenstein (4). Red Gravenstein (3). 

In 1903 R. W. Starr, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, presented to the American 
Pomological Society the following report concerning this variety (5). "A 
bud sport from Gravenstein, much the same in season and flavor, but bright 
red, less ribbed, more regular in shape, and generally a little smaller in 
size. First noticed and propagated by C. E. Banks, of Berwick, Kings Co., 
N. S. It is well liked and is being quite largely planted." It appears that 
this sport first came into bearing about 1880 (i). In 1899 Sears (3) re- 
marked, " The Banks or Red Gravenstein is gaining in popularity because it 
combines with the superior quality of the ordinary Gravenstein the bright 
red color which people demand who judge the apple by its appearance 
alone." 

Except in the points of difference above noted Banks appears to be identi- 
cal with Gravenstein and the reader is referred to the description of that 
variety for a technical account of the tree and fruit. So far as we can 
learn this variety is not yet planted to any considerable extent in New York. 

BEAUTIFUL ARCAD. 

REFERENCES, i. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 9:104. 1883. 2. la. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1883:443. 3. la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 1885:17. 4. Gibb, Montreal Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:15. 5. Ib., Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:48. 6. Budd, Rural 
N. y., 47:692. 1888. 7. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57. 8. Harris, 
U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1892 :274. 9. Thomas, 1897 :248. fig. 10. Hansen, 5. D. 
Sta. Bui, 76:28. 1902. ii. Budd-Hansen, 1903:44. 12. Ragan, U. S. B. 
P. I. Bui., 56 :29, 39, 353- 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Arcad Krasivui (3). Arkad Krasivui (5, 12). ARKAD 
KRASIWUI (i). Arkad Krasiwui (2, 5, 12). BEAUTIFUL ARCAD (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
7, 8, 9, n). BEAUTIFUL ARCADE (10, 11). Beautiful Arcade (i, 5, 12). 
No. 453 (5, 6, 10, n, 12). 

This is a Russian apple of good medium size, yellow, partly shaded and 
splashed with red, sweet, in season in August and September. It is con- 
sidered a desirable variety in portions of the Upper Mississippi valley and 
in other districts where superior hardiness is a prime requisite. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 15 



BEAUTY OF KENT. 

REFERENCES, i. Forsyth, 1803:55. 2. Ib., 1824:93. 3. London Hort. Soc. 
Cat., 1831 :No. 59. 4. Kenrick, 1832:92. 5. Floy-Lindley, 1833:20. 6. 
Downing, 1845:81. 7. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:250. 1848. fig. 8. Kirtland, 
Horticulturist, 2:544. 1848. 9. Thomas, 1849:146. 10. Cole, 1849:114. n. 
Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:34. 1851. 12. Barry, 1851:283. 13. Elliott, 
1854:167. 14. Hooper, 1857:15. 15. Gregg, 1857:41. 16. Downing, Horti- 
culturist, 19:364. 1864. figs. 17. Warder, 1867:584. 18. Fitz, 1872:152. 
19. Leroy, 1873:97. fig. 20. Hogg, 1884:17. 21. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1890:288. 22. Wickson, 1889:245. 23. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 
24. Bunyard, four. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:354. 25. Budd-Hansen, 1903:109. 
26. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:46. 1903. 27. Garden, 64:239. 
1903. fig. bearing nursery trees. 

SYNONYMS. BEAUTE DE KENT (19). BEAUTY OF KENT (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27). Beauty of Kent 
(19, 26). KENT BEAUTY (25, 26). Kentish Pippin (19, of some 3). Pepin 
de Kent (19). Pippin Kent (19). 

Fruit large, beautiful, showy, suitable for culinary use, in season from late 
September to November. The tree is large, vigorous, upright, comes into 
bearing rather young, is a reliable cropper and moderately productive. In 
England where it originated it is said to do best under garden culture in 
warm soil and on Paradise stock ; grown in clay and other uncongenial 
soils it loses quality (27). It is but little known in New York. 



BELBORODOOSKOE. 

REFERENCES, i. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887 155. No. 37. 2. N. Y. Sta, 
An. Rpt., 8:349. 1889. 3. Beach, Ib., 12:599. 1893. 4. Thomas, 1897:265, 
fig. 5. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:29. 1902. 

SYNONYMS. BELBORODOOSKOE (2, 3). BELLERDOVSKOE (4, 5). Bielborodov- 
ska? (i). WHITE BORODOVKA (i). 

A Russian apple, medium to large, pale greenish-yellow, sometimes blushed, 
coarse, rather juicy, mild subacid to nearly sweet, good; season August. It 
does not appear to be worthy the attention of New York fruit growers. 



BENNINGER. 

REFERENCES, i. Churchill, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:355. 1889- 2. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:235. 3. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1894:17. 4. Beach, N. Y. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 15:270. 1896. 5. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:36. 

SYNONYMS. BENNIGER (2). BENNINGER (i, 3, 4, 5). 

A pleasant-flavored dessert apple of good medium size and attractive ap- 
pearance ; in season during late August and September. It is too mild in 
flavor to be very desirable for culinary purposes. The tree is a pretty good 
grower, comes into bearing young and is productive. 



1 6 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Historical. Originated about 1830 on the farm of Uhlie Benninger near 
Slatington, Lehigh county, Pa. In that region it is said to be a good grower 
and a reliable and abundant cropper (4). 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short stout branches. Form spreading, 
open. Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds ; internodes 
medium. Bark clear brownish tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with 
scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels conspicuous, quite numerous, medium in 
size, oblong, not raised. Buds deeply set in bark, medium in size, broad, 
obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above. Form roundish oblate to roundish ovate, some- 
what irregular ; sides unequal. Stem short to medium, rather slender. Cavity 
acute or approaching acuminate, medium in width, moderately deep to deep, 
often somewhat russeted. Calyx' medium in size, usually closed ; lobes nar- 
row, acuminate. Basin wide, moderately deep to shallow, smooth or slightly 
furrowed. 

Skin rather thin, nearly smooth, yellow, blushed and streaked with red. 
Dots rather small, greenish. 

Calyx tube usually short, wide, conical. Stamens marginal. 

Core medium, abaxile ; cells open ; core lines slightly clasping or sometimes 
meeting. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, rather juicy, 
mild subacid, good. 

Season late August and September. 



BENONI. 

REFERENCES, i. N. E. Farmer, 9:46. 1830. 2. Kenrick, 1832:25. 3. Mag. 
Hort., 1:149, 363. 1835. 4. Manning, 1838:49. 5. Mag. Hort., 6:172. 1840. 
6. Ib., 7:43. 1841. 7. Downing, 1845:70. 8. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:17. 1848. 
fig. 9. Thomas, 1849:136. 10. Cole, 1849:101. n. Emmons, Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 3:12. 1851. 12. Hovey, i :83. 1851. col. pi and fig. 13. Barry, 1851 :279. 
14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 15. Elliott, 1854:122. 16. Mag. Hort., 21:63. 
1855. 17. Gregg, 1857:35. 18. Hooper, 1857:17, 106, 108. 19. Horticul- 
turist, 14:425. 1859. 20. Warder, 1867:650. fig. 21. Fitz, 1872:121, 148, 177. 
22. Hogg, 1884:20. 23. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 24. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:235. 25. Woolverton, Out. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 1:24. 1894. 
26. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:314. 1896. 27. Dickens and 
Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:51. 1902. 28. Budd-Hansen, 1903:47. fig. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Benoni is a fine dessert apple, very attractive in appearance arid 
excellent in quality but not large enough to be a good market 
variety. The tree comes into bearing moderately young and 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 17 

yields fair to good crops biennially. It begins to ripen early in 
August and its season extends into September. 

Historical. Originated in Dedham, Massachusetts, where the original 
tree was still standing in 1848. It was introduced to notice by Mr. E. M. 
Richards shortly before 1832 (2). It is highly esteemed throughout the 
country and is generally listed by nurserymen throughout the middle and 
northern portions of the apple-growing regions of this continent (24). 

TREE. 

Tree rather large, vigorous. Form erect to somewhat roundish, dense. 
Twigs moderately long, straight, slender ; internodes medium. Bark olive- 
green, shaded with light reddish-brown, lightly coated with scarf-skin, 
pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium, oblong, slightly raised. Buds 
deeply set in bark, medium size, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to rather small. Form roundish inclined to conic, faintly 
ribbed toward the apex; sides unequal. Stem short to very short, slender. 
Cavity acute, rather narrow, moderately deep, wavy, greenish-russet. Calyx 
rather small to above medium, partly open, slightly pubescent. Basin medium 
in width and depth, abrupt, 'somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, orange-yellow partly covered with lively red striped with 
deep carmine. Dots scattering, minute, whitish. 

Stamens basal. 

Core small to medium, axile; cells closed; core lines meeting. Carpels 
roundish, slightly elongated, emarginate. Seeds few, dark brown, medium 
in size, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh yellow, firm, crisp, fine-grained, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, good 
to very good. 

Season August and early September. 

BETIGHEIMER. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1881:101 app. 2. Thomas, 1885:521. 3. Hos- 
kins, Rural N. Y., 47:646. 1888. 4. Wickson, 1889:243. 5. Can. Hort., 
13:239, 301. 1890. fig. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 7. Can. Hort., 16:14. 
1893. 8. Ib., 17:413- 1894- col., pi. 9. Card, and For., 8:390, 428. 1895. 10. 
Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:12. n. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui, 
106:54. 1902. 12. Budd-Hansen, 1903:48. fig. 13. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 
205:43. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. BEITIGHEIMER (6). BIETIGHEIMER (7, 10, 12, 13). RED BEITIG- 
HEIMER (9). Red Beitigheimer (6). RED BIETIGHEIMER (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, n). 

Fruit remarkable only for its great size and beauty. It is a 
good cooking apple but coarse, subacid and not desirable for 
dessert use. The fruit being extremely large, drops badly before 



i8 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

the crop is ready to pick. In the nursery it is a rough grower 
forming many badly shaped trees and for this reason it is best to 
topwork it on some good straight stock. The tree comes into 
bearing rather early and under favorable conditions is an annual 
cropper but only moderately productive. It is a fine fruit for 
exhibition but is not worthy of cultivation for either home use or 
market. 

Historical. Origin, Germany. 

TREE. 

Tree large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form upright spreading or 
roundish, dense, with laterals inclined to droop. Twigs short, curved, stout, 
with large terminal buds ; internodes long. Bark dull brown tinged with 
green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, 
conspicuous, medium in size, oval, raised. Buds prominent, large, broad, 
plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish oblate 
or inclined to conic, with broad, flat base, somewhat irregular. Stem medium 
to short, thick. Cavity large, acute, or approaching acuminate, wide, mod- 
erately shallow to rather deep, sometimes furrowed, occasionally lipped, 
often much russeted and with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to 
small, closed; lobes rather narrow, acute. Basin varies from shallow and 
obtuse to deep and abrupt, medium in width, somewhat wrinkled, often 
marked with mammiform protuberances. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, bright pale yellow to greenish or whitish washed 
with pinkish-red and sparingly and obscurely splashed with deeper red. Dots 
numerous, small, inconspicuous, yellowish or russet. 

Calyx tube broadly conical. Stamens usually basal or nearly so. 

Core medium to large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells partly open; core 
lines clasping. Carpels cordate or broadly roundish, a little tufted. Seeds 
numerous, large to medium, rather wide, broadly acute, rather light brown. 

Flesh almost white, firm, very coarse, crisp, somewhat tough, juicy, sub- 
acid, fair to nearly good. 

Season September and October. 



BIRTH. 

REFERENCES, i. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:42,73. 1881-82. 2. Budd, la. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882:79. 3. Ib., 1883:444, 685. fa. 4. Montreal Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1883:107. fig. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 2:35. 1883. 6. la. Agr. 
Coll. Bui, 1885:18. 7. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:80. 8. N. Y. Sta. 
An. Rpt., ii :s88. 1892. 9. la. Sta. Bui, 41 70. 1899. 

SYNONYMS. BIRTH (8, 9). CHRIST BIRTH (6). CHRIST BIRTH APPLE 
(2, 3). Christ Birth Apple (4). CHRISTMAS (7). No. 161 (7). No. 477 











BIET1GHEIMER 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 19 

(2, 6, 9). 161 M (2). RESCHESTWENSKOE (5).. Roschdestvenskoe (6). 

ROSCHDESTWENSKOE (4). Rosckdestwenskoe (3). ROSHDESTRENSKOE (l). 

A Russian apple received in 1888 from Dr. T. H. Hoskins, Newport, Vt., 
for testing at this Station. Fruit above medium, roundish conic, slightly 
ribbed; skin greenish-yellow with a shade of brownish-red; flesh mild sub- 
acid, fair quality; ripens here in September. Not valuable. 



BISMARCK. 

REFERENCES, i. Hogg, 1884:181. 2. Rural N. Y., 55:275, 288, 321, 690, 
1896. 3. Van Deman, Ib., 56:241, 503, 534, 598, 662. 1897. figs. 4. Green, 
Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:32. 5. Rural N. Y., 57:786. 1898. 6. Bunyard, 
Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898 :356. 7. Can. Hort., 22 :24O. 1899. 8. Amcr. 
Card., 20:124, 782. 1899. figs. 9. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 58:688. 1899. 
10. Beach, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:35. n. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 
14:288. 1901. 12. Can. Hort., 25:47. 1902. 13. Rural N. Y., 61:626. 1902. 
14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:49. 15. Rural N. Y., 62:809. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. BISMARCK (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, n, 12, 13, 14, 15). BISMARK 
(10). PRINCE BISMARK (i). Prince Bismark (10), 

Bismarck is evidently related to the Aport group of apples. In 
size and general appearance it somewhat resembles Alexander. 
Fruit large, attractive in color, suitable for kitchen and market 
purposes but inferior in dessert qualities. It ranks about v/ith 
Alexander and Wolf River in quality. It begins to ripen in 
October and its season extends from October to early winter. It 
has not been tested enough in this country to demonstrate its 
market value. The tree is dwarfish, healthy, hardy, comes into 
bearing very young, is a reliable cropper and very productive. 
Even when grown as standards the trees may be planted much 
more closely together than ordinary commercial varieties. 

Historical. Originated in the Province of Canterbury, New Zealand. In- 
troduced into this country from England about ten years ago. 

TREE. 

Tree dwarfish with very short, stout, drooping branches. Form spreading, 
open. Twigs short, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium. Bark 
dull brownish, tinged with green, lightly coated with scarf-skin, pubescent. 
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oval, slightly raised. Buds medium 
in size, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large or large, rather uniform in size and shape. Form round- 
ish oblate to roundish conic, flattened at the base, pretty regular ; sides often 



2O THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

unequal. Stem short to medium, thick. Cavity usually rather large, acumi- 
nate, moderately wide to wide, deep, often compressed, greenish or russet 
with outspreading russet rays. Calyx large, open; lobes short, rather broad, 
nearly obtuse. Basin large to very large, usually symmetrical, deep, moder- 
ately wide to wide, very abrupt, sometimes broadly and irregularly furrowed 
and wrinkled. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, greenish or yellow washed, mottled and 
striped with two shades of red becoming solid dark red on the exposed 
cheek, overspread with thin bloom and often marked with thin scarf-skin 
about the base. Dots minute and russet or large and pale gray. Prevailing 
effect attractive red with less of a striped appearance than Alexander. 

Calyx tube wide, broadly conical to somewhat funnel-form. Stamens 
basal. 

Core medium to rather small, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells closed or 
sometimes open ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels flat, 
broadly ovate to nearly cordate, tufted. Seeds few, often abortive, medium 
size, rather wide, short, plump, obtuse to acute, medium brown. 

Flesh nearly white, moderately firm, coarse, rather tender, juicy, subacid, 
sprightly, fair to good or nearly good. 

Season October to early winter. 

BLACK ANNETTE. 

REFERENCES, i. Elliott, 1854:167. 2. ? Warder, 1867713. 3. Downing, 
1869 :99- 
SYNONYMS. None. 

A rather small dark red apple formerly grown to a limited extent in some 
sections of New York and other Eastern states. Season November and De- 
cember. It is now practically obsolete here. The Black Annette mentioned 
by Hansen when grown in Central Iowa keeps through the winter which 
indicates that it is distinct from the variety here described. See Vol. I. 

BLENHEIM. 

REFERENCES, i. Turner, London Hort. Soc. Trans., 3 -.322. 1819. 2. For- 
syth, 1824:134. 3. Pom. Mag., i :No. 28. 1828. col. pi. 4. Ronalds, 1831:61. 
fig. 5. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 104. 6. Kenrick, 1832:72. 7. Floy- 
Lindley, 1833:29. 8. Downing, 1845:81. 9. Horticulturist, 1:389. 1847. 
10. Thomas, 1849:144. u. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:29. 1851. 12. El- 
liott, 1854:167. 13. Hooper, 1857:19. 14. Lucas, Ed., ///. Handb. Obstk., 
1:515. 1859. 15. Warder, 1867:713. 16. Regel, 1:461. 1868. 17. Berghuis, 
1868 :No. 61. col. pi. 18. Tilt. Jour. Hort., 7:166. 1870. 19. Downing, 
1872:3 app. 20. Leroy, 1873:139. fig. 21. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:6. 
22. Lauche, 1882 :No. 36. col. pi. 23. Bensel, Rural N. Y., 42:65. 1883. 
24. Hogg, 1884:24. 25. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 26. Can. 
Hort., 15:40, 72, in, 124, 156, 188, 206. .1892. 27. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 
235. 28. Can. Hort., 16:113, 299. 1893. 29. Bredsted, 2:157. 1893. 30. Ont. 
Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 1:24. 1894. 31. Gaucher, 1894 :No. 8. $ol. pi. 32. Card, 
and For., 9:15. 1896. 33. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:354. 34. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 21 

Amer. Card., 19:344. 1898. 35. Can. Hort., 24:353. 1901. figs. 36. Ont. Fr. 
Stas. An. Rpt., 8:6. 1901. figs. 37. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:197. 38. Ma- 
cotin, Can. Dept. Agr. Bui, 37:40. 1901. 39- Budd-Hansen, 1903:51. 40. 
Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:113. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Belle d' Angers (31). BLENHEIM (20, 23, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40). 
Blenheim (5, 18, 19). BLENHEIM ORANGE (i, 2, 4, 6, 13, 15, 26, 28, 32, 33). 
Blenheim Orange (3, 5, 7, 8, 10, n, 12, 18, 19, 20, 24, 31, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40). 
BLENHEIM PIPPIN (3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 
38). Blenheim Pippin (6, 20, 26, 28, 31, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40). BLENHEIM SRENETT 
(37). Blooming Orange (18, 19, 31). Dredge's Fane (31). Dutch Mig- 
nonne, err. (18, 19). Gloucester Pippin (31). GOLDREINETTE VON BLENHEIM 
(14, 22, 31). Goldreinette von Blenheim (20). Imperatrice Eugenie (31). 
Kempster's Pippin (18, 19, 20, 24, 31, 32). LORD NELSON (incorrectly in some 
nursery catalogues). Lucius Apfel (31). Northampton (31). Norlhwick 
Pippin (5, 1 8, 19, 20, 24, 31). Orange Blenheim (31). Orange Pippin (31). 
Perle d'Angleterre (31). Prince of Wales (31). Pomme de Blenheim (31). 
Reinette de Blenheim (31). Ward's Pippin (31). Woodstock (2, 35, 36). 
Woodstock Pippin (3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, n, 12, 18, 19, 20, 24, 31, 34). 

Fruit large to very large, yellow, more or less washed and 
striped with red, attractive in appearance and of excellent quality. 
The commercial season in the southeastern portions of the State 
is October. In Western New York it comes into season with the 
Twenty Ounce and keeps into early winter (31). Often specimens 
of it may be kept much later. Macoun gives its season in Ontario 
as November and December (28). The fruit is desirable both for 
home and market uses but the variety is usually unsatisfactory for 
commercial planting because it is not a good keeper, is variable 
in season and commonly suffers considerable loss in drops and 
culls. In some locations, however, it is considered a good profit- 
able variety. 

Origin Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. It found its way into the Lon- 
don nurseries about the year 1818 (24). Although it has long been known 
in portions of New York and adjacent states and in Canada in no part of 
this region has it assumed very great commercial importance. 

TREE. 

Tree large, vigorous, productive, bearing its fruit singly and evenly dis- 
tributed. Form upright spreading. Tzwg.y very stout. Bark clear, light 
reddish-brown becoming dark. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit usually large or above medium. Form roundish oblate to roundish 
inclined to conic, usually pretty regular and symmetrical, sometimes a little 



22 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

furrowed at the apex. Stem short to medium. Cavity below medium to 
rather large, rather narrow to wide, moderately deep to deep, acute to acumi- 
nate, usually symmetrical, sometimes compressed or lipped, covered with rus- 
set which often extends beyond the cavity. Calyx large or very large; seg- 
ments flat, separated at base plainly exposing the yellowish tube beneath ; 
lobes obtuse. Basin large, broad, shallow and obtuse to deep and abrupt, 
somewhat furrowed and slightly wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin and tough, deep yellow overspread with a rather 
dull pinkish-red, in highly colored specimens developing a deep and rather 
bright red somewhat roughened in places with netted capillary russet lines. 
Dots numerous, small or conspicuously large and russet. Prevailing effect 
rather attractive red and yellow. 

Calyx tube short, very wide, cone-shape. Stamens median to somewhat 
basal. 

Core medium or below, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells often unequally 
developed, closed or partly open ; core lines meeting. Carpels flat, tufted, 
emarginate. Seeds few and frequently abortive, irregular, often not plump, 
long, acute to acuminate, tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately juicy, crisp, moderatelv 
fine grained or a little coarse, somewhat aromatic, agreeable sprightly sub- 
acid, becoming rather mild subacid, good to very good ; excellent either for 
dessert or culinary use. 

Season. It is at its best from October to December but often may be 
kept until midwinter or later. 



BLUSHED CALVILLE. 

REFERENCES, i. Budd, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882 :8o. 2. Schroeder, Mon- 
treal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:72. 3. Budd, Can. Hort., 11:223, 246. 1888. 
4. Ib., Rural N. Y., 47 -.692. 1888. 5. Ib., la. Agr. Coll, Bull, 1890 -.17. 6. Ib., 
Can. Hort., 13:216. 1890. 7. Ib., la. Sta. Bui.., 19:535. 1892. 8. Green, 
Minn. Sta. Bui., 32:241. 1893. 9. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt. 1896:73. 10. 
Thomas, 1897:265. fig. n. Hansen, 5. D. Sta. 'Bui, 76:32. 1902. fig. 
12. Budd-Hansen, 1903:52. 

SYNONYMS. BLUSHED CALVILLE (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12). CALVILLE 
KRASMUI (i). 22 (2). 22 M (i, 4, 5, 7, 8, n, 12). 

Blushed Calville is said to be hardy and desirable in northern apple-grow- 
ing regions (n). As fruited at this Station the tree does not come into 
bearing very young and is not very productive. It is not recommended for 
planting in this state. 

Historical. Origin Russia. 

TREE. 

Tree rather small, moderately vigorous with short, stout branches. Form 
upright spreading, open. Twigs medium in length, curved and stout with 
large terminal buds ; internodes long. Bark brownish mingled with 
olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels 
scattering, medium in size, round, slightly raised. Buds prominent, large, 
broad, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 





BLENHEIM 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 23 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, fairly uniform in shape and size. Form roundish 
conical, ribbed ; sides unequal. Sfcm usually long and slender. Cavity acute 
to acuminate, rather narrow to moderately wide, moderately deep, some- 
times russeted. Calyx large, closed or open. Basin medium in width and 
depth to wide and deep, a little abrupt, wrinkled. 

Skin light green or yellowish, sometimes blushed. 

Calyx tube broad, cone-shaped. Stamens median. 

Core very large, abaxile ; cells wide open ; core lines clasping. Seeds 
medium in size, acute. 

Flesh whitish, firm, rather coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, fair to good. 

Season early summer. 

BONUM. 

REFERENCES, i. Robey, Horticulturist, 11:89. 1856. 2. Downing, 1857: 
122. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1860:240. 4. Warder, 1867:424. fig. 5. Leroy, 
1873:147. fig. 6. Thomas, 1875:190. 7. Barry, 1883:343. 8. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:235. 9. Dempsey, Out. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 2:32. 1895. 10. Bur- 
rill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:315. 1896. u. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui, 
130:123. 1901. 12. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:38. 1903. 
13. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :54. fig. 

SYNONYMS. BONUM (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13). Magnum 
Bonum (2, 4, 5, 7). 

This is a southern variety of very good quality when grown under favor- 
able conditions. It is in season during late fall and early winter. Probably 
it is not well adapted to regions as far north as New York, for although it 
has long been cultivated it is practically unknown among New York fruit 
growers. 

Historical. Origin Davidson county, N. C. It was entered on the catalogue 
of the American Pomological Society in 1860, dropped from the list in 
1862 and reentered in 1869. According to Bailey's Inventory of North 
American Apples (8) it is now propagated but little by nurserymen. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading or roundish, open. 
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout ; internodes medium. Bark 
dull brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels 
quite numerous, small, round, not raised. Buds medium in size, flat, acute, 
free, not pubescent. 

FRUIT (2, 4, 6, 7, 13). 

Fruit medium to large. Form oblate, regular. Stem long, slender to 
moderately thick, green. Cavity medium to large, deep, regular, often with 
a little green russet. Calyx large, closed. Basin medium in width, shallow, 
wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, yellow, mostly covered with crimson and dark red, striped. 
Dots distinct, large, light with some having a dark center. 

Calyx tube funnel-form. Stamens marginal. 



24 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Core small; cells closed; core lines scarcely meeting. Carpels ovate. 
Seeds numerous, large, plump. 

Flesh white, often stained next to the skin, firm, fine, tender, juicy, aro- 
matic, mild subacid, very good for dessert. 

Season September to November. 

BOROVINKA. 

REFERENCES, i. Montreal Hort. Soc. Kept., 8:37. 1881-82. 2. Ib., 8:75. 
1881-82. 3. Budd, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882:80. 4. Gibb, Ib., 1883:432. 
5. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 9:80. 1883. fig. 6. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 
1885:9. 7. ? Schroeder, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1886-87:71. 8. Ib., 
1886-87:79. 9. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1888:571. 10. Budd, la. Agr. 
Coll. Bui, 1890:18. ii. Can. Hort., 13:216. 1890. 12. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 
19 :536. 1892. 13. Harris, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1892 :273, 278. 14. Taylor, Me. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:58. 15. Niemetz, Can. Hort., 16:113. 1893. 16. 
Green, Minn. Sta. Bui, 32:240. 1893. 17. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui, 43:105. 
1896. 18. Thomas, 1897:629. 19. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:12. 20. Han- 
sen, 5. D. Sta. Bui, 76:33. 1902. 21. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:43. 
1903. 22. Budd-Hansen, 1903:54. fig. 

SYNONYMS. BOROVINKA (i, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 
21, 22). Borovinka (4). BOROVITSKY (18). BOROVINKA ANGLUSKAIA (2, 
3). (ENGLISH BOROVINKA, 7)? MUSHROOM (4). Mushroom (5). 9 M (2, 
3). No. 245 (6, 9, 10, 12, 17). 

Borovinka resembles Oldenburg so closely that Hansen says the question 
of their identity has not been settled (20). As fruited at this Station it is 
distinct from Oldenburg; it is fully as attractive as Oldenburg in color but 
it lacks uniformity in size and is not equal to that variety in flavor and 
quality. The stock grown at this Station came from Professor J. L. Budd, 
Ames, la., in 1890, and is doubtless the true Borovinka. 

Historical. Origin Russia. 

TREE. 

Tree below medium size but moderately vigorous. Form upright spread- 
ing to rather flat, open. Twigs short, curved, stout ; internodes short. Bark 
dark brown, lightly mottlec. with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels 
scattering, medium to large, oblong, slightly raised. Buds prominent, medium 
in size, broad, plump, obtuse to act te, free, not pubescent. 



FRUIT. 

Fruit below medium to large, averaging medium; pretty uniform in shape 
but not in size. Form roundish, slightly flattened at the ends, regular or 
faintly ribbed. Stem medium in length, thick. Cavity acute, rather shallow 
to moderately deep, moderately broad, slightly furrowed, sometimes with 
faint radiating rays of russet. Calyx medium to rather large, closed; lobes 
broad. Basin medium to rather deep, wide, somewhat abrupt, slightly fur- 
rowed, occasionally showing mammiform protuberances. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 25 

Skin thin, very tender, smooth, pale yellow, often entirely covered with 
broken stripes and irregular splashes of attractive bright red, overspread 
with thin bluish bloom. Dots numerous, conspicuous, very small, light 
colored. 

Calyx tube large, rather wide, urn-shape to funnel-form widening in the 
lower part of the funnel cylinder. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core small to medium, axile ; cells closed or nearly so ; core lines clasping. 
Carpels roundish, somewhat concave, mucronate, not emarginate. Seeds 
medium to rather large, moderately wide, plump, somewhat obtuse, dark 
brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, medium in grain, crisp, tender, moderately juicy 
to juicy, agreeable subacid, slightly aromatic, good. 

Season mid-August to mid-September. 



BOSKOOP. 

REFERENCES, i. Berghuis, 1868 : col. pi. No. 43. 2. Oberdieck, Monatshefte, 
1869:193. 3. Oberdieck, Deutschlands beste Obstsorten, 212. 4. Lauche, 
Erg'dnzungsband zum III. Handb., 265. 5. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 7:56, 
155. 1881. 6. Downing, 1881:77 app. fig. 7. Budd, la. Hort. Soc., 1882: 8. 
Barry, 1883:342. 9. Willard, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc., 1889:171 (reprint in Mich. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:329). 10. Palandt, GartenHora, 38:425. 1889. col. pi. 
ii. Brodie, Can. Hort., 12:238. 1889. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 13. 
Bailey, Amer. Card., 14:501. 1893. 14. Craig, Can. Hort., 16:138. 1893. fig. 
15. Bredsted, 1893:233. 16. Gaucher, Pomologie, 1894 :No. 20. col. pi. 
17. Beach and Clark, A r . Y. Sta. Bui, 248:113. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. BELLE DE BOSCOOP (n). BELLE OF BOSKOOP (9). BELLE DE 
BOSKOOP (6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15). Belle de Boskoop (16, 17). BOSKOOP (5, 
17). Reinette Belle de Boskoop (16). Reinette Monstrueuse (16). Rei- 
nette von Mont fort (16). SCHONER VON BOSKOOP (2, 3, 4, 10, 16). SCHOONE 
VON BOSKOOP (i). Schoone van Boskoop (16). 

In some locations this fruit becomes highly colored with attractive bright 
red predominating, but more often f1 ie color is not good, being predominantly 
dull green or yellow and more or less russeted. It is more suitable for gen- 
eral market and culinary purposes than for dessert. It is of good size but 
does not rank high in quality; the texture is somewhat coarse, and the 
flavor rather too acid for an agreeable dessert apple, but late in the season 
its acidity becomes modified. It appears to be pretty hardy and a good 
bearer. When grown on warm soils in Southern New York it may be 
marketed in September, but in the more northern regions of the state it 
keeps into the winter. It is perhaps of sufficient merit to be worthy of 
testing but we are not yet ready to recommend it for general planting. 

Historical. This variety is said to have originated from seed in 1856 in 
the nursery of the Ottolander family at Boskoop (i, 4). Palandt finds that 
it is identical with the variety described by Lauche and Oberdieck as " Rei- 
nette von Montfort " (4). It was imported into this country more than 
twenty-five years ago (5) and has gradually been disseminated to a limited 
extent in various portions of New York state. 



26 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

TREE. 

Tree rather large, moderately vigorous ; branches long, moderately stout, 
crooked ; lateral branches numerous and small. Form open, wide-spreading 
and drooping. Tungs rather short to long, straight, rather stout; internodes 
below medium to very long. Bark dark brownish-red, mingled with olive- 
green; somewhat pubescent. Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, small, oblong 
or roundish. Buds rather large, broad, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 
Leaves large, broad. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large. Form usually oblate, sometimes roundish oblate, obscurely 
ribbed, sometimes with oblique axis ; pretty uniform in size and shape. 
Stem usually short and thick, sometimeG rather long. Cavity rather large, 
acute to acuminate, somewhat furrowed, often irregular, deep, russeted. 
Calyx large ; segments long or very long, acuminate, closed or somewhat 
open, sometimes separated at the base. Basin abrupt, rather narrow, mod- 
erately shallow to rather deep, sometimes slightly furrowed. 

Skin dull green or yellowish, sometimes blushed and mottled with rather 
bright red, and striped with deeper red, roughened with russet flecks, often 
irregularly overspread with russet. Dots small and gray, mingled with 
others which are large, irregular and russet. 

Calyx tube large, cone-shape. Stamens median to basal. 

Core medium to small, somewhat abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, 
closed or open; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels roundish or obcordate, 
a little tufted. Seeds apt to be abortive ; when well developed they are long, 
irregular, obtuse to acute, somewhat tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, somewhat coarse, tender, juicy, crisp, brisk 
subacid, good to very good. 

Season. Commercial season September to November (17). As grown 
in Western New York generally some of the fruit may be kept till April. 

BOUGH SWEET. 

This variety is also known as Bough Apple, Large Yellow 
Bough, Sweet Bough and Summer Sweet Bough. It is listed in 
the late catalogues of the American Pomological Society 1 as 
Bough, Sweet but most nurserymen list it as Sweet Bough. 2 
We prefer to recognize the name commonly accepted by nursery- 
men and accordingly have described the variety under the name 
Sweet Bough. See page 216. 

BRESKOVKA. 

REFERENCES, i. Schroeder, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87 :8o. 2. Budd, 
Can. Hort., 11:246. 1888. 3. Ib., Rural N. Y., 47:692. 1888. 4. Ib., la. 
Agr. Col. Bui. 1890:17. 5. Ib., la. Sta. Bui, 19:535. 1892. 6. Green, Minn. 

1 Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:i2. 

2 Bailey, An. Hort. 1882:235, 250. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK, 27 

$ta. Bul. f 32:240. 1893. 7. Thomas, 1897:629. 8. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 
76:34. 1902. g. Budd-Hansen, 1903:56. 

SYNONYMS. BRESKOVKA (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). 75^? M (2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9). 

A hardy Russian variety of Yellow Transparent type, in season during late 
August and early September. The flesh quickly discolors as the ripening 
season advances. It is rather attractive in color for a yellow apple but 
does not average above medium size and it is not equal to Yellow Trans- 
parent in either flavor or quality. Not recommended for growing in New 
York. 

BUNKER HILL. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1872 .-4 app. fig. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This variety has been planted to some extent in Central New York and 
is regarded by some fruit growers in that region as a profitable commercial 
sort. The tree is large, upright spreading, vigorous to moderately vigorous 
with long, spreading, moderately stout twigs. It is hardy, healthy, medium 
to long-lived and a reliable cropper, usually bearing heavy crops biennially. 
The fruit is subacid and good either for dessert or culinary uses. It is in 
season from mid-autumn to early winter. 

Historical. Originated in the orchard of Dr. Paige, Dryden, Tompkins 
county, N. Y. (i). 

FRUIT ( i ) . 

" Fruit medium, roundish conical, regular ; skin pale whitish-yellow shaded, 
mottled, striped and splashed with two shades of red, rather thinly over 
two-thirds of the surface, and moderately sprinkled with light dots, a few 
being areole; stalk short, slender; cavity medium or large, a little greenish; 
calyx closed; basin medium, slightly corrugated; flesh quite white, some- 
times a little stained next the skin, fine, tender, juicy, subacid, vinous, slight 
quince-like flavor; very good; core rather small." 



BUTTER. 

REFERENCES, i. Elliott, 1854:125,159,174. 2. Downing, 1857:125. 3. 
Warder, 1867:392. 4. Downing, 1869:112. 5. Fitz, 1872:152. 6. Thomas, 
1875:495. 7. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:60. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Downing describes a variety under this name which is above medium size, 
yellow, with whitish flesh, very sweet and rich, valuable for cooking and 
esteemed for making apple butter; season September and October (2, 4). 
Other varieties have been known under the name Butter which, as Downing 
remarks, "appears to be a favorite name with some to apply to any good- 
sweet apple for sauce or cooking." 

The references above cited do not all refer to the same variety. 



28 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



CABASHEA. 

REFERENCES, i. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1849 : 35O- 2 Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 3:103. 1851. 3. Warder, 1867:714. 4. Thomas, 1875:495. 5. 
Beach, Apples of New York, 1 191. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. CABASHEA (i, 3, 4, 5). Cabashea (2). CABASHIE (2). 

The name Cabashea has been applied by many pomologists to 
the variety commonly known among fruit growers and fruit dealers 
as Twenty Ounce Pippin (5), an apple which comes in season 
about with Tompkins King. The variety which is generally known 
in Western New York as Cabashea comes in season about with 
the true Twenty Ounce but it is not so good a keeper. In 1851 
Emmons published a cut of a section of this Cabashea showing 
well its characteristically oblate form. Emmons remarked, " This 
apple is more remarkable for its size than for its valuable qualities. 
It is not, however, an inferior apple. For cooking it is cer- 
tainly esteemed, as it has a pleasant and agreeable taste. It is, 
however, too large." The tree is hardy, healthy, medium to long- 
lived, and a pretty regular cropper, yielding moderate to rather 
light crops nearly annually. It is not considered a good commercial 
variety because it is not sufficiently productive and the fruit does 
not sell very well. 

Historical. This variety appears to be a Western New York seedling (i). 
It is now seldom or never planted. 

TREE. 

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous. Form erect or somewhat spread- 
ing. Twigs medium to long, curved, spreading, stout to rather slender; 
internodes medium. Bark reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, streaked 
with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent near tips. Lenticels conspicuous, scat- 
tering, large, oval, raised. Buds large, broad, obtuse, free, pubescent; tips 
stout 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large to very large, fairly uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate to decidely flat, obscurely ribbed; sides somewhat unequal. Stem 
usually short, moderately slender. Cavity acute, deep, very broad, often 
somewhat furrowed, much russeted with greenish russet often extending 
beyond the cavity. Calyx large or sometimes medium, usually closed; lobes 
long, medium in width, acute. Basin large, deep, wide, somewhat furrowed, 
unsymmetrical. 



1 






i 



> 




CABASHEA 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



29 



Skin moderately tender, smooth, slightly unctuous, yellowish-green mottled 
and blushed with yellowish-red, with broad stripes and splashes of brighter 
and deeper red. Dots small, inconspicuous, often submerged. Prevailing 
color in many specimens yellowish-green with broad stripes of faint red; 
in more highly-colored specimens the red striping becomes quite distinct. 

Calyx tube large, wide, conical. Stamens basal. 

Core large, decidely abaxile ; cells wide open ; core lines meeting. Car- 
pels elongated ovate, distinctly concave, slightly tufted. Seeds few, medium 
size, irregular, plump, obtuse, dark. 

Flesh greenish or tinged somewhat with yellow, rather firm, coarse, crisp, 
juicy, subacid or quite acid, fair for dessert, good for cooking. 

Season September and October. 

CATHEAD. 

REFERENCES, i. Forsyth, 1803:56. 2. Coxe, 1817:133. -fig. 3. Thacher, 
1822:122. 4. Floy-Lindley, 1833:48. 5. Downing, 1845:103. 6. Thomas, 
1849:179. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:86. 1851. 8. Elliott, 1854:168. 
9. Warder, 1867:715. 10. Leroy, 1873:842. fig. n. Hogg, 1884:41. 

SYNONYMS. CATHEAD (2, 3, 8). Cathead Greening (5, 6, 8). CATSHEAD 
(i, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, n). Catshead (4, 10). Catshead Greening (10). Costard 
(4). Costard Ray (7). Coustard (4). De Seigneur d'Automne (10). 
Grosse-Schafnase (10). Round Catshead (5, 8, 10). Schafnase (10). Tete 
d'Ange (10). TETE DE CHAT (10). 

Formerly grown in some of the home orchards of the state but now practi- 
cally obsolete. Fruit very large, pale green, subacid. Used for cooking and 
evaporating. An old English variety. Ray describe'd it as long ago as 
1688 (4). 

CELESTIA, 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, 1867:530. fig. 2. Downing, 1869:122. 3. Fitz, 
1872:173. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 5. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. 
Bui, 106:52. 1902. 6. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:114. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit not particularly attractive in color and as tested at this Station not 
superior to ordinary varieties in quality. Warder says (i) that it is es- 
sentially an amateur's fruit of very best quality but its texture and color 
disqualify it for market. The tree is a moderate grower and not very 
productive. Not recommended for cultivation in New York. 

Historical. Originated from seed of Stillwater Sweet by L. S. Mote, 
Miami county, Ohio (i). 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short, stout, curved branches. Form up- 
right spreading, roundish, rather dense. Tivigs short to moderately long, 
slightly curved, moderately slender; internodes medium to long. Bark 
clear brownish-red with some olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin ; 
pubescent. Lenticels numerous, small to medium, elongated or roundish, 



30 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

slightly raised. Buds medium size, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free, 
slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, usually above medium, uniform in size and shape. 
Form roundish inclined to conic, somewhat flattened at the base, markedly 
ribbed, irregular, somewhat angular. Stem medium to long, thick. Cavity 
obtuse to somewhat acute, moderately deep' to deep, rather broad, somewhat 
furrowed, usually russeted. Calyx medium in size, usually closed; lobes 
medium in length, rather narrow, acute. Basin shallow, narrow, rather 
abrupt, much furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thick, smooth, rather tender, yellow marbled with pale green, and 
occasionally having a thin brownish blush. Dots numerous, small, incon- 
spicuous, submerged, light or russet. 

Calyx tube very long to medium, deep, funnel-shape. Stamens median to 
somewhat marginal, 

Core large, very abaxile to sometimes axile ; cells open or closed ; core 
lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels elliptic to broadly obcordate, 
much concave, emarginate, much tufted. Seeds large, wide, long, obtuse, 
dark dull brown. 

Flesh very strongly tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately coarse, 
crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant, rather mild, subacid, good. 

Season October to January. 

CHAMPLAIN. 

REFERENCES, i. N. E. Farmer, 1853 (cited by 14). 2. Downing, 1857:128. 
3. Warder, 1867 -.637. 4. Downing, 1869 :368. fig. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1871:10. 6. Leroy, 1873:828. fig. 7. Thomas, 1875:197,496. 8. Barry, 
1883:334. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 10. Ib., 1892:250. u. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1897:12. 12. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:290. 1901. 13. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:61. 14. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:300. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Calkin's Pippin (4, 14). CHAMPLAIN (i, 2, 3, 5, n, 12, 13, 14). 
Champlain (4, 6, 7, 8. 14). Geneva Pearmain (4, 6, 14). Haverstraw Pippin 
(4, 14). Large Golden Pippin (4, 6, 14). Nyack (9, 13). NYACK PIPPIN 
(9). Nyack Pippin (4, 14). Paper (3, 4, 6, 14). Paper-Skin (3, 14). 
Sourbough (13). Sour Bough (4, 6, 7, 14). SUMMER PIPPIN (4, 6, 7, 8, 
10, 14). Summer Pippin (13,14). Tart Bough (4, 6, 14). Underdunk (4, 6, 
14). Vermont (14). Wahvorth (4, 6, 14). 

Nurserymen sometimes list this variety as Nyack, and sometimes 
as Summer Pippin, but seldom or never as Champlain (9, 10). 
Fruit of good size, smooth and attractive for a greenish-yellow 
apple. It is good for dessert and excellent for culinary use. Since 
it ripens in succession from late August till October, more than 
two pickings are required to secure the crop in good condition, 
neither too green nor too ripe. The tree is a good grower, hardy, 



\ 








f 




CHAMPLAIN 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 31 

healthy, and moderately long-lived. It comes into bearing rather 
young and is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops biennially or 
almost annually. Some find Champlain a profitable commercial 
variety, but usually it is grown for home use rather than for 
market. 

Historical. Origin unknown. In 1871 (5) it was included in the list of 
the American Pomological Society's Catalogue under the name Summer 
Pippin, but since 1897 it has been listed as Champlain (n). Old trees of 
it are frequently found in, the home orchards throughout the state. It is 
now seldom planted. 

TREE. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous with long and moderately stout branches. 
Form upright spreading to roundish, open. Twigs long to medium, 
straight, moderately stout ; internodes long. Bark dull brown tinged with 
olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lenticels 
scattering, medium size, oblong, slightly raised. Buds medium size, plump, 
obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, not very uniform in size or shape. Form round- 
ish, rather conical to ovate or somewhat oblong, irregularly ribbed; sides 
somewhat unequal. Stem medium to long, medium to rather thick. Cavity 
acuminate to acute, moderately shallow to deep, rather narrow to medium 
in. width, sometimes furrowed and usually lightly russeted. Calyx small to 
medium, closed or slightly open. Basin shallow to medium in depth, nar- 
row, a little abrupt, nearly smooth. 

Skin tender, greenish-yellow or pale yellow, often with a light crimson 
blush. Dots numerous, small, russet or submerged. 

Calyx tube conical to funnel-form, usually rather short but sometimes 
elongated. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core large, axile to somewhat abaxile ; cells open; core lines clasp the 
funnel cylinder. Carpels smooth, elongated ovate, not emarginate. Seeds 
rather dark brown, medium size, rather narrow and short, plump, sharp 
pointed, almost acuminate. 

Flesh white or with slight tinge of yellow, rather fine, very tender, juicy, 
sprightly, subacid, good to very good. 

Season late August till October. 

CHANDLER. 

REFERENCES. i. Kenrick, 1835 165. 2. Floy-Lindley, 1846 1410, app. 
3. Thomas, 1849:164. 4. Cole, 1849:122. 5. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:67. 
1851. 6. Elliott, 1854:168. 7. Downing, 1857:128. 8. Hooper, 1857:24. 
9. Warder, 1867:715. 10. Downing, 1869:122. n. Fitz, 1872:169. 

SYNONYMS. CHANDLER (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n). Chandler's Red 
(11). General Chandler (i). Late Chandler (10). Winter Chandler (6). 



32 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

In 1854 Elliott included Chandler in a list of varieties unworthy of cultiva- 
tion (6). It is a late fall apple, yellowish striped with red. Tree moderately 
vigorous but a great bearer (7, 10). An old variety supposedly of Con- 
necticut origin though Kenrick (i) ascribes it to Chelmsford, Mass. There 
may be a confusion of two varieties. It is now but little cultivated. 

Waugh describes another Chandler of sweet flavor which seems to be un- 
known in New York. He states that it is an old variety of Connecticut 
origin. 

FRUIT (5, 6, 7, 10). 

Fruit large. Form roundish, slightly oblate, irregular, unsymmetrical ; sides 
unequal. Stem short. 

Skin greenish-yellow, shaded and frequently striped with yellowish-red and 
with a few streaks of bright red. Dots light gray. 

Core small. Seeds small. 

Flesh greenish-yellow, tender, juicy, moderately rich, subacid. 

Season mid-autumn to early winter. 



CHARLAMOFF. 

REFERENCES. I. (?) Manning, Tilt. Jour. Hort., 6:349. 1869. 2. Budd, 
la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:525. 3. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:53, 156. 
4. /&., 1881-82:38. 5. /&., 1883:83. 6. Gibb, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:434. 
7. la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 1885:10. 8. Schroeder, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1886-87 77. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 -.236. 10. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1892:57, 58. ii. Butz, Pa. Sta. Rpt., 1895:134. col. pi. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1899:16. 13. Budd, la. Sta. Bui., 41 :66. 1899. 14. Macoun, Can. Dept. 
Agr. Bui., 37:37. 1901. 15. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:38. 1902. fig. 
16. Budd-Hansen, 1903:61. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Arabka (14). CHARLAMOFF (2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15). 
Charlamoff (3). (CHARLOMOSKI, i) ? CHARLAMOVSKOE (4). CHARLAMOW- 
SKOE (3, 5). CHarlamowskoe (6, 7). No. 105 (8). No. 262 (3, 5). Peter- 
sons Charlamoff (16). POINTED PIPKA (11). Pointed Pipka (14, 16). 

A Russian variety of the Oldenburg type imported for the Iowa Agri- 
cultural College by J. L. Budd. Macoun states that it has been grown under 
several different names in this country, the most common being Pointed Pipka 
and Arabka (14). Hansen declares that it is entirely distinct from the 
Charlamoff as grown by J. G. Mitchell and A. G. Tuttle which is a flat apple 
of upright habit of tree and not as valuable as many more of the same season. 

It does very well at Ottawa, Canada, and further north. At its best it is a 
good dessert apple but it has the fault of remaining in prime condition for 
only a very short time (14). It ripens a little earlier than Oldenburg but as 
fruited at this Station is inferior to that variety in quality. It comes into 
bearing young and is a reliable cropper, yielding fair to heavy crops bienni- 
ally. It is but little known among New York fruit growers. It may be found 
of some value in those sections of the state where superior hardiness is a 
prime requisite. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 33 

CHEESEBORO, 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 17:263. 1851. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
3: col. pi. No. 20. 1851. 3. Elliott, 1854:168. 4. Downing, 1857:211. 
5. Hooper, 1857:25. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:243. 7. Warder, 1867:522. 
8. Thomas, 1875:496. 9. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:291. 1901. 10. Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui. 56 :;o. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Canada Reinette (9). Cathead (9). CHEESEBORO (10). 
CHEESEBORO'S RUSSET (6). CHEESBOROUGH (7). CHEESEBOROUGH (2, 9). 
CHEESEBOROUGH RUSSET (i, 3, 4, 5, 8). Cheeseborough Russet (9, 10). For- 
ever Pippin (10, of some West 3, 5). Howard Russet (3, 4, 5, 10). Kings- 
bury Russet (3, 4, 5, TO). Oxheart (9). Pumpkin Sweet of some (10). 
Szveet Russet (10). Forfc Russet (10, of some 3, 5). For/? Russeting (10). 

This is an old variety of unknown origin which is fast becoming obsolete. 
Tree large to very large, very vigorous, long-lived, a reliable dropper yielding 
good to heavy crops biennially or almost annually ; form upright spreading or 
roundish. Fruit large to very large, conical, dull green overspread with thin 
russet, coarse, rather dry, subacid or becoming almost sweet, inferior in 
flavor and quality, suitable for kitchen use only; season October to early 
winter. 

CHENANGO. 

REFERENCES, i. Horticulturist, g -.475. 1854. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869. 
3. Downing, 1869:124. fig. 4. Thomas, 1875:199. 5. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1879 :472. 6. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879 :2 4- 7- Barry, 1883 :337. 8. Wick- 
son, 1889:244. 9. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 10. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:236. ii. Ib., 1892:249. 12. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:132. 
13. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui., 45:317. 1896. 14. Waugh, Vt. Sta. 
An. Rpt., 14:291. 1901. 15. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui., 130:120. 1901. 16. IV. N. 
Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1901 76. 17. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76 :39. 1902. 
18. Can. Hort., 26 1^45. 1903. figs. 19. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :62. 20. Farrand, 
Mich. Sta. Bui., 205 :44. 1903. 21. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bui., 182 :2O. 1903. 
22. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:115. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Buckley (3, 4). CHENANGO (2, 9, 10, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 
21, 22). CHENANGO STRAWBERRY (i, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 15). Chenango 
Strawberry (10, n, 14, 17, 18, 19, 22). CHENANGO Strawberry (12). Frank 
(3, 4). Jackson (3, 4). SHERWOOD'S FAVORITE (11). Sherwood's Favorite 
(3, 4, 6, 7, 12, 14, 17, 18, 19, 22). Smyrna (3). Strawberry (i, 3, 4). 

Fruit beautiful in appearance, yellowish-white striped with red, 
of excellent dessert quality and good also for culinary uses. The 
tree is an early and regular bearer, hardy, healthy, and pretty long- 
lived. Under favorable conditions it is an annual bearer, alter- 
nating rather light with heavy crops. The fruit begins to mature 
in September and ripens continuously during a period of several 
weeks. For this reason it should have more than one picking in 
order to secure the crop in the best condition. The latest ripening 



34 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

fruit may be kept in ordinary storage till November, but after that 
the color fades and it deteriorates much in quality, even though 
it may remain apparently sound (22). The fruit does not ship 
well because its flesh is too tender. Some find it a profitable vari- 
ety to grow for local or special markets, but other varieties of its 
season are more desirable than Chenango for general commercial 
planting. It is recommended as an excellent variety for the home 
orchard. 

Historical. Chenango, according to some accounts, originated in Lebanon, 
Madison county, N. Y. ; others say that it was early brought into Chenango 
county by settlers from Connecticut. It has certainly been known in cultiva- 
tion for more than fifty years (3). It is still propagated by nurserymen but 
the demand for the stock is quite limited. 

TREE. 

Tree medium size, vigorous with short, stout, curved branches. Form up- 
right spreading to roundish, rather dense. Twigs long to medium, curved, 
moderately slender; internodes medium. Bark olive-green tinged with dull 
brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels scattering, 
small, round, not raised. Buds deeply set in bark, small, flat, obtuse, ap- 
pressed, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large, but under unfavorable conditions it may be 
small and poorly colored. Form elongated ovate or oblong conic, slightly 
ribbed. Stem short to medium, moderately thick. Cavity acute to acuminate, 
deep, narrow, often somewhat furrowed and compressed, usually not russeted. 
Calyx medium to large, partly open or closed; lobes often separated at the 
base, long, broad, obtuse. Basin usually small, medium to rather shallow, 
narrow to moderately wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, furrowed, sometimes 
wrinkled. 

Skin rather tough, smooth, glossy, yellowish-white, often almost entirely 
overspread and mottled with attractive pinkish-red, conspicuously striped and 
splashed with bright carmine. Dots few, small, inconspicuous, light colored, 
often submerged. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-shape or nearly so. Stamens median. 

Core rather large, abaxile ; cells often unsymmetrical, wide open or closed ; 
core lines clasping. Carpels broadly ovate to oval, smooth. Seeds small, 
moderately wide, plump, obtuse, not tufted. 

Flesh white, moderately firm, tender, juicy, mild subacid, very aromatic, 
good to very good. 

Season latter part of August and through September. 

CLAPPER FLAT. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869:127. 
SYNONYMS. CLAPPER FLAT (i). Flat (i). 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 35- 

Downing describes a variety under this name" which originated in the town 
of Bethlehem, Albany county, N. Y. He states ( i ) that the tree is productive, 
the fruit above medium size, pale yellow mostly overspread with deep red, 
pleasant subacid and good in quality for culinary uses ; season September and 
October. We do not know this variety and have found no account of it 
except that given by Downing. 

CLARKE. 

REFERENCES, i. Rural N. Y., 19:375. 1868. 2. Downing, 1869:127. 
3. Leroy, 1873:221. fig. 4. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui., 45:317. 1896. 
5. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48 :3Q. 1903. 6. Beach and Clark, 
N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:115. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. CLARKE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). Clarke Beauty. 

This variety has been grown to a limited extent locally in some portions of 
Central New York. It is not a good commercial variety, being too tender 
and too easily bruised. It is very good for dessert. It is sometimes called 
Clarke Beauty. The tree is hardy, healthy and long-lived. It does not come 
into bearing very young but when mature is a reliable biennial cropper. 

Historical. Originated with J. N. Clarke, Naples, Ontario county, N. Y. 
(i, 2). It is now rarely propagated. 

TREE. 

Tree large to medium, vigorous. Form upright spreading to roundish, 
rather dense. Twigs short, curved, stout; internodes medium. Bark brown- 
ish and olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. 
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, slightly raised. Buds medium to 
large, broad, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium. Form roundish oblate to 
oblate conic or to oblong conic, usually faintly ribbed, unsymmetrical ; not 
very uniform in shape. Stem short to medium in length, slender. Cavity 
acuminate, deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, usually partly russeted 
and often with narrow, broken, outspreading russet rays. Calyx small to 
rather large, closed or slightly open. Basin rather shallow to moderately 
deep, rather narrow, obtuse to moderately abrupt, slightly furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin thin, smooth, waxy, pale whitish-yellow or greenish, often faintly 
shaded with orange-red or sometimes blushed with crimson ; under some 
conditions the fruit develops but a slight blush or none. Dots numerous, 
small, pale or russet, often submerged. 

Calyx tube cone-shape. 

Core medium to rather large, abaxile; cells open; core lines slightly clasp- 
ing. Carpels broadly roundish, mucronate, slightly tufted. Seeds medium to 
rather large, moderately wide, plump, obtuse to acute, slightly tufted, rather 
light brown. 



36 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Flesh whitish, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, rather sprightly 
subacid, good to very good. 

Season October to January ; some portion of the fruit may keep till spring 
but by January it begins to deteriorate in flavor and quality. 

CLYDE. 

REFERENCES, i. Barry, 1851:283. 2. Elliott, 1854:127. 3. Downing, 1857: 
129. 4. Hoffy, N. A. Pomol, 1860. col. pi. 5. Warder, 1867:694. fig. 
6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:6. 7. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:596. 8. Mo. 
Hort.'Soc. Rpt., 1884. 9. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 10. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:236. n. Thomas, 1897:259. 12. Budd-Hansen, 1903:65. 

SYNONYMS. CLYDE (3, 8, 9, 10). CLYDE BEAUTY (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, n). CLYDE 
Beauty (12). Mackie's Clyde Beauty (2, 3, 4, n). 

A large, late fall apple. So far as we can learn it is now but little grown 
in this state. Lyon reports that in Michigan the tree is vigorous, upright, 
very productive, and the fruit desirable for market (9). 

Historical. This is a late autumn variety which originated with Mr, Mackie, 
of Clyde, Wayne county (3,4). 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous, spreading. Twigs reddish-brown. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large. Form roundish to oblong conic, more or less ribbed. Stem 
short, sometimes fleshy. Cavity acute, deep, rather wide, furrowed. Calyx 
small, closed. Basin medium in depth, somewhat abrupt, furrowed. 

Skin waxy, green or yellow, washed and mottled with dull red and striped 
with carmine becoming bright red on the exposed side. 

Core large and open. Seeds small, brown. Flesh white, often tender, juicy, 
sprightly, pleasant subacid, good to very good. 

Season October to December. 



COLLAMER. 

The Collamer or Collamer Twenty Ounce is a sport of the 
Twenty Ounce, from which it differs in being more highly colored. 
As compared with Twenty Ounce, it is less mottled and striped 
but more completely covered with red, which often extends in an 
unbroken blush over a considerable portion of the fruit. In the 
Twenty Ounce this is seldom or never seen, but the red is mottled 
or appears in heavy stripes and splashes. So far as we have been 
able to determine, Collamer is more regular in shape and, if ribbed 
at all, is less distinctly ribbed than Twenty Ounce. The tree dif- 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 37 

fers from Twenty Ounce in that the bark of the young twigs is 
more distinctly tinged with red. The fruit being more attractive 
than Twenty Ounce, Collamer is worthy of consideration for com- 
mercial planting where an apple of the Twenty Ounce type is 
desired. 

Except in the points of difference above noted, Collamer appears 
to be identical with Twenty Ounce, and the reader is referred to 
the description of that variety for a technical account of the tree 
and fruit. 

Historical. This variety originated as a sport of the Twenty Ounce tree 
in the orchard of J. B. Collamer, Hilton, N. Y. Mr. Collamer began propa- 
gating it about 1900. 

COLTON. 

REFERENCES, i. Amer. Card., 12:573. 1891- figs. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:237. 3. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:132. 4. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. 
Rpt., 15:271. 1896. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:16. 6. Bruner, N. C. Sta. 
Bui., 182 :20. 1903. 7. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205 -.44. 1903. 8. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903 -.67. 

SYNONYMS. COLTON (i, 2, 3, 4, 7). COLTON Early (5, 6, 8). Early 
Co It on (i). 

Colton is a green or yellowish apple of fair to good quality, in season from 
the last of July to early September. The tree is a good grower, hardy, comes 
into bearing moderately young and yields good crops biennially. 

Historical. Colton is said to have originated on the farm of Mr. Colton, 
Rowe, Franklin county, Mass., where it has been propagated since about 1840 
under the name Early Colton (i). 

TREE. 

Tree large, vigorous with moderately long, stout, crooked branches. Form 
rather upright when young but eventually flat, spreading and open. Twigs 
moderately long, straight, moderately stout; internodes short. Bark dark 
brown, heavily mottled with scarf-skin ; much pubescent. Lenticels quite 
numerous, rather conspicuous, medium to large, oblong, raised. Buds medium 
to large, broad, plump, acute, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium in size. Form roundish, narrowing toward either end, 
slightly ribbed. Stem medium in length, stout. Cavity small, acute to slightly 
acuminate, shallow, narrow. Calyx' medium in size, nearly closed ; lobes long, 
rather recurved. Basin small, shallow, obtuse, wrinkled. 

Skin pale greenish-yellow, sometimes with a shade or red. Dots numerous, 
large, greenish. 

Calyx tube elongated funnel-form. Stamens median. 



38 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Core medium to rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines 
clasping. Carpels broadly roundish. 

Flesh whitish, rather coarse, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good. 
Season last of July to early September. 

COLVERT. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, 1867:427. 2. Downing, 1869:131. 3. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1875:6. 4. Thomas, 1885:506. 5. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:290. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 7. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. 
P. I.< Bui., 48:39. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. COLVERT (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Prussian (2). 

Ripens about with Twenty Ounce. It is inferior to that variety 
in size, color and quality, and is not as good a seller, but is more 
productive. The fruit is large, uniform in size, yellowish-green 
shaded and lightly striped with pinkish-red on the sunny side, 
smooth, showy and fairly attractive. It needs to be picked early 
to prevent loss from dropping. It is not a good keeper and is not 
much in demand among buyers, but sometimes it sells pretty well. 

The tree is generally hardy, healthy and an excellent cropper. 
It generally succeeds well on any good apple land. 

Historical. Origin uncertain (2). It has long been known and pretty 
widely disseminated but it is not much grown in New York. Even in those 
localities where it is best known the trees of this variety constitute less than 
one per cent of the orchards. 

TREE. 

Tree medium size to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches 
long, medium stout, curved, crooked. Form upright spreading or roundish, 
open. Twigs above medium to long, usually nearly straight, moderately 
stout ; internodes medium. Bark rather dark brownish-red, shaded with 
olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels scatter- 
ing, medium, oblong, raised. Buds medium to large, broad, prominent, very 
plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. Leaves medium in size, broad. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit averages large, fairly uniform in size but rather variable in shape. 
Form oblate to oblate conic, obscurely ribbed, irregular and with sides 
sometimes unequal. Stem short, rather thick. Cavity acute to slightly acumi- 
nate, medium to nearly deep, medium in width to sometimes broad, usually 
very heavily russeted, sometimes compressed and frequently lipped. Calyx 
medium, closed or slightly open; lobes short, narrow, acuminate. Basin 
abrupt, medium in depth, narrow, slightly furrowed. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 39 

Skin very thick, rather tough, rather dull greenish-yellow, sometimes 
partly washed with red and striped and splashed with carmine. Dots incon- 
spicuous, small, usually submerged ; a few scattering ones are large and 
russet. Prevailing color greenish-yellow, not particularly attractive. 

Calyx tube broadly conical to funnel-shape. Stamens median to basal. 

Core axile, small; cells closed or partly open. Carpels broad-cordate, 
emarginate, tufted. Seeds large to above medium, wide, rather long, plump, 
acute ; frequently they are abortive. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, nearly coarse, crisp, moderately tender, 
juicy, subacid, good. 

Season October to January or February. ' 

CONSTANTINE. 

REFERENCES, i. Leroy, 1873:335. fig. 2. Budd, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1880:524. 3. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:155. 4. Hogg, 1884:95. 
5. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:14. 6. Ib., 14:86. 1888. 7. Hos- 
kins, Rural N. Y., 51 :682. 1892. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Berry Apple (7). CONSTANTINE (2, 3). GRAND Due CON- 
STANTIN (i). GRAND DUKE CONSTANTINE (4, 5, 6, 7). Grand Duke Con- 
stantine (2, 3). No. 457 (7). Riabinouka (7). 

This fruit is of the Aport type and very closely resembles Alex- 
ander. The flesh is rather coarse, subacid and fair to good in 
quality. Some hold that it is rather better in flavor than Alexander. 
As grown at this Station, the fruit, as compared with that of Alex- 
ander, begins to ripen about a week later and continues longer in 
season. The trees are not so large and may be planted more closely 
together than those of Alexander. It is a reliable cropper, yielding 
good crops biennially or nearly annually. The percentage of 
marketable fruit is greater than that of Alexander because there 
are fewer drops, the apples are less apt to show cracks about the 
calyx and stem and the skin is less often discolored by chafing 
against the branches. We are not sure that it is as good a variety 
for commercial planting as Alexander, but it appears to be worthy 
of testing where a variety of the Alexander type is desired. 

TREE. 

Tree small to below medium size, at first moderately vigorous but with 
age it becomes a slow grower with short, stout, curved branches. Form 
spreading, open. Twigs moderately long, curved, slender; internodes long. 
Bark brown with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubes- 
cent near tips. Lenticels scattering, medium to small, oblong, not raised. 
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 



4o THE APPLES OF NEW YORI<. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large or very large. Form roundish conic flat at the base, varying 
to oblate conic, regular or somewhat ribbed, symmetrical. Stem below 
medium to long, rather slender to moderately thick. Cavity large, acumi- 
nate or acute, very deep, broad, symmetrical, russeted and with outspread- 
ing rays of greenish-russet. Calyx medium to rather large, usually some- 
what open ; lobes medium in width and length, acute. Basin narrow to 
medium in width, moderately deep to deep, abrupt, smooth or slightly 
wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, waxy, clear greenish-yellow or whitish, mottled, 
marbled and blushed with bright red over nearly the whole surface with 
wide broken stripes of carmine radiating from the cavity, overspread with 
thin bloom. Dots whitish or pale russet. Prevailing effect bright red. 

Calyx tube long, wide, funnel-shape or conical. Stamens median or below. 

Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells open or partly closed; core 
lines somewhat clasping. Carpels broadly ovate or approaching cordate, 
emarginate. Seeds medium or below, moderately wide, short, thick, plump, 
obtuse, dark brown. 

Flesh whitish, moderately firm, coarse, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, 
fair to good ; suitable for culinary use and market. 

Season late September to November. 



COOPER. 

/ 

REFERENCES, i. Horticulturist, 1:339,484. 1847. 2. Mag. Hort.', 13:105, 
200. 1847. 3. Cole, 1849:114. fig. 4. Thomas, 1849:147. 5. Barry, 1851 :283. 
6. Horticulturist, 6:181. 1851. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. ., 3:104. 1851. 
fig. 8. Elliott, 1854:127. 9. Gregg, 1857:41. 10. Hooper, 1857:26, 106, 109. 

11. Downing, 1857:130. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 13. Warder, 
1867:428. fig. 14. Lyon, Mich.. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. ,15. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892 :237. 16. Budd-Hansen, 1903 -.67. 

SYNONYMS. Beauty Red (8, n). COOPER (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 

12, 13, 14, 15, 16). Lady Washington (8, n). Seek-No-Further of seme, 
erroneously (8). 

Fruit large, uniform, very attractive, rather light yellow indistinctly 
streaked with mixed red, mild subacid or nearly sweet, season October to 
December. The tree is very vigorous, upright spreading. Not recom- 
mended for planting in New York. 

Historical. This is an old variety of unknown origin. In 1796 it was 
introduced from Connecticut into Ohio where it has been much esteemed (2). 
'Evidently it has never been cultivated to any considerably extent in this 
State and is now practically unknown to New York fruit growers. 

CORNELL. 

REFERENCES. i. Downing, 1857:131. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 3. 
Warder, 1867:716. 4. Thomas, 1875:200. 5. Barry, 1883:337. 6. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 8. Van 




\ 




CONSTANTINE 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 41 

Deman, Rural N. Y., 61 167 1. 1902. fig. 9. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 
205:44. 1903. 10. Budd-Hansen, 1903:67. 

SYNONYMS. CORNELL (6, 8, 9). CORNELL FANCY (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7). Cornell 
Fancy (8). CORNELL Fancy (10). Cornell's Favourite (i). 

Fruit usually of good medium size, sometimes large, waxen yellow and 
red, agreeable for dessert, in season from early September to November. 
The tree sometimes lacks vigor and productiveness (9). 

Historical. Origin Pennsylvania (i). It is but little known in New York. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large, uniform in size, somewhat variable in shape. 
Form roundish conic to oblate conic, often quite strongly ribbed, irregular ; 
sides usually unequal. Stem medium to rather long and slender. Cavity 
moderately deep to deep, moderately wide, often compressed, sometimes 
lipped, sometimes russeted, with the russet extending beyond the cavity. 
Calyx below medium to rather large, closed or slightly open ; lobes some- 
times separated at the base, often upright, moderately acute. Basin deep, 
wide, rather abrupt, strongly furrowed, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, clear pale waxen yellow, partly 
overspread with thin attractive pinkish-red, often quite regularly splashed 
and striped with bright carmine. Dots conspicuous, variable, often large, 
irregular, russet or areolar with russet center, varying to small, light colored 
and submerged. Prevailing effect handsome red striped over clear yellow. 

Caly.v tube rather large, rather short, conical. Stamens median. 

Core below medium, variable, nearly axile to decidedly abaxile; cells 
variable, open or closed ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels 
broadly ovate, slightly emarginate, sometimes tufted. Seeds numerous, 
rather large, dark brown, rather narrow, long, plump, acute to acuminate, 
sometimes tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, often affected with " Baldwin Spot," firm, mod- 
erately coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, agreeable, mild subacid, 
aromatic, rich, sprightly, very good. 

Season early September to November. 

CORNER. 

REFERENCE, i. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1894:18. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

We have neither seen Corner nor received any report concerning it. The 
following account of it was given in 1894 by S. B. Heiges, then United 
States Pomologist (i). 

" Size above medium ; oblate ; cavity wide, deep, marked by russet netting ; 
stem one-half inch, medium diameter ; basin, medium, regular, marked by 
russet; calyx segments with mammiform bases, wide, long, converging or 
slightly reflexed ; surface moderately smooth ; color yellow, washed with 
red and striped with crimson; dots numerous, russet, some with dark 
centers, depressed ; flesh yellowish, moderately fine grained, tender, mod- 
erately juicy; core large, wide, clasping, closed; flavor mild subacid; quality 
very good. Season early winter. Well known locally in Orange county, 
N. Y." 



42 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

COX ORANGE. 

REFERENCES, i. Horticulturist, 13:168. 1858. 2. Downing, 1869:135. 3. 
Leroy, 1873:517. fig. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881 :8. 5. Hogg, 1884:55. 
6. Thomas, 1885 1507. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 -.237. 8. Bunyard, Jour. 
Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356. 9. Willard, Rural N. Y., 58:754. 1899. 10. 
Thomas, Garden, 59:34. 1901. figs. 

SYNONYMS. Cos Orange (3). Cox ORANGE (8). Cox's Orange (3). 
Cox's ORANGE PIPPIN (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10). Cox's Orange Pippin (3). 
ORANGE DE Cox (3). Reinette Orange de Cox (3). 

One of the best in quality of the English dessert apples ; in 
season from late September to early winter. The fruit is of 
medium size or above medium, red and yellow. When highly col- 
ored it is attractive, with the red predominant. The tree is a 
moderate grower and productive. It is well adapted for growing 
on dwarf stock, either Paradise or Doucin. It is not recommended 
for commercial planting, but it is a desirable variety for the home 
orchard. 

Historical. Cox Orange is said to have originated in 1830 from seed of 
Ribston, at Colnbrook Lawn near Slough, Bucks, England (5). It is some- 
times propagated by American nurserymen but it has never been extensively 
planted in this country and its cultivation is not increasing. 

TREE. 

Tree medium size or above, moderately vigorous with rather slender 
branches. Form upright, thickly branched, dense. Tivigs long to medium, 
rather slender, irregularly crooked; internodes medium or below. Bark 
olive-green somewhat mottled with reddish-brown, slightly pubescent. Lenti- 
cels numerous, conspicuous, medium size, oblong, raised. Buds medium size 
to rather small, roundish, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. Leaves small to 
medium size and inclined to be narrow. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate, sometimes slightly inclined to conic, regular or faintly ribbed, sym- 
metrical, axis sometimes oblique. Stem usually obliquely inclined, short, 
thick, sometimes long. Cavity obtuse to somewhat acuminate, rather shallow 
to moderately deep, rather narrow, often somewhat russeted. Calyx rather 
small, closed or partly open. Basin rather shallow and obtuse to moderately 
deep and abrupt, rather narrow to moderately wide, smooth or slightly 
furrowed. 

Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, attractive, washed with orange- red deepen- 
ing to bright red and mottled and splashed with carmine, over a deep yellow 
background. Dots conspicuous, large, areolar with pale gray or russet center. 

Calyx tube cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 





COX ORANGE 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 43 

Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, open or 
closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels thin, obovate to 
obcordate, emarginate, usually smooth. Seeds reddish-brown, above medium 
size, wide, obtuse to acute, often abortive. 

Flesh yellow, firm, nearly fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, rich, sprightly 
subacid or becoming mild subacid, decidedly aromatic, very good to best. 

Season late September to January. 

CRANBERRY PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1845:106. 2. Thomas, 1849:179. 3. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:88. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:169. 5. Warder, 1867:402. 
6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 
8. Amer. Card., 16:425. 1895. 9- Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 
2:9. 1895. fig. 10. Ib., 3:6. 1896. fig. ii. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bui., 
37:43. 1901. 12. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:116. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

In some sections this has proved a desirable apple, but in others 
it has not been successful. It is well known in some localities in 
the Hudson valley, in Northern and Western New York and in 
Ontario, where it is favorably regarded as a fall or early winter 
apple because of its good size, bright and attractive color and its 
uniform size and shape. It is a good storage apple, stands shipping 
well and brings good prices. It is suitable for market, cooking 
and evaporating, but not for dessert. It appears to be quite 
resistant to the attacks of scab. The trees are hardy and often 
very productive, but in some cases it is reported as undesirable 
because unproductive. It is said to be a shy bearer when young, 
but becomes productive with age. 

Historical. Originated near Hudson, Columbia county (i). 

TREE. 

Tree large, very vigorous ; branches stout, spreading. Form upright be- 
coming somewhat spreading. Twigs long, moderately stout, light grayish- 
brown, quite pubescent; internodes short. Bark dull reddish-brown with 
some olive-green and thickly mottled with scarf-skin. Lenticels scattering 
medium to small, usually roundish. Buds medium or sometimes small, 
rather broad, deeply set, obtuse or sometimes acute, pubescent, appressed. 
Leaves dark green, broad, medium to large ; foliage rather dense. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large. Form roundish oblate, symmetrical. Stem short. Cavity 
broad, wavy. Calyx closed or somewhat open. Basin moderately deep, rus- 
seted. Skin smooth, shining, clear light yellow, handsomely blushed, striped 



44 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

and splashed with scarlet. Dots many, large, often red areolar with russet 
center. General appearance beautiful and attractive. Flesh white or with 
slight yellowish tinge, moderately juicy, mild subacid. 

Season October to February. In the vicinity of its origin its season closes 
from a month to six weeks earlier than either Hubbardston or Tompkins 
King. In Northern New York and Ontario its season is late fall and early 
winter and often extends to midwinter. 

CREAM. 

REFERENCES, i. N. E. Farmer, 1831 (cited by 3). 2. Downing, 1869:137. 
3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56 182. 1905. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

This variety originated in Queens county, N. Y. So far as we know it is 
no longer cultivated. Downing describes the tree as a vigorous grower and 
an early bearer and the fruit as medium or below, yellowish, fine-grained, 
pleasant, sweet, in season in September and October. Valued by some for 
dessert and culinary uses. 

CROW EGG. 

REFERENCES, i. Kenrick, 1832:43. 2. Downing, 1857:211. 3. Warder, 
1867:716. 4. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:318. 1896. 
SYNONYMS. CROW EGG (2). CROW'S EGG (i, 3, 4). Egg Jop? (2). 

A sweet apple which is still occasionally found in very old orchards but is 
now practically obsolete. Some esteem it highly for dessert. Downing calls 
it not very good in quality (2). The old trees are productive. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading; top roundish, open; 
branches long, slender, crooked. Twigs medium in size, curved, slender ; 
internodes very short. Bark reddish-brown, streaked with scarf-skin, slightly 
pubescent. Lenticcls numerous, very small, oblong. Buds small, plump, 
obtuse, deeply set in the bark. Leaves medium in size, narrow. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit about medium in size. Form roundish to oblong or ovate. Stem 
long, slender. Cavity obtuse to sometimes acute, shallow, medium in width, 
symmetrical or obscurely furrowed, bright green or sometimes with out- 
spreading russet. Calyx small to medium, closed. Basin small, shallow, 
narrow, somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin tough, nearly smooth, bright pale yellow or greenish sometimes with 
faint bronze blush. Dots numerous, very small but conspicuous, russet. 

Calyx tube rather .small, funnel-shape or cone-shape. Stamens median. 

Core large, abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical and open ; core lines clasp- 
ing the funnel cylinder or meeting when the tube is conical. Carpels ovate, 
nearly smooth. Seeds numerous, rather light brown, flat, acute to acuminate. 

Flesh whitish, firm, crisp, tender, rather juicy, sweet, agreeably flavored, 
good to very good. 

Season October and November. 



f 








CRANBERRY PIPPIN 






CRANBERRY PIPPIN 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 45 

CZAR THORN. 

REFERENCES. I. Montreal Hort. Soc. Kept., 1881 153. 2. Ib., 1883 75- 3- 
la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883 .-430. 4- Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885 7. 5. Gibb, 
Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:44. 6. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57. 7. 
Beach, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Kept., 1896:50. 8. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 
76:43- 1902. fig. 

SYNONYMS. CZAR THORN (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). Czar Thorn (2). Czarskui 
Schip (4). No. 140 M (8). No. 206 (4, 5, 8). Tars Thorn (i). Tsarskui 
Schip (5). Zarskischip (7). ZARSKI SCHIP (2). Zar ski Schip (3). ZARSKI 
ZARS (i). 

A Russian apple of medium size, roundish conic, green and yellow usually 
shaded and striped with crimson ; flesh rather coarse, sweet, hardly fair in 
quality; season September; not valuable. 

DEADERICK, 

REFERENCES, i. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:22. 2. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bui, 
1:11. 1896. fig. 3. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:37. 
SYNONYMS. Ben Ford (2). DEADERICK (i, 2, 3). Ozark Pippin (2). 

A good-sized green apple, of somewhat better color than Rhode 
Island Greening, but it does not keep as well, and is inferior to 
that variety in quality. The tree is a strong grower, healthy, and 
so far as tested here comes into bearing young and gives promise 
of being very productive. It has not been on trial long enough 
to indicate whether or not it has sufficient merit to be considered 
a promising variety for this state. In Tennessee it is considered 
a very valuable early winter apple (2). 

Historical. Originated with Benjamin Ford, Washington county, Tenn. 
It was first disseminated as Ozark Pippin (2). 

TREE. 

Tree rather vigorous. Form spreading and somewhat upright. Twigs 
moderately stout, nearly straight ; internodes short. Bark bright brownish- 
red. Lenticels roundish, often conspicuous, scattering, small. Buds medium 
size, appressed, obtuse, short, pubescent. Leaves medium size, somewhat 
narrow ; often the base of the petioles is conspicuously streaked with red. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large. Form broadly roundish, often rather conical, sometimes 
broadly ribbed, pretty regular, uniform. Stem medium to rather long, 
slender. Cavity large, acute to acuminate, deep, broad, usually smooth and 
symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed, occasionally prominently lipped. 
Calyx small, partly open or closed ; lobes rather narrow, acute. Basin small, 
shallow, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, nearly smooth, a little wrinkled. 



46 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, rather bright green becoming yellow, 
usually partly covered with a thin pinkish-red blush upon which there are 
often seen red, areolar dots with russet or whitish center ; commonly the 
dots are whitish and often submerged. Prevailing color green or yellowish. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-form. Stamens median to nearly marginal.. 

Core a little abaxile, medium to small; cells symmetrical, open or nearly 
so ; core lines clasp the base of the cylinder. Carpels thin, generally smooth, 
broadly roundish, narrowing toward the base, slightly emarginate. Seeds 
numerous, medium or above, rather wide, obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, tender, rather juicy, pleasant sub- 
acid, good. 

Season October to January. 

DETROIT RED. 

REFERENCES. i. Mag. Hort., 10:167. 1844. 2. Downing, 1845:106. 
3. Horticulturist, 1:361. 1846. 4. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1846:192. 5. 
Thomas, 1849:164. 6. Cole, 1849:115. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:65. 
1851. fig., col. pi. 8. Elliott, 1854:130. 9. Downing, 1857:134. 10. Warder, 
1867:532. fig. n. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 12. Wickson, 1889:245. 
13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 
15. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:291. 1901. 

SYNONYMS. Black Apple of some (2, 9). BLACK DETROIT (5, 7). Black 
Detroit (2, 8). Crimson Pippin (6, 8, of some 2). DETROIT (i, 2, 4, 6, 8). 
Detroit (9). DETROIT BLACK (10). DETROIT RED (3, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15). 
Detroit Red? (10). 

Fruit growers in Western New York have commonly used the 
names Detroit Red and Detroit Black interchangeably for the 
remarkably variable variety w-hich we are here describing as 
Detroit Red. We have been unable to determine whether there are 
ir fact two distinct varieties of this type, or whether the differences 
which have been observed in the habit of growth and productive- 
ness of the tree and in the form, size, general appearance, season 
and quality of the fruit, are altogether due to differences in the 
conditions under which the fruit has been produced. Speaking of 
these two names, Warder, in 1867, wrote, " I have put these two 
names together because the fruits presented as Black and as Red 
Detroit are so very much alike in all respects that it is not worth 
while to consider them distinct. * * * The Red variety may 
be distinct, as it keeps later." 

Lyon (13) recognized two or more varieties of this type and 
distinguished them by the names Detroit Black and Detroit Red. 
Speaking of Detroit Red, he remarks : " There are probably several 





DETROIT RED 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 47 

varieties grown under this name, none of them valuable ;" and of 
The Detroit Black he says : " Unproductive, showy, valueless ; it is 
probably the Detroit Red of Downing." 

D. D. Stone, of Oswego, writes : l ' It seems to me that the two 
are not the same. Detroit Black seems to be more of a scrubby 
grower, the shape, size, firmness and color seem to be more con- 
stant and it does not crack so badly as the one we know as Detroit 
Red, but the season appears to be the same." 

Detroit Red, or as it is often called, Detroit Black, as usually 
grown in Western New York, varies from medium to very 
large, commonly averaging about medium size. It is flattened 
at the ends, very dark crimson or purplish, becoming almost 
black, with snow-white flesh occasionally streaked with rose- 
pink. It is esteemed by many for dessert use because of its 
mild, pleasant flavor. There is considerable loss from premature 
dropping of the fruit and from fruit that is too small or too ill- 
shapen for market. It is quite variable in keeping qualities, being 
commonly in season about with Maiden Blush. The tree is a mod- 
erate grower, comes into bearing rather young, and is not a very 
reliable cropper. Some report that it is a shy bearer; others that it 
yields moderate to full crops biennially. 

Historical. This is supposed to have been brought into the neighborhood 
of Detroit by the early French settlers and thence disseminated (i, 2, 4, 8). 
It was introduced into Ohio and Western New York before the middle of the 
last century. The variety is still sometimes listed by nurserymen (14). Its 
cultivation in New York state is declining and it is now seldom planted. 

TREE. 

Tree medium or eventually large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form 
upright spreading or roundish. Twigs medium to long, moderately slender, 
dark brown. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large to medium. Form oblate conic varying to roundish oblate, 
often strongly ribbed, irregular. Stem short, usually rather slender. Cavity 
often very large, acute to nearly acuminate, deep, moderately broad to very 
broad, frequently compressed, usually thinly russeted. Calyx variable, usu- 
ally large, closed or somewhat open; lobes short, broad, rather obtuse. 
Basin medium in width and depth, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, irregularly 
furrowed and wrinkled and often with mammiform protuberances. 

1 Letter, 1904. 



48 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Skin thick, rather tough, dark crimson, largely striped and splashed with 
purplish-carmine eventually becoming almost black, sometimes having a por- 
tion of the greenish-yellow ground color exposed. Dots numerous, conspicu- 
ous, very small, pale or russet. 

Calyx tube rather short, wide, broadly conical. Stamens median to basal. 

Core medium to large, axile; cells closed; core lines meeting or clasping. 
Carpels roundish to elliptical, rather flat, usually tufttd. Seeds rather large, 
plump, obtuse to acute, moderately light brown. 

Flesh white, sometimes streaked or stained with red, rather coarse, tender, 
juicy, agreeable mild subacid, very aromatic, good to very good. 

Season last of September to December. 

DUCHESS OF OLDENBURG. 

This variety is often called Duchess or Duchess of Oldenburg, 
but the name now accepted for it by pomologists is Oldenburg, 
under which name it is described on page 150. 

DUDLEY. 

REFERENCES, i. Me. Sta. Rpt., 1891 -.97. 2. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1891 1390. 
3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 4. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:132. 5. Hos- 
kins, Amer. Card., 14:299. 1893. 6. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902:83, 91. 
7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:71. 8. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1903:95. 

SYNONYMS. DUDLEY (2, 6, 8). DUDLEY WINTER (i, 4). DUDLEY Winter 
(7). Dudley's Winter (6). NORTH STAR (3, 5). North Star (6, 7, 8). 

A very hardy and productive variety which is being planted to 
a considerable extent in Northern New England. The fruit is 
pretty large, bright greenish-yellow washed and splashed with red, 
quite attractive in appearance and. good in quality. Munson says 
that it is perhaps now more widely grown than any other of the 
newer sorts that have originated in New England. He considers 
it a valuable acquisition as a winter fruit for northern localities (6). 
As fruited at Geneva it is in season in September and October, 
although it may sometimes be kept into the winter. It is recom- 
mended for trial particularly where a very hardy apple of its season 
is desired. 

Historical. A seedling of the Oldenburg, which originated with J. W. 
Dudley, Castle Hill, Aroostook county, Me. (i, 6). A few years ago it was 
introduced by a Rochester nursery under the name North Star but it was 
afterward found that this name had already been given to another variety 
and therefore the name Dudley Winter was retained for it, which, according 
to the accepted rules of nomenclature is shortened to Dudley. 





DUDLEY (Reduced Size) 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 49 

TREE. 

Tree small, moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches short, moderately 
stout. Form very spreading and drooping, rather dense. Twigs below 
medium length to short, almost straight, moderately stout to rather slender; 
internodes short to medium. Bark brown tinged with clear bright red, with 
but little or no scarf-skin and but slightly pubescent. Lenticels rather con- 
spicuous, clear in color, scattering, medium in size, oblong, raised. Buds 
medium or above, rather prominent, plump, obtuse to acute, free or nearly 
so, somewhat pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, uniform. Form roundish conic to roundish oblate, 
symmetrical. Stem long, rather thick. Cavity acute to almost acuminate, 
rather deep, broad, sometimes lightly russeted, obscurely furrowed. Calyx 
medium to large, open or partly closed. Basin decidedly abrupt, moderately 
deep to deep, moderately broad, obscurely furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, bright pale yellow or whitish mostly covered 
with a bright pinkish-red blush striped and splashed with bright carmine and 
covered with light bloom. Dots scattering, light, small. General appearance 
red or red striped pver contrasting yellow, attractive. 

Calyx tube long, moderately wide, funnel-shape or sometimes conical. 
Stamens median to marginal. 

Core almost axile, medium or below ; cells closed or partly open ; core lines 
clasping or nearly so. Carpels broadly elliptical, not emarginate, slightly 
tufted. Seeds large, wide, long, somewhat flat, obtuse to acute, dull dark 
brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, crisp, nearly fine-grained, tender, very 
juicy, aromatic, brisk subacid eventually becoming mild, very good. 

Season September and October or sometimes later. 

DYER. 

REFERENCES, i. Kenrick, 1835 :6o. 2. Mag. Hort., 3 :37- 1837. 3. Downing, 
1845:83. 4. Horticulturist, 2:289. 1847. 5. Cole, 1849:111. 6. Thomas, 
1849:153. fig. 7. Barry, 1851:283, 286. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:39. 
1851. 9. Elliott, 1854:75. 10. Hooper, 1857:30. n. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 
27:70. 1861. fig. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 13. Warder, 1867 :639. fig. 
14. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 15. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 
16. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76 :47. 1902. 17. Budd-Hansen, 1903 72. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Bard Apple (9, n). Beard Burden (9, n). Bullripe (9, u). 
Coe's Spice (n). DYER (i, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17). Dyer 
(4> 5, 7)- Golden Spice (9, n). Mygatt's Bergamot (9, n). POMME 
ROYAL (2). Pomme Royal (6, 8, 9, 10, n, 14, 16, 17). POMME ROY ALE 
(4, 5- 7). Pomme Royale (3, 13). Pomme Roye (4). Pomme Water 
(9, n). Pommewater in 111. (13). Smithfield Spice (3, 5, 10, n). Tomp- 
kins (9, n). White Spice (9, n). Woodstock (i). 

One of the very finest dessert apples but not a good commercial variety (14). 
The fruit is of medium size, greenish-yellow with a shade of red. The crop 
does not ripen evenly and it requires more than one picking. It comes in 



5o THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

season late in August or early in September and ripens continuously until 
midautumn. The tree is vigorous in the nursery but does not grow to be a 
large tree in the orchard. It succeeds better When topworked upon some 
hardier vigorous stock such as Tolman Sweet or Northern Spy. It is not 
long-lived but comes into bearing rather young and yields good crops 
biennially. 

Historical. This variety has been supposed by some to be of French origin 
and was formerly known as Pomme Royale, but Hovey believed it to be an 
American apple (n). It was known in cultivation in Rhode Island during 
the Revolutionary War (4). It was named Dyer by the Massachusetts Hor- 
ticultural Society more than fifty years ago and has retained that name. It 
is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (15). It is but little cultivated in 
New York and is now seldom, if ever, planted in this state. 

FRUIT (3, 9, n, 13). 

Fruit medium or sometimes large. Form roundish, slightly oblate, regular 
or obscurely ribbed. Stem medium to long, slender. Cavity rather small, 
acute, moderately deep to deep, sometimes lipped. Calyx small, closed; lobes 
short to rather long, recurved. Basin medium to small, shallow to moderately 
deep, furrowed. 

Skin smooth, clear pale yellow or greenish, more or less flecked and mar- 
bled with thin russet with a brownish blush on one cheek. Dots dark or 
russet. 

Core medium size ; cells open or closed ; core lines clasping. Seeds numer- 
ous, plump, short, medium to small, pale. 

Flesh yellowish-white, fine, very crisp, tender, aromatic, sprightly, mild 
subacid, highly flavored, very good to best. 

Season September and October. 

EARLY HARVEST. 

REFERENCES, i. Amer. Card. Cal, 1806:584. 2. Coxe, 1817:101. fig. 3. 
Thacher, 1822:129. 4. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 5. Wilson, 
1828:136. 6. Fessenden, 1828:131. 7. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 355. 
8. Kenrick, 1832 -.26. g. Floy-Lindley, 1833 184. 10. Mag. Hort., i -.362. 
1835. " Manning, 1838:45. 12. /&., Mag. Hort., 7:51. 1841. 13. Down- 
ing, 1845 -.72. fig. 14. French, Horticulturist, 1 1256. 1846. 15. Hovey, 
Mag. Hort., 14:115. 1848. fig. 16. Cole, 1849:97. fig. 17. Walker, Mag. 
Hort., 15:165. 1849. 18. Thomas, 1849:142. 19. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
3:16. 1851. 20. Barry, 1851:280. 21. Hovey, 1:75. 1851. col. pi. and fig. 
22. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 23. Elliott, 1854:84. fig. 24. Hooper, 1857: 
31, 107, in. 25. Gregg, 1857:36. fig. 26. Warder, 1867:403. fig. 27. Fitz, 
1872:143, 160, 172. 28. Downing, 1872:10 index, app. 29. Ib., 1881:11 
index, app. 30. Hogg, 1884:67. 31. Wickson, 1889:243. 32. Lyon, Mich. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 33. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 34. Stinson, 
Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:44. 1894. 35. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45: 
320. 1896. 36. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:7. 1896. figs. 37. 
Can. Hort., 20:328. 1897. figs. 38. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui, 130:121. 1901. 
39. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:292. 1901. 40. Budd-Hansen, 1903:73. fig. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 51 

SYNONYMS. Early French Reinette (2, 8, 13, 15, 18, 19, 21, 23, 30, 34). 
EARLY HARVEST (i, 7, 8, 10, n, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 
26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 3, 39, 40). ar/y Harvest (9, 
23). Earfy /wfy Pippin (24). .Earfy /MW*> (23). HARVEST (23). Harvest 
(21). /w/y Early Pippin (15, 21, 30). JULY PIPPIN (9). July Pippin (13, 
15, 18, 19, 21, 23, 30, 34). Larg? Earfy (15, 21, 30). Larg^ Ear/y Harvest 
(15, 21 ). LARGE EARLY HARVEST (3). Large White Juneating (13, 15, 19, 
21, 23, 30). Maralandica (29). Oafo incorrectly (29). Pomme d'Ete of 
Canada (30). Prince's Early Harvest (8, 30). PRINCE'S HARVEST (2, 4, 
5, 6). Prince's Harvest (8, 13, 15, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 30, 34). Prince's 
Yellow Harvest (30). Tart Bough (13, 15, 19, 21, 30). Yellow Harvest 
(13, 15, 1 6, 1 8, 19, 21, 23, 24, 30, 34). Yellow Juneating (23). 

Fruit medium, pale yellow, sometimes with a faint blush, tender, 
sprightly subacid, and very good in quality. It is a desirable variety 
for the home orchard because it is one of the earliest of the sum- 
mer apples, and is excellent for either dessert or culinary uses. 
It is not a desirable commercial variety because there is a compara- 
tively large percentage of undersized or otherwise unmarketable 
fruit, the color is such that it shows bruises very readily and it 
keeps but a short time. The tree is a fairly good grower, mod- 
erately long-lived, comes into bearing rather early, is a biennial or 
almost annual cropper and moderately productive. 

Historical. Early Harvest has been known in cultivation for more than a 
hundred years. Its origin is unknown but it is supposed to have originated 
in America. At one time it was quite extensively cultivated for local market 
in some localities but it is now seldom or never planted except for home use. 

TREE. 

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading or 
roundish, open. Twigs moderately long, curved, rather stout; internodes 
short. Bark dark brown. with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf- 
skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, round, not raised. Buds 
medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit usually medium or below but sometimes rather large, uniform in 
size and shape. Form oblate to nearly round, regular or slightly angular; 
sides slightly unequal. Stem medium in length, moderately thick. Cavity 
nearly acuminate, shallow, rather narrow to moderately broad, russeted and 
with outspreading, broken russet rays. Calyx small to medium, closed ; 
lobes .(long, narrow. Basin shallow, moderately wide, obtuse, slightly 
wrinkled. 



52 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Skin thin, tender, very smooth, clear pale waxen yellow, occasionally with 
deeper yellow on exposed cheek, sometimes slightly blushed. Dots numerous, 
large and small, submerged or russet. 

Calyx tube short, funnel-shape. Stamens medium. 

Core medium size, somewhat abaxile ; cells closed or slightly open; core 
lines clasping. Carpels slightly obovate. Seeds small to rather large, narrow, 
long, plump, acute. 

Flesh white, not firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy, at first briskly sub- 
acid but eventually becoming milder, and more agreeable for dessert. Good 
to very good. 

Season late July and August. 

EARLY JOE. 

REFERENCES, i. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1843 -.52. 2. Mag. Hort., 9 -.469. 
1843. 3. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1846:187. fig. 4. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 12:474. 
1846. 5. Ib., 13:159. 1847. fig. 6. Smith, Horticulturist, i :386. 1847. fig. 
7. Cultivator, 4:310. 1847. fig. 8. Mag. Hort., 14:539. 1848. 9. Cole, 
1849:105. fig. 10. Thomas, 1849:137. fig. n. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
3:19. 1851. 12. Barry, 1851:280. 13. Elliott, 1854:75. fig. 14. Gregg, 
1857:36. 15. Downing, 1857:76. 16. Hooper, 1857:32. 17. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1860:240. 18. Warder, 1867:513. 19. Fitz, 1872:152, 172. 20. 
Leroy, 1873:404. figs. 21. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1877:124. 22. Hogg, 1884: 
68. 23. Wickson, 1889:243. 24. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 
25. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 26. Macoun, Can. Dcpt. Agr. Rpt., 1901: 
96. 27. Waugh, Ft. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:292. 1901. 28. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 

74- fig- 

SYNONYMS. EARLY JOE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 
17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28). JOE PRECOCE (20). 

Fruit medium to small, red striped, excellent in flavor and qual- 
ity for dessert use ; season, August and early September. The 
tree is small to medium in size, slow growing, moderately long- 
lived, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable biennial 
cropper. The fruit hangs pretty well to the tree until it is quite 
ripe. The crop contains a large percentage of undersized or other- 
wise unmarketable fruit. Recommended for the home orchard, but 
not for commercial planting. 

Historical. Originated with Northern Spy and Melon in the orchard of 
Heman Chapin, East Bloomfield, Ontario Co., N. Y. This orchard was 
planted with seedling trees grown from seeds brought from Salisbury, Conn, 
about the year 1800. In October, 1843, Early Joe was exhibited at the fair 
of the New York State Agricultural Society, Rochester, N. Y., by Jonathan 
Buel of East Bloomfield (i). It has been widely disseminated and is still 
listed by nurserymen (25) but it is not cultivated extensively in any locality. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 53 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous, dwarfish with short, moderately stout, crooked 
branches. Form rather flat, spreading. Twigs short, straight, stout, with 
large terminal buds; internodes short. Bark dark brown, lightly streaked 
with scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, slightly 
raised. Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit small to medium, uniform in size and shape. Form oblate conic to 
conic, somewhat ribbed, rather symmetrical. Stem medium to long, rather 
slender to moderately thick. Cavity acute, shallow to medium in depth, rather 
broad, symmetrical, sometimes thinly russeted. Calyx medium size, closed 
or slightly open. Basin small to medium, usually shallow, medium in width 
or rather narrow, somewhat abrupt, smooth or slightly wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, pale greenish-yellow, irregularly and obscurely 
striped and splashed with dull, dark red, in highly colored specimens becom- 
ing deeply blushed on the exposed cheek. Dots russet and greenish or nearly 
white. 

Calyx tube medium in length, rather wide, broadly conical. Stamens median 
or basal. 

Core medium to rather small, axile; cells slightly open or closed; core 
lines clasping. Carpels broadly obcordate to elliptical, decidedly concave. 
Seeds small to medium, rather wide, short, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, fine, crisp, very tender, very juicy, mild subacid, 
very good to best. 

Season August and September. 

EARLY PENNOCK. 

REFERENCES, i. Humrickhouse, Mag. Hort., 12 1472. 1846. fig. 2. Cole, 
1849:104. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:14. 1851. 4. Barry, 1851:332. 
5. Hooper, 1857:33, 106, no. 6. Gregg, 1857:36. 7. Downing, 1857:137. 
8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 9. Warder, 1867:594. fig. 10. Fitz, 1872:145. 
ii. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1875:49. 12. Thomas, 1875:191. 13. Downing, 
1881:11 index, app. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 15. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:74. 

SYNONYMS. August Apple (7). EARLY PENNOCK (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15). Heicke's Summer Queen (13). Harmony (7, ? of the 
south, 9). Indian Queen (7). N. J. Red Streak (7). Shaker's Yellow (7, 
9). Sleeper's Yellow (5). Warren Pennock (5, 7). 

Fruit large, showy, yellow covered with mixed striped red, but often the 
yellow predominates. Flesh yellow, moderately juicy, subacid, coarse, suit- 
able for culinary use but not esteemed for dessert; season August. Tree 
hardy, a biennial cropper and moderately productive. Not recommended 
for planting in New York. 

Historical. Origin unknown. It was first brought to notice in Ohio more 
than fifty years ago (i) where it was widely disseminated from some of the 
nurseries of that state. At one time it was being planted to a limited extent 
in New York but it has been almost wholly discarded. 



54 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

EARLY RIPE. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, 1867:717. 2. Downing, 1869:156. 3. Fitz, 1872: 
151. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 5- Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 6. ill. 
Sta. Bui, 45:320. 1896. 7. Mich. Sta. Bui, 143:200. 1897. 8. Thomas, 
1897:634. 9. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui, 130:121. 1901. 10. Kan. Sta. Bui, 
106:52. 1902. ii. Budd-Hansen, 1903:74. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit of good medium size, yellowish-green, subacid, good for 
culinary use. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing 
young, and yields full crops in alternate years. 

Historical The locality of its origin is unknown but it is supposed to have 
originated in Pennsylvania (2). 

TREE. 

Tree large, vigorous with moderately long, stout branches. Form upright 
spreading, rather dense, top roundish. Twigs long, stout, curved ; internodes 
medium. Bark brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf- 
skin; heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small to medium, oblong, 
slightly raised. Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to above, fairly uniform in size but not in shape. Form 
roundish oblate somewhat inclined to conic, irregular, broadly ribbed. Stem 
often bracted, medium in length or short, thick. Cavity acute or approaching 
acuminate, usually shallow, rather broad, sometimes russeted. Calyx rather 
small, closed. Basin obtuse, usually very shallow, moderately wide, somewhat 
wrinkled. 

Skin light yellowish-green. Dots numerous, small, pale gray or russet. 

Calyx tube rather narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium to rather large, abaxile ; cells closed or partly open ; core 
lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate. Seeds medium size, 
plump, obtuse. 

Flesh white, quite firm, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, briskly sub- 
acid, becoming rather mild subacid when fully ripe, fair to good. 

Season August. 

EARLY STRAWBERRY. 

REFERENCES, i. Manning, 1838:46. 2. Downing, 1845:73. fig. 3. Horti- 
culturist, 1:145- 1846. 4. Mag. Hort., 14:488. 1848. fig. 5. Thomas, 
1849:139. fig. 6. Cole, 1849:101. fig. 7. Barry, 1851:280. 8. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1852. 9. Elliott, 1854:76. 10. Hooper, 1857:31, 106, 109. n. 
Gregg, 1857:36. 12. Horticulturist, 14:425. 1859. 13. Warder, 1867:514. 
fig. 14. Downing, 1869:157. 15. Fitz, 1872:143, 151, 160. 16. Leroy, 1873: 
310. figs. 17. Downing, 1881:12 index, app. 18. Wickson, 1889:243. 19. 
Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bui., 5:78. 1890. 20. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890: 
290. 21. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 22. Budd-Hansen, 1903:75. fig. 



56 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, waxy, entirely red or yellow nearly 
covered with a rich dark red, mottled and irregularly striped and splashed 
with deeper red. Dots minute, grayish. 

Calyx tube short, moderately wide, conical or approaching funnel-shape, 
with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Stamens median. 

Core large, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells usually open, sometimes 
partly closed ; core lines nearly meeting. Carpels broadly roundish to ellip- 
tical, much concave, emarginate. Seeds medium or above, wide, plump, 
obtuse,, dark brown. 

Flesh whitish-yellow often with streaks of red, moderately coarse, crisp, 
moderately tender, juicy, subacid, aromatic, sprightly, very good. 

Season August. 

EGG TOP. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 10:210. 1844. 2. Elliott, 1854:169. 3. 
Hooper, 1857:34. 4. Warder, 1867:717. 5. Downing, 1869:159. 6. Thomas, 
1875 :498. 

SYNONYMS. Early June (3). EGG TOP (i, 2, 4, 5, 6). Eggtop (3). EVE 
APPLE (3). Eve (2, 5). Round Top (2, 5). Sheepnose (2, 5). Wine of 
some (2, 5). 

Fruit similar in shape to Black Gilliflower but not so large, somewhat 
streaked and shaded with red, pleasant flavored but not high in quality; 
good for dessert but not for cooking. Tree large, moderately vigorous and 
a regular and abundant bearer. In season from late fall to midwinter. 

Historical. An old variety of uncertain origin. A few trees of it are 
occasionally found in the oldest orchards but it is now nearly obsolete. 

ELGIN PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 2. Clayton, Ala. Sta. 3ul., 
47:6. 1893- 3- Thomas, 1897:634. 4. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 
248:118. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit of good size and attractive appearance for a yellow apple. It evi- 
dently belongs to the Fall Pippin class but it does not closely resemble that 
variety and is not superior to it. Although it has much merit it does not 
excel other varieties of its season and is not recommended tor planting in 
New York. The tree is a strong grower and productive. 

Historical. Origin Alabama (2, 3). Downing questions" whether it is 
identical with the White Spanish Reinette but it appears to be distinct from 
that variety. 1 Warder describes another variety under the name Elgin 
Pippin which we have not seen. 2 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous, upright; branches long, moderately stout. Form very 
much spreading and somewhat drooping, rather dense. Twigs medium in 

1 Downing, 1869:404. 

2 Warder, 1867 : 7 i 7. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



57 



size, curved, stout; internodes long. Bark brown, tinged with olive-green, 
mottled with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, large, oblong, 
raised. Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large, averages nearly large. Form oblate to 
roundish conic, distinctly ribbed, irregular ; sides often unequal, sometimes 
elliptical, not uniform. Stem medium to very long, slender. Cavity acute 
to acuminate, medium in depth to deep, rather broad to narrow, usually with 
outspreading russet rays, sometimes decidedly compressed, sometimes lipped. 
Calyx medium to large, closed ; lobes often leafy, long, acuminate. Basin 
sometimes oblique, shallow to moderately deep, moderately wide to rather 
narrow, obtuse to rather abrupt, often prominently and irregularly ribbed. 

Skin thin, moderately tender, greenish yellow becoming deep yellow, some- 
times with a faint bronze blush in the sun. Dots scattering, russet, or sub- 
merged and whitish. 

Calyx tube rather large, moderately wide, conical or approaching funnel- 
form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core abaxile, medium to large; cells unsymmetrical, usually wide open; 
core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels irregular, often somewhat 
ovate, much concave, tufted. Seeds often abortive, dark, rather large, long, 
flat, acute to acuminate. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, 
juicy, subacid, good. 

Season September to December. Commercial limit, October. 

ENGLISH PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887 150. 2. Troop, Ind. Sta. 
Bui., 53:123- 1894. 3. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 31:328. 1895. 4. Beach, W. 
N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1896:51. 5. Troop, Ind. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:79. 1899. 
6. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 41 185. 1899. 7. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 
248:118. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. ENGLISH PIPPIN (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Englischer Pepping (i). 
No. 587 (i). Pepping Englischer (i). 

A Russian apple inferior in quality to standard varieties of its season. 
Not recommended for planting in New York. 

i 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large. Form variable, roundish oblate to oblate conic or inclined to 
oblong truncate, ribbed ; sides sometimes unequal. Stem short, usually not 
exserted. Cavity acuminate, rather wide, moderately deep, russeted and 
with outspreading russet. Calyx medium size, closed; lobes usually erect or 
connivent. Basin medium in width to rather narrow, deep, abrupt, irreg- 
ularly furrowed. 

Skin yellow or greenish, sometimes with shade of brownish-red overspread 
with thin white bloom. Dots minute, pale or russet. 

Calyx tube cone-shape or approaching funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core large, somewhat abaxile; cells partly open; core lines meeting. 
Seeds medium size, obtuse. 



58 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately juicy, fine-grained, sprightly sub- 
acid, fair to good in quality. 
Season late September to November. 

ENGLISH SWEET. 

Ramsdell or Ramsdell Sweet has been described by some leading 
pomologists under the name English Sweet. Ramsdell Sweet is the 
name accepted for this variety in the catalogue of the American 
Pomological Society, and it is generally known among nursery- 
men and fruit growers as Ramsdell or Ramsdell Sweet. For a 
description of this variety, the reader is referred to Ramsdell 
Sweet, page 175. 

FALL GREENING. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, 1867:718. 2. Downing, 1869:167. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

This variety originated at Claverack, Columbia county, N. Y. (i). Accord- 
ing to Downing the tree is moderately vigorous and very productive. The 
fruit medium size, greenish-yellow, subacid, good to very good. In season 
from December to February. 

Downing also mentions another Fall Greening of similar color, sprightly 
subacid, in season from September to November ; tree a poor grower. 

We have not seen either of these varieties. 

FALL HARVEY. 

REFERENCES, i. Manning, 1838 :48. 2. Downing, 1845 :84. 3. Cole, 1849 : 
117. 4. Hovcy, Mag. Hort., 15:537. 1849. fig. 5. Thomas, 1849:155. 6. 
Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:47. 1851. col. pi. No. 74 and fig. 7. Barry, 
1851:284. 8. Elliott, 1854:132. 9. Gregg, 1857:42. 10. Warder, 1867:482. 
ii. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869. 12. Hoskins, Amer. Gard., 15:272. 1894. 
13. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:296. 1901. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:79. 

SYNONYMS. FALL HARVEY (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 14). Fall 
Harvey (13). Fall Pippin erroneously (13). HARVEY (13). 

Fruit large, yellow, showy, similar in general appearance to Fall Pippin 
but less desirable where that variety can be grown. According to Hos- 
kins (12) it is hardy in Northern Vermont and has there proved an excel- 
lent annual bearer. He considers it valuable for all Northern New England 
and Canada. Cole (3) observes that the fruit is "fine and fair but not 
first-rate, and rather apt to fall, or to rot on the tree." Elliott (8) says that 
it is not productive but Hovey (4) and Cole (3) call it a vigorous grower 
and a good bearer. In the nursery it may be easily known from Fall Pippin 
by its yellow and more slender shoots (4). 

FRUIT (2, 3, 4, 10). 

Fruit large. Form roundish, slightly oblate, regular or somewhat ribbed 
at the base; crown large, slightly oblique. Stem short, stout or rather slen- 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 59 

der. Cavity rather shallow to deep, wide, uneven. Calyx small to large, 
closed. Basin narrow to rather wide, shallow, wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, pale yellow to deep yellow, sometimes blushed. Dots small, 
gray or russet. 

Core large, abaxile. Seeds medium size, acute, short, plump. 

Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, a little coarse, crisp, juicy, rich sub- 
acid, with high flavor, very good quality. 

Season October to December. 

FALL JENNETING. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 12:474. 1846. 2. Hovey, Ib., 13:161. 1847. 
fig. 3. Elliott, 1854:132. 4. Downing, 1857:213. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1862. 6. Warder, 1867:533. fig. 7. Thomas, 1875:498. 8. Lyon, Mich. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. 10. Budd-Han- 
sen, 1903 :8o. 

SYNONYMS. FALL GENETING (6). Fall Gennetting (3). FALL JENET- 
TING (8). FALL JENNETING (i, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10). FALL JENNETTING (3, 9). 

Fruit often large but variable in size, a considerable portion of 
the crop being undersized or otherwise unmarketable. It is of a 
green or yellowish color, shows bruises quite readily, does not 
stand shipping very well and is not a good keeper. It is very 
good for culinary uses and acceptable for dessert; being of light 
weight, it is less desirable than some other varieties for evap- 
orating. The tree is an exceedingly strong grower and long-lived, 
eventually becoming very large, tall and spreading. It is hardy, 
healthy, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, 
yielding moderately good to heavy crops biennially or nearly annu- 
ally. There is apt to be considerable loss from premature dropping 
of the fruit. Not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical It appears that this variety was brought into Western New 
York from Athens on the Hudson, about 1827 (i, 2). Elliott (3) in 1854 
called it an old Connecticut variety. It has been grown more largely in 
portions of the Hudson valley and of Western New York than it has in 
other sections of the state but it has not been cultivated extensively in any 
locality. It is still listed by nurserymen (9) but in New York it is now 
seldom planted and is gradually going out of cultivation. 

TREE. 

Tree large, vigorous or very vigorous. Form spreading or somewhat 
roundish. Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout ; internodes 
medium. Bark dark brown lightly streaked with gray scarf-skin; slightly 
pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, slightly raised. Buds 
medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 



60 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form roundish oblate inclined to conic, 
slightly ribbed at the base; sides unequal. Stem medium to short, moder- 
ately thick. Cavity acuminate, deep, wide, rather symmetrical, with out- 
spreading rays of russet. Calyx below medium to rather large, closed or 
somewhat open; lobes long, narrow, acute, reflexed. Basin rather small, 
shallow, narrow, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale greenish-yellow with faint brownish-red or 
bronze blush. Dots moderately numerous, rather inconspicuous, sometimes 
russet but more often whitish and submerged. Prevailing effect yellow. 

Calyx tube rather long, narrow funnel-shape. Stamens median to basal. 

Core small, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, closed; core 
lines clasping. Carpels somewhat roundish to broadly ovate. Seeds light 
brown, rather small, moderately narrow, plump, acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, 
sprightly, subacid, good. 

Season late September to December. 

FALL ORANGE. 

REFERENCES, i. Thomas, Cultivator, 5:246. 1848. 2. Ib., 1849:155. 3. El- 
liott, 1854:149. 4. Gregg, 1857:42. 5. Downing, 1857:143. 6. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1862. 7. Warder, 1867718. 8. Downing, 1869:168. 9. Ib., 1872:10 
index, app. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. n. Burrill and McCluer, ///. 
Sta. Bui., 45:321. 1896. 12. Budd-Hansen, 1903:80. fig. 

SYNONYMS. FALL ORANGE (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12). Fall Orange 
(3). Hogpen (8). H olden (5, 8). H olden Pippin (8). Hoypen (5). 
Jones 1 Pippin (5, 8). Long Island (8). Long Island Graft (9). N. Y. 
BeMower (9). ORANGE (3). Orange (8). Red Check (8). Speckled (9). 
Westbrook (9). White Graft of Wis. (8). White Newell (9). 

When well grown Fall Orange is of good size, yellow or green- 
ish, with occasionally a shade of red, agreeable subacid, and very 
good in quality for culinary use. When it becomes fully ripe so 
that its acidity is subdued it is an excellent dessert apple. The 
tree is thrifty, hardy, long-lived and a regular biennial cropper, 
often yielding pretty heavy crops. It is not generally regarded as 
a good commercial variety because its color is yellow, the fruit is 
rather tender and a poor shipper, and with heavy crops there is 
apt to be a comparatively large percentage of fruit that is under- 
sized or otherwise unmarketable. It is in season from late Sep- 
tember to early winter ; sometimes a portion of the fruit is kept 
till spring. 






FALL ORANGE 



62 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

SYNONYMS. American Fall (7). AUTUMN PIPPIN (4). Cathead incor- 
rectly (24). Cat Head (25). Cobbett's Fall (7). Cobbett's Fall Pippin (27). 
Concombre Ancien (7). De Rateau (7). D' Espange (7). Episcopal (24, 
25). FALL PIPPIN (i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33). Fall Pippin (4). Golden 
Pippin (22, 25, erroneously 2, 24). Holland Pippin (2, 5, err. 15). Phila- 
delphia Pippin (20, 24, 25). Pound Pippin (24, 25). Pound Royal (25, of 
some 24). Prince's large Pippin of N. Y. (2). Reinnete Blanche d'Espagne 
(7). Summer Pippin (2). Van Duym's Pippin (2). Van Dyn's Pippin (5). 
Pippin (24, 25). 



Fruit large, and, when fully ripe, of an attractive yellow color. 
The flesh is tender, rich and very good in quality, being excellent 
for dessert but especially desirable for culinary uses. The tree is 
a strong grower, hardy and very long-lived, eventually becoming 
large or very large. Since the foliage and fruit are both quite sub- 
ject to the attacks of the apple-scab fungus, thorough preventive 
treatment for this disease is necessary in order to grow Fall Pippin 
successfully for commercial purposes. 1 The crop does not ripen 
uniformly, some of the fruit being ripe, well colored and ready 
for immediate use in September, while at the same time a consider- 
able portion of the crop is still hard and green. When grown 
under favorable conditions and properly handled some portion of 
the crop may keep till midwinter or later, but even carefully 
selected fruit cannot be relied upon to hold in common storage till 
December ist without considerable loss. In cold storage it may 
be held till January or February (33). Fall Pippin is generally 
in pretty good demand in local markets, and in portions of Eastern 
New York it is being used to a limited extent for the early export 
trade. It is one of the most desirable varieties of its season for 
the home orchard. 

HOLLAND PIPPIN AND FALL PIPPIN COMPARED. 
From the time of Coxe (2), Fall Pippin has by some been called 
Holland Pippin. The Holland Pippin indeed much resembles Fall 
Pippin, but it differs from it in being in season from mid-August 

1 Directions for treating apple scab are given in the reports of this Station for 1899:399-418, and 
for 1903:321-386. 







\ 





FALL PIPPIN (Reduced Size) 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 63 

to midautumn and in being more roundish and less flattened, and 
in having a short, thick stem which is not exserted. 

Historical. Origin unknown. Downing (10) held the opinion that Fall 
Pippin is an American variety and probably a seedling raised in this country 
from either the White Spanish Reinette or the Holland Pippin, both of 
which it resembles. It has been widely disseminated from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific in most of the important apple-growing regions of the continent 
and is still listed by many nurserymen (30). We are unable to determine 
how long this variety has been in cultivation. In some New York orchards 
trees of it are found which are more than one hundred years old. It is 
quite generally grown for home use throughout New York, and also to a 
limited extent for market, but it is now seldom planted. 

TREE. 

Tree large, moderately vigorous to very vigorous, with large, long branches 
which eventually become somewhat drooping. Form spreading or roundish 
and rather dense. Twigs moderately long, curved, stout and with large 
terminal buds ; internodes medium. Bark dark reddish-brown, somewhat 
tinged with green, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; much pubescent. 
L.enticels scattering, medium size, oval, raised. Buds medium size, broad, 
plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large or very large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form round- 
ish to roundish oblate, sometimes a little inclined to conic, or sometimes 
slightly oblong and truncate, often obscurely ribbed. Stem medium to rather 
long, thick. Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, moderately deep, moder- 
ately narrow to rather wide, symmetrical or sometimes compressed, russeted. 
Calyx medium to large, open; lobes separated at the base, moderately long, 
rather narrow, acuminate. Basin medium in depth to deep, moderately nar- 
row to rather wide, abrupt, wavy, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin thin, smooth, at first greenish-yellow but becoming clear yellow, 
sometimes faintly blushed. Dots numerous, small, pale and submerged or 
russet. 

Calyx tube large, wide, long, conical to nearly funnel-form. Stamens 
median to basal. 

Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, closed or partly 
open; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish, emarginate, tufted. 
Seeds rather dark brown, medium size, somewhat acute, plump. 

Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, moderately firm, rather fine, tender, 
very juicy, agreeable subacid, somewhat aromatic, very good. 

Season late September to January. 

FALL WINE. 

REFERENCES. i. Mag. Hort., 14:114. 1848. 2. Cole, 1849:108. 3. Ib., 
1849:109. 4. Elliott, 1854:77. 5. Horticulturist, 10:87. 1855. 6. Hooper, 



64 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



6. 7- Downing, 1857:78. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:50, 240. 9. 
Warder, 1867:434. fig. 10. Downing, 1869:170. fig. n. Fitz, 1872:153. 
12. Thomas, 1875:200. 13. Barry, 1883:338. 14. Wickson, 1889:244. 15. 
Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. 
17. Budd-Hansen, 1903:81. fig. 

SYNONYMS. FALL WINE (i, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17). 
House (10). Hower (10). Musk Spice (10). OWo Wine (7, 10, 13). 
Sharpe's Spice (7, 10). Sw^f W^W (7, 10). C/wck Saw'.y Bwf (7, 10). 
WINE (2). ^W of Cole (4). 

Fruit medium or above, bright red, attractive; in season from September 
to early winter. The tree is of medium size with rather drooping branches, 
moderately vigorous, healthy, moderately long-lived and yields good to heavy 
crops biennially. The fruit is apt to drop to a considerable extent before it 
is fully mature. It is very tender, not a good shipper and not a desirable 
commercial variety. It is not much valued for culinary use but it is generally 
esteemed wherever it is known on account of its excellent dessert qualities. 
It is not recommended for commercial planting in New York. 

Fall Wine should not be confused with Twenty Ounce which in some sec- 
tions of New York is known under the name of Wine apple. 1 It is also quite 
distinct from the true Wine which is a large, showy apple that ripens in 
midautumn and often keeps well through the winter. 2 

Historical. The origin of this variety is unknown. Elliott (4) says that 
it was introduced into the West from the garden of Judge Jonathan Buel, 
Albany, N. Y., about 1832. It has been a favorite variety in many parts of 
the Middle West but has not been extensively cultivated in New York and 
is now seldom or never planted in this state. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above. Form roundish oblate, somewhat ribbed ; sides 
often unequal. Stem medium to rather long. Cavity obtuse to somewhat 
acute, wide, shallow to moderately deep, sometimes lipped. Calyx small to 
medium, closed or partly open ; lobes long, narrow, reflexed. Basin deep, 
wide or medium in width, rather abrupt, furrowed. 

Skin clear yellow washed with red which on the exposed cheek deepens to 
a beautiful bright blush, indistinctly striped with carmine. Dots yellowish- 
brown or russet. 

Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly open ; core lines 
clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, tufted. Seeds medium size, rather wide, 
acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, tender, juicy, aromatic, very mild subacid or 
almost sweet; very good for dessert but only fair for culinary use. 

Season September to January. 



description of Twenty Ounce, page 227. 

description of Wine apple in Volume I of this Report, 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 65 



FAMEUSE. 

REFERENCES. I. Forsyth, 1824:101. 2. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826: 
476. 3. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 757. 4. Kenrick, 1832:33. 5. 
Floy-Lindley, 1833:16. 6. Manning, 1838:55. 7. Ib., Mag. Hort., 7:45. 
1841. 8. Downing, 1845:91. 9. Horticulturist, 1:257. 1846. 10. Thomas, 
Cultivator, 5:306. 1848. fig. n. Ib., 1849 :i47. fig. 12. Cole, 1849 :n8. 
13. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:36. 1851. col. pi. No. 48. 14. Hovey, 
2:7. 1851. col. pi. and fig. 15. Mag. Hort., 17:15- 1851. fig- 16. Good- 
rich, Ib., 17:122. 1851. 17. /fw. Porn. Soc. Cat., 1852. 18. Elliott, 1854:77 
19. Gregg, 1857:42. 20. Hooper, 1857:36, 107, no. 21. Lothrop, Mag. Hort., 
32 :363. 1866. 22. Warder, 1867 :595. 23. Todd, 1871 :25. fig. 24. Fitz, 
1872:145. 25. Leroy, 1873:483. 26. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:12. 
27. Jack, Ib., 6:61. 1880. 28. Ib., 8:140. 1881-82. 29. Hogg, 1884:58. 30. 
Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 47 1249. 1888. 31. Wickson, 1889 :245. 32. Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 14:88, 89. 1889. 33. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890: 
290. 34. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 15:19, 26. 1890. 35. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892 :239. 36. Ib., 1892 :249. 37. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892 157. 38. 
Amer. Card., 14:425. 1893. 39. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:321. 
1896. 40. Can. Hort., 20:304. 1897. figs. 41. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. 
An. Rpt., 5:12. 1898. figs. 42. Can. Hort., 22:226. 1899. 43. Craig, 
Amer. Card., 20 :27. 1899. 44. Vt. Sta. Bui., 83 :83~92. 1900. 45. Can. 
Hort., 24:236. 1901. 46. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:293. 1901. 47. 
Budd-Hansen, 1903:82. fig. 48. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:120. 
1904. 49. Scriber, Can. Hort., 28:277. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Chimney Apple (14, 16, 22, 25). DE NEIGE (3, 25, 29). 
De Neige (14, 15). du Marechal (25). FAMEUSE (i, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, n, 12, 

13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 1 8, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 
37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48). Fameuse (5, 8, 25, 29, 36). 
La Belle Fameuse (43). La Fameuse (29). Neige (2). Neige -Framboise 
de Gielen (25). POMME DE NEIGE (5, 8). Pomme de Neige (4, 9, 10, n, 13, 

14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 22, 23, 41). Pomme de Niege (i, 7, 12). Pomme Fameuse 
(3). Pomme de Fameuse (14, 15). Sanguineus (8, 14, 15, 18, 23, 25). 
SNOW (36). Snow (2, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 31, 33, 41, 
43, 46, 47, 48). 

Fameuse is one of the most desirable dessert apples of its season. 
It is very beautiful in appearance and the flesh is white, tender and 
excellent in flavor and quality for dessert. It is decidedly inferior 
to other varieties of its season for culinary purposes. It is well 
known in market, and during its season, which extends from 
October to the holidays, it usually sells above average market 
prices, particularly if well colored and free from scab or other im- 
perfections. The fruit is often badly injured by the apple-scab 
fungus, but this may readily be controlled by proper preventive 
treatment. 1 It keeps well in cold storage. Some report that if free 

IN. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:399-418. 1899. Ib., 28:321-386. 1903. 



66 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

from scab it may be held as long as Rhode Island Greening (48). 
In the Champlain district and in portions of the St. Lawrence val- 
ley it is one of the most important varieties found in commercial 
orchards. Generally speaking, it grows to a higher degree of per- 
fection in those districts than it does in other apple-growing regions 
of New York. In the more southern sections of the state it appears 
to succeed best in the high elevations and on light well drained 
soil with clay subsoil. The tree is of medium size, a moderate 
grower, hardy, healthy, rather long-lived, and a reliable cropper 
yielding good to heavy crops biennially or sometimes nearly annu- 
ally. The fruit hangs pretty well to the tree. Fruit of marketable 
grades is fairly uniform in size, but there is a considerable amount 
of it that is too small for market. In those portions of New York 
south of Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence valley the fruit 
does not usually develop its best color, and in some seasons, and 
particularly in unfavorable localities, it is so poorly colored as to 
be quite unsatisfactory. In such locations it is better for the fruit 
grower to plant Mclntosh instead of Fameuse if he desires to 
grow a variety of the Fameuse group. 

Historical. Waugh (44) gives the following historical account of the 
Fameuse. " The history of Fameuse is obscure, probably beyond clearing 
up satisfactorily, but extremely interesting as far as we know or can guess 
at it. The turning point of speculation for years has been as to whether 
the variety is of American or European origin. One of the most interesting 
contributions to this discussion was made by Mr. Chauncey Goodrich, (16) 
of Burlington, Vt, in 1851. We quote the following extracts from this 
article : 

' It is here one of the most common as well as oldest varieties ; hundreds 
of barrels are sold in a single season in this town alone. ... All Ameri- 
can writers call it a Canadian apple; of this I think there is no proof. One 
hundred and twenty years since, the French planted this variety on the 
eastern shore of Lake Champlain, opposite Fort Frederick on Crown Point, 
at a place called ' Chimney Point ' more than fifty years before any other 
permanent settlement. From these old trees cions have been scattered 
through Vermont, and called the Chimney apple. A very intelligent and 
highly educated French seigneur residing on an old seignory eighty miles 
below Quebec informed me that this was one of the first varieties of apples 
planted on the place; that the trees were very old and were brought from 
France. The early French settlers planted the same variety at Ogdensburg, 
Detroit, and other places on Lakes Erie and Ontario, where it is still known 
as the ' Snow Apple ' ; also at Kaskaskia, Illinois, more than one hundred 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 67 

and fifty years since, where the old trees are still productive, and apples 
from them are sent to St. Louis, &c. The same apple may be found in 
France, and in London of the growth of France.' 

" It is hardly to be supposed that a seedling apple was produced in Canada 
at so early a day as to be distributed more than a thousand miles in every 
settlement made by the French, one hundred and fifty years since. 

" Another fact tending to suggest a European origin for Fameuse is that 
it is usually found in the old gardens, in company with well known European 
varieties of pears, apples and other fruits. 

" On the other hand the testimony of European pomologisls is mostly against 
the theory of a European origin. The variety is known in the larger collec- 
tions of all the countries of Europe, just as Ben Davis is, and has been known 
there for many years. But most European authors unhesitatingly assign a 
Canadian origin to the variety ; and the variety seems too little known, too 
little appreciated, and too little at home with European surroundings for us 
to believe it originated there. Those who call it a European apple usually 
assign its nativity to France; but Leroy (25) the greatest of all French, and 
perhaps of all European authorities, did not know the variety. He says that 
Le Lectier cultivated the Pomme de Neige (synonym of Fameuse) at Or- 
leans (France) before 1628; but Leroy did not know whether or not this 
was the same Pomme de Neige grown in Canada. In fact he says, ' I have 
never, up to the present time, met this apple Pomme de Neige on our soil. 
In place of it they have always sent me Calvill de Neige, ripening from Janu- 
ary to March.' Most of the so-called Snow apples of Europe, in fact, are 
white skinned and totally different from the Snow, or Fameuse, of America. 

" It is agreed that, whether the Fameuse came from Europe or not, it was 
distributed by the earliest of the French missionaries and planted by the first 
settlers. Quebec was founded shortly before 1600 and Montreal in 1641. The 
seigniory du Cote de Beaupre, said to be the oldest seignory in Quebec, was 
granted in 1636 and promptly colonized. Thus we have almost a hundred 
years of French settlement and missionary activity prior to 1700, the approxi- 
mate date at which, according to Mr. Goodrich, the Fameuse was brought 
to Vermont. This seems to allow ample time for a Canadian origin for 
the variety and for its wide distribution in Quebec, Ontario and the Northern 
states. 

" The early distribution of apples, either from Europe to Canada, or from 
place to place on this continent, was accomplished chiefly, almost exclusively, 
by seeds. Some of the missionaries knew the art of grafting, but there was 
small encouragement to practice it. From these considerations, and others 
which cannot be fully argued here, the. writer is firmly convinced that the 
Fameuse originated in Canada from seed brought from France." 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous, with long, moderately stout branches. Form upright spread- 
ing or roundish, rather dense. Twigs medium size, curved, stout ; internodes 
short. Bark dark brown tinged with red, lightly coated with scarf-skin; 
pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, round or somewhat oval, slightly raised. 
Buds medium size, flat, obtuse, free, pubescent. 



68 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit hardly averages medium but sometimes is above medium size. Form 
roundish inclined to conic, sometimes a little oblate, regular, uniform, sym- 
metrical. Stem medium to short but sometimes long, rather slender. Cavity 
acute to somewhat acuminate, moderately deep to deep, rather wide, often 
gently furrowed, sometimes partly russeted but generally smooth and red 
or greenish. Calyx rather small, usually closed. Basin medium in width and 
depth, rather small, somewhat abrupt, obscurely furrowed or wrinkled, often 
having mammiform protuberances. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, light bright red deepening to almost purplish 
black in highly colored specimens with a somewhat striped appearance 
toward the apex. In less highly colored specimens the striped effect is more 
noticeable. Dots few, scattering, light. 

Calyx 1 tube narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median or somewhat basal. 

Core medium to rather small, axile ; cells closed ; core lines clasping. 
Carpels symmetrical, roundish or inclined to elliptical, somewhat emargi- 
nate, mucronate. Seeds dark, long, rather narrow, acute to acuminate. 

Flesh white, sometimes streaked or stained with red, very tender, juicy, 
subacid becoming very mild subacid or sweetish, aromatic, very good for 
dessert. 

Season October to midwinter. 

STRIPED FAMEUSE. A variety has sometimes been propagated 
and disseminated under the name Fameuse which is recognized as 
Striped Fameuse. The tree is a thriftier grower in the nursery 
than the true Fameuse, but the fruit is less desirable, being inferior 
in color but similar in all other respects to Fameuse. It is mottled 
or thinly washed with bright red over a pale yellow background, 
striped and splashed with carmine. 

OTHER VARIETIES OF THE FAMEUSE GROUP. 
Waugh (44) remarks that one of the striking things about the 
Fameuse type is that it has the strong tendency to reproduce itsel'f 
from seed. This has been taken advantage of in the last fifty years, 
and apples of the Fameuse type have been grown from seed by 
the hundred and planted in the orchard. This practice has pre- 
vailed largely in Quebec in neighborhoods where nurseries were 
scarce and grafted nursery trees expensive or unknown. He. con- 
cludes, therefore, that the modern Fameuse apples are most cer- 
tainly not all from the same original seed, the conspicuous varia- 
tions among them being thus accounted for at least in part. He 
further observes that seedlings of the Fameuse often show so much 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 69 

departure from the common characters of Fameuse as to be read- 
ily recognized as something different. Such seedlings are gener- 
ally accepted as new varieties, and in cases where they show 
conspicuous merit they are separately propagated by grafting, and 
eventually receive special names of their own. He then lists sev- 
eral named varieties of the Fameuse group, including Bloom, 
Brilliant, Canada Baldwin, Fameuse Green, Fameuse Noire, 
Fameuse Sucre, La Victoire, Louise, Mclntosh, Hilaire and 
Shiawassee. The more important of these are described under 
their respective names in this volume. 

FANNY. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869:173. fig. 2. Thomas, 1875:499. 3. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877:8. 4. Barry, 1883:333. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887: 
93. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :239. 7. Rural N. Y., 55 -.642, 706, 707. 1896. 
fig. 8. Ib., 56:292. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:83. fig. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This is an attractive bright red fruit of good dessert quality. 
It begins to ripen about the first of September, and continues in 
season till late fall. The tree is quite vigorous, comes into bearing 
moderately early and is a reliable annual cropper. Some regard 
it as desirable for commercial planting (7, 8), but it has not proved 
so at this Station because ,it is somewhat deficient in size. On 
account of its beauty and excellent dessert quality it is worthy of 
being classed among the varieties desirable for the home orchard. 

Historical. Originated with Dr. John K. Eshelman, Lancaster Co., Pa. (7). 
It has been as yet but little disseminated in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, stout branches. Form flat, 
spreading, open. Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes long. 
Bark brown tingled with olive-green, heavily streaked with scarf-skin ; much 
pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised. Buds 
medium size, plump, obtuse, free, heavily pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to below medium size, pretty uniform in size and 
shape. Form roundish, slightly oblate varying to somewhat oblong or ovate, 



70 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

regular or slightly ribbed. Stem short to medium, slender. Cavity acute to 
nearly obtuse, medium in width and depth, sometimes russeted. Calyx small 
to medium, closed or partly open; lobes rather short, narrow, acute. Basin 
shallow to. medium in depth, moderately wide, rather abrupt, usually fur- 
rowed. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, clear yellow mostly overlaid with bright red 
indistinctly striped with carmine. Dots small, yellowish. 

Calyx tube rather wide, slightly funnel-form to conical with pistil point 
projecting into the base. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core below medium, somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping. 
Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical, slightly emarginate. Seeds medium to 
large, moderately wide, flat, plump, acute. 

Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, fine, very ten- 
der, juicy, mild subacid, good to very good. 

Season September to November or later. 

FISHKILL. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869:176. 2. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:222. 
1892. 3. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:294. 1901. 
SYNONYMS. FISHKILL (2,3). FISHKILL BEAUTY (i). Fishkill Beauty (2). 

Fruit large, rather attractive in appearance, but not good enough 
in quality to displace standard sorts of its season either for culinary 
or dessert uses. Downing remarks that it is apt to decay on the 
tree (i), but this has not proved true in our experience with the 
variety. The tree comes into bearing rather early and is almost 
an annual bearer, yielding fair to good crops of uniformly large 
fruit. Should it possess superior hardiness it may be worthy of 
trial in those regions where this character is a prime requisite. 

Historical. Origin Fishkill, N. Y. 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous with long, slender, curved branches ; laterals willowy, long, 
slender. Form upright spreading or roundish, rather dense. Twigs short to 
medium, straight, moderately slender, rather geniculate ; internodes medium 
to long. Bark brown tinged with clear reddish brown, mottled with scarf- 
skin ; slightly pubescent. Lenticds numerous, small or below medium, gen- 
erally elongated and narrow, usually not raised. Buds small to above me- 
dium, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, usually free or nearly so. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large to large, uniform in size and shape. Form nearly round 
varying to somewhat oblate or oblate conic, regular, obscurely ribbed. Stem 





FISHKILL 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 71 

medium to long, thick to slender. Cavity varying from somewhat obtuse to 
slightly acuminate, moderately deep to deep, rather broad, usually symmetri- 
cal, sometimes lipped, sometimes lightly russeted. Calyx rather small, closed 
or slightly open. Basin shallow, usually moderately wide, obtuse, angularly 
furrowed and wrinkled, with some tendency to develop mammiform pro- 
tuberances. 

Skin a little rough, thick, tough, dull yellow washed with dull or brownish- 
red, in highly colored specimens deepening to a bright red blush, mottled, 
striped and splashed with deep carmine, often overspread with thin whitish 
bloom. Dots numerous, conspicuous, medium size, russet. Prevailing effect 
attractive although rather dull red. 

Calyx tube rather long, wide, varying from elongated conical to funnel- 
shape. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core below medium to rather large, abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical, 
open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to broadly obcordate, somewhat 
emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds light brown, below medium to rather 
large, narrow, rather long, plump, varying from obtuse to acuminate. 

Flesh whitish or. tinged with yellow, firm, coarse, moderately crisp, moder- 
ately tender, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good in flavor and quality. 

Season November to February. 

FORD. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:144. 2. Warder, 1867:719. 3. Thomas, 
1875 :499. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

The fruit of Ford is described as large, roundish, yellow ; flesh solid, rather 
acid but of high flavor and good quality. Season October to January (i, 3). 
We do not know this variety and so far as we can discover it is no longer 
propagated. According to Downing it originated in Canaan, Columbia county, 
N. Y. (i). ' 

FRANCHOT* 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869:182. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

According to Downing this variety originated in Otsego county, N. Y. The 
tree is productive, the fruit medium size, yellow, shaded and splashed with 
red; flesh pleasant, aromatic, good. Season October to January (i). So far 
as we can learn it is not now being propagated. 

FULLERTON SWEET. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869:185. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

A variety of unknown origin which has been fruited in Orange county (i). 
The fruit much resembles Autumn Bough. It is below medium, pale yellow ; 
flesh tender, sweet, very good; season October and November. We do not 
know this variety and so far as we can learn it is not being propagated. 



72 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

GARDEN ROYAL. 

REFERENCES, i. Manning, Mag. Hort., 13:438. 1847. 2. Hovey, Ib., 14: 
18. 1848. fig. 3. Thomas, Cultivator, 5:212. 1848. 4. Cole, 1849:106. fig. 
5. Thomas, 1849:139. fig. 6. Barry, 1851:284. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 
8. Elliott, 1854:81. 9. Mag. Hort., 21:63. i85S- 10- Downing, 1857:79. n. 
Warder, 1867:719. 12. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 13. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:239. 14. Rural N. Y., 60:247. 1901. 15. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:88. fig. 16. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:44. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Garden Royal is not a good variety for commercial planting be- 
cause the fruit is too small and its season early and short, but by 
many it is considered one of the very best dessert apples of late 
summer and early autumn. The fruit is of regular form, very 
handsome deep yellow striped with orange-red and dark crimson. 
The flesh is very tender, aromatic and with a delicate, pleasant 
acid flavor; season, August and September. The tree when full 
grown is of medium size, moderately vigorous, with roundish head. 
It appears to be hardy, healthy and long-lived, comes into bearing 
young and is a reliable biennial cropper. 

Historical. Origin Sudbury, Mass. (2). It is occasionally found in this 
state in home orchards. It is now little propagated by nurserymen and sel- 
dom planted. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or below. Form round, slightly oblate, often a little inclined 
to conic, regular or obscurely ribbed. Stem short to medium, straight, rather 
slender. Cavity acute sometimes approaching acuminate, rather deep and 
broad, slightly furrowed, often faintly russeted. Calyx small to above me- 
dium, open or partly closed ; lobes often separated at base, rather short, 
acute. Basin moderately shallow, rather wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, 
slightly wrinkled. 

Skin thin, greenish-yellow, sometimes entirely overspread with red, irregu- 
larly striped and splashed with carmine. Dots numerous, rather conspicuous, 
medium or above, often irregular, russet or yellowish. 

Calyx tube medium size, funnel-shape. Stamens median to nearly marginal. 

Core small, axile ; cells closed or slightly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels 
small, elliptical, emarginate. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, fine, tender, juicy, agreeable mild subacid, aro- 
matic, very good. 

Season late August and September. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 73 



GARDNER SWEET PEARMAIN. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869:188. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

A Long Island variety, the fruit of which, according to Downing (i), is 
medium in size, nearly covered with red; flesh whitish, sweet, good; season 
September. This variety is unknown to us ; so far as we have been able to 
learn it is no longer propagated. 

GENESEE FLOWER. 

REFERENCE, i. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 
SYNONYMS. Demary. FLOWER' (OF GENESEE) (i). Flower of Genesee. 
Hawkins Pippin. Pride of Genesee. 

Fruit large, remarkably uniform in size and shape, with very 
few culls. In color and general appearance it resembles Pumpkin 
Sweet, commonly called Pound Sweet. It is not an apple of high 
dessert quality, but is very good for culinary uses, having a pleas- 
ant mild subacid flavor. It does not always sell well because the 
color is green and the variety is not generally well known. With 
some growers the tree is not a satisfactory cropper, but others 
find it a regular and abundant bearer, yielding good to heavy crops 
almost annually, and regard the variety as desirable for commercial 
planting. 

Historical. This variety appears to be known by the name Genesee Flower 
more than by any other, but Mr. Nelson Bogue of Batavia informs us that it 
is also known locally under the various names Flower of Genesee, Pride of 
Genesee, Hawkins Pippin, and Demary. He states that the original tree, now 
about sixty years old, is still standing on the old Demary farm, in the town 
of Alexander, Genesee county, N. Y. The cultivation of this variety appears 
to be confined principally to the counties of Genesee, Wyoming and Orleans, 
and it does not appear to be increasing. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large. Form roundish, somewhat oblate. Stem short, rather slender. 
Cavity broad, moderately deep, russeted. Calyx medium size, partly open. 
Basin shallow,, irregular, often distinctly ridged. 

Skin light green mingled with light yellow. Dots numerous, pale, with a 
few that are large and russet. 

Flesh nearly white, mild subacid, good for culinary use but not much 
esteemed for dessert. 

Season late September to November. 



74 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

GIDEON. 

REFERENCES, i. Gideon, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:26. 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1886:233. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:6. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 
239. 5. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:580. 1894. 6. Woolverton, Out. Fr. 
Stas. An. Rpt., 4 :2. 1897. figs. 7. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui., 61 :30. 1897. 
figs. 8. Am. Gcrd., 22:132. 1901. figs. 9. Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:83. 1902. 
10. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:51. 1902. fig. n. Budd-Hansen, 1903:88. 
fig. 12. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:42. 1903. 13. Farrand, 
Mich. Sta. Bui., 205 :44. 1903. 14. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248 : 
121. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. GIDEON (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14). Gideon 
White (14). 

Fruit decidedly attractive in general appearance being of good size, clear 
waxen yellow often with a bright pinkish blush but it is deficient in quality 
and apt to be defective in that the flesh becomes withered and discolored 
about the core as soon as the fruit reaches maturity. It is not a good variety 
for holding in cold storage as it stands heat poorly before going into storage 
and when in storage goes down quickly. In ordinary storage it is inferior 
to Hubbardston in keeping qualities, being in season from October to De- 
cember or possibly later (14). The tree is of an exceptionally fine habit in 
the nursery, and in the orchard it is an upright vigorous grower, very hardy 
and healthy, comes into bearing young and yields full crops biennially or 
nearly annually. It is not recommended for planting in New York except 
it be as a stock upon which to topwork less hardy varieties. 

Historical. Originated by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from crab 
seed. The following is his statement of its parentage. " The Gideon is a 
seedling of the small crab; the seed came from Boston, where the tree was 
surrounded in the orchard by Blue Pearmain. I consider the tree r, cross 
between those two. The tree resembles Blue Pearmain ; seed was taken from 
the crab" (i). 

TREE. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous or moderately vigorous. Form at first 
upright but becoming spreading and open. Twigs short, curved, stout with 
large terminal buds; internodes medium. Bark brown mingled with some 
olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lcnticcls 
quite numerous, medium to small, oblong, slightly raised. Buds prominent, 
large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit usually above medium to large, .uniform in size. Form roundish 
conical or somewhat ovate, sometimes inclined to oblong, angular. Stem 
long to below medium, slender. Cavity acute or somewhat acuminate, deep, 
broad to medium in width, sometimes lightly russeted. Calyx small, closed; 
lobes medium in length, rather narrow, acute, reflexed. Basin small to 
medium, sometimes oblique, shallow or very shallow, narrow to medium in 
width, rather obtuse, somewhat wrinkled, usually with narrow but not 
prominent ridges. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 75 

Skin rather thin, glossy, clear pale waxen yellow, sometimes with beautiful 
pink blush on exposed cheek. Dots light, submerged, inconspicuous, except 
where the skin is blushed. 

Calyx, tube short, narrow, often funnel-shape with very short, truncate 
cylinder. Stamens marginal to median. 

Core medium size, axile or abaxile; cells closed or open; core lines meet- 
ing the limb or clasping the cylinder. Carpels round to broadly ovate or 
elliptical, emarginate, tufted. Seeds rather large, irregular, medium in width, 
rather long, not very plump, acute to acuminate, tufted, light brown. 

Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, of rather soft loose texture, a little 
coarse, crisp, juicy, brisk subacid to mild subacid, fair to good. 

Season October. 

GINNIE. 

REFERENCES. I. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 2:35. 1883. 2. Beach and Paddock, 
N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:252, 257. 1895. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. 
Bui., 248:121. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. AUNT GINNIE (i, 2). Aunt Ginnie (3). GINNIE (3). 

An autumn apple of good color and good quality. Tree rather upright, 
moderately vigorous, moderately productive. It comes into bearing early 
and yields some fruit nearly every year. Not recommended for planting in 
New York. 

Historical. Received from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, N. Y., in 
1883 for testing at this Station. We do not know its origin. So far as we 
have learned it is practically unknown among New York fruit growers. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large. Form oblate conic, broad and flattened at the base, 
obscurely ribbed. Stem medium, usually not exserted. Cavity large, acumi- 
nate, broad, deep, with conspicuous, broad, irregular, outspreading russet 
rays. Calyx small, nearly closed. Basin shallow to medium in depth, rather 
narrow to moderately wide, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin yellow nearly covered with bright red and marked with broad stripes 
and splashes of bright carmine. Dots minute, russet. Prevailing effect red 
striped. 

Calyx tube funnel-form. Stamens basal or nearly so. 

Core very large, abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open; core lines clasp 
the funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate, tufted. Seeds 
medium in size, rather wide, obtuse to somewhat acute. 

Flesh whitish, rather coarse, moderately juicy, aromatic, subacid, good to 
very good. 

Season late September to early winter ; commercial limit November in 
common storage (3). 

GLADSTONE. 

REFERENCES, i. Hogg, 1884:150. 2. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:224. 1892. 
3. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:52. 1902. 

SYNONYMS. GLADSTONE (2, 3). MR. GLADSTONE (i). 



76 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Fruit of good size, and when highly colored rather attractive. 
In general appearance it is intermediate between Oldenburg and 
Gravenstein, perhaps resembling Gravenstein in color more than 
Oldenburg. It is not equal to either of these varieties in quality. 
The tree comes into bearing young, is an annual cropper and pro- 
ductive. Not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. This is a comparatively recent introduction from England. It 
has not been extensively disseminated and so far as we can learn its cultiva- 
tion is not increasing in this country. 

TREE. 

Tree rather small, moderately vigorous with short, stout branches. Form 
spreading and inclined to droop. Twigs moderately long, curved, stout, 
with large terminal buds ; internodes medium in size. Bark brown, tinged 
with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lcnticels 
numerous, conspicuous, medium size, round, slightly raised. Buds medium 
size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, uniform. Form roundish oblate, slightly conic, ob- 
scurely ribbed ; sides usually unequal. Stem medium in length, moderately 
slender. Cavity acuminate to acute, rather wide, moderately deep to deep, 
sometimes with outspreading russet. Calyx below medium to rather large, 
closed or somewhat open. Basin rather small, shallow to medium in depth, 
medium in width to rather wide, a little abrupt, slightly furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin thin, smooth, greenish-yellow or pale yellow, more or less thinly 
overspread with red, irregularly mottled, splashed and distinctly striped with 
pinkish carmine. Dots rather numerous, inconspicuous, light colored, sub- 
merged. 

Calyx tube .rather short, cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium to rather large, usually axile; cells symmetrical, closed or 
slightly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, very slightly 
emarginate. Seeds rather dark brown, very wide, flat, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, a little coarse, crisp, 
tender, juicy, mild subacid, fair in quality. 

Season September and October. 

GLORIA MUNDI. 

REFERENCES, i. Dom. Encyc., 1804 (cited by 4). 2. Am. Card. Cal. t 
1806:585. 3.00x6,1817:117. fig. 4. Thacher, 1822:131. 5. Buel, N. Y. Bd. 
Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 6. Fessenden, 1828:129. 7. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 
1831 :No. 447. 8. Kenrick, 1832:49. 9. Floy-Lindley, 1833:86. 10. Downing, 
1845:110. fig. ii. Cole, 1849:122. 12. Thomas, 1849:182. 13. Phoenix. 
Horticulturist, 4:470. 1850. 14. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:41. 1851. col. 
pi. No. 35 and fig. 15. Elliott, 1854:174. 16. Mag. Hort., 23:83. 1857. 17. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 77 

Hooper, 1857:39. 18. Warder, 1867:719,725. 19. Downing, 1869:191. 20. 
Fitz, 1872:168. 21. Leroy, 1873:407. fig. 22. Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 
23. Hogg, 1884 185. 24. Wickson, 1889 -.245. 25. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1890:292. 26. Green, Rural N. Y., 49:604. 1890. 27. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892 :240. 28. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898 :354. 29. Can. 
Hort., 23 75. 1900. 30. Briiner, N. C. Sta. Bui., 182 :20. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. American Gloria Mundi (4, 7, 21). American Mammoth 
(7, 10, 15, 17, 19, 21 ). Baltimore (10, 12, 14, 21, 23, 26, of some 19). Balti- 
more Pippin (15, 17, 15). 5e//<? Dubois (23). 5r//<? Josephine (19, 21). 
Copp's Mammoth (22). Glasen-wood (10). Glazenwood Gloria Mundi 
(19, 21, 23). GLORIA MUNDI (i, 7, 10, n, 14, 16, 17, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 
29, 30). Gloria Mundi (5, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 21, 26). Impcratrice Josephine 
(21). JOSEPHINE (21). Kinderhook Pippin (14). Mammoth (21, 23). 
MAMMOTH PIPPIN (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, -18, 20, 26). Mammoth Pippin 
(7, 10, 11, 14, 16, 17, 19, 21 ). Melon (21). Mississippi? (19). Monstreuse 
Pippin (21). Monstrous Pippin (23). Mountain Flora (22). JV. Y. Gloria 
Mundi (3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 19, 21). Ox Apple (10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 23, 26). 
Pound (17). Vandync Apple (9). 

Fruit of largest size ; seldom cultivated except for exhibition ; suitable only 
for culinary purposes. The tree is large, vigorous, spreading, hardy and 
long-lived. It has been commonly held to be unproductive, but a few fruit 
growers in Southeastern New York report that it is a good bearer and a 
profitable commercial variety. Season October to January. 

Historical. The exact place of origin of this apple seems doubtful. In 
1804 Mease stated, " It originated on the farm of Mr. Crooks, near Red Hook 
in New York" (i). Thirteen years later Coxe credited it with a Long Island 
origin (3). All that can be stated with certainty is that it is an old variety 
known in parts of Eastern New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania in the 
beginning of the last century. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large or large, uniform. Form roundish with truncate ends, 
slightly conical, ribbed ; sides usually unequal. Stem medium to short, 
moderately thick. Cavity large, acuminate, moderately deep to deep, broad, 
furrowed and compressed, sometimes slightly russeted. Calyx medium to 
large, open^or partly closed; lobes separated at base, short, narrow. Basin 
large, moderately deep to deep, rather wide, somewhat abrupt, sometimes 
compressed, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin greenish-yellow sometimes with faint bronze blush. Dots small to 
medium, often areolar with russet center, or light colored and submerged. 
Prevailing effect yellow or greenish. 

Calyx tube very large, long, wide, broadly conical extending to core or 
approaching cylindrical below. Stamens median. 

Core medium to rather large, usually decidedly abaxile; cells symmetrical, 
open ; core lines usually clasping. Carpels broadly roundish to somewhat 
elliptical, slightly tufted. Seeds moderately dark brown, medium to rather 
small, rather narrow, short, plump, obtuse to acute, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh slightly tinged with greenish-yellow, coarse, moderately crisp, rather 
tender, juicy, rather mild subacid, fair or nearly good in quality. 

Season October to January. 



78 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

THE GOLDEN PIPPINS. 

The name Golden Pippin has been applied to several distinct 
varieties, the most important of which are mentioned below. 

The Golden Pippin of England is a small, yellowish apple with 
shade of red, which is in season from November to March. This 
has already been described in Volume I, page 141. 

The Golden Pippin of Westchester County, also known under 
the name of American Golden Pippin and by various other 
synonyms, is described as Golding, page 82, which is the name 
now accepted for this variety by pomologists. In addition to the 
varieties described below under the name Golden Pippin there are 
several other sorts which have been known under this name. 

(I) GOLDEN PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869:195. 2. Thomas, 1875:500. 3. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892 1240.. .4. Ragan, U. S. B. P. /. Bui, 56 : 123. 1905. 5- lb., 56 :347- 
1905. 

SYNONYMS. Butter Pippin (i). GOLDEN PIPPIN (i, 2, 3, 4, 5). Large 
Golden Pippin (i). Mammoth (i, 2). Pound Royal (2, of some i). York 
Pippin (i, 5). 

This variety belongs in the Fall Pippin group of apples. In 
Central and Western New York it is often called York Pippin. 
The fruit is large, coarse-grained, with a very pleasant flavor, and 
is suitable for either dessert or culinary uses. As compared with 
Fall Pippin the fruit is harder, keeps longer and stands shipping 
better in hot weather. In Western New York its season in ordi- 
nary storage extends from about September 20 to January i. It 
holds its flavor and quality well for a late fall and early winter 
sort. It frequently brings better prices than Fall Pippin, and we 
are informed it is sometimes exported. The tree is more spreading 
than that of Fall Pippin, and is perhaps somewhat hardier It is 
generally healthy, vigorous, quite long-lived, and when full grown 
becomes a pretty large tree. It is a reliable cropper, bearing good 
to heavy crops biennially or sometimes annually. There is apt to 
be considerable loss by premature dropping of the fruit, and unless 
proper preventive measures are taken the crop may be seriously 
injured by apple scab and codling moth, but with proper treatment 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 79 

these pests may be kept under good control. Golden Pippin is 
grown to a considerable extent in various parts of New York state 
and in New England. In some sections it is regarded as one of 
the most desirable of the fall varieties for commercial planting. 

Historical. The origin of this variety is unknown. It has long been in 
cultivation. In New York it is now found mostly in old orchards and, gen- 
erally speaking, its cultivation is not increasing. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large or large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
to roundish oblate, sometimes slightly conic, often with a broad flat base and 
broadly ribbed toward the apex. Stem long to medium, thick, sometimes 
swollen. Cavity acute to acuminate, medium in depth, broad, usually rather 
symmetrical, sometimes lipped, russeted and often with heavy, outspreading 
russet rays. Calyx rather large, closed. Basin deep, moderately wide to 
wide, abrupt, slightly furrowed, sometimes irregularly compressed. 

Skin rather tender, green or yellowish changing to a deeper and rather 
attractive yellow when fully mature, sometimes with bronze blush and russet 
flecks. Dots small to rather large and conspicuous, greenish and submerged 
or with russet point. 

Calyx tube wide, conical. Stamens median to somewhat basal. 

Core rather small, somewhat abaxile ; cells open ; core lines meeting or 
slightly clasping. Carpels roundish or approaching elliptical, sometimes 
obovate, heavily tufted. Seeds few, often not perfectly developed, medium 
size, irregular, rather dark brown, rather plump, acute. 

Flesh yellowish, coarse, rather tender, juicy, agreeable mild subacid, some- 
what aromatic, good to very good. 

Season late September to December or January. 

(II) GOLDEN PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869:194. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240. 
SYNONYMS. GOLDEN PIPPIN (i, 2). Pittstown Pippin (i). 

Downing states that this is an old apple grown many years ago in Adams, 
Mass. Tree upright and vigorous; fruit rather large, roundish oblate, soi re- 
times conic, greenish-yellow with blush; flesh yellowish, sprightly subacid, 
good for cooking; season September and October (i). 

It appears that this variety is no longer propagated in New York. 

GOLDEN REINETTE. 

REFERENCES, i. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885 -.32, 35, 38. 2. Ib., 1890 -.25 
3. Ib.,Ia. Sta. Bui., 19:538. 1892. 4. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 1896:74, 80. 
5. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui., 152:221. 1898. 6. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 
18:83. 1902. 7. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:124. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. No. 51 Vor. (i, 2). No. 10 (7). Solotoc rcnct (i). Zolotoi 
renet (7). 



8o THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

In addition to the old English variety known as Golden Reinette which has 
been described in Volume i, page 142, there are at least two Russian apples 
that have been disseminated in this country under this name. One is a 
variety described by Munson as a promising autumn apple for Northern 
Maine, in season from September to December ; fruit small, golden yellow 
washed and splashed with carmine (4, 6). What appears to be the same 
variety was received by this Station from Professor Budd, Ames, la., in 1890. 
It is decidedly inferior to the standard varieties of its season, which are in 
general cultivation throughout New York. Possibly on account of superior 
hardiness it may have some value in the more northern or elevated regions 
of the state. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved branches. 
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather dense. Twigs long, curved, 
stout; internodes medium. Bark brown, mingled with reddish-brown, mottled 
with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, large, 
oblong, raised. Buds prominent, large, broad, long, plump, acute, free, 
slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to below. Form oblate conic to strongly roundish conic, 
flattened at the base, ribbed, rather irregular ; sides unequal. Stem short, 
thick. Cavity acuminate, medium in depth to rather deep, moderately broad, 
often compressed, usually not russeted. Calyx large, open or partly closed, 
leafy; lobes usually separated at base, long, acute to acuminate. Basin 
shallow to moderately deep, medium in width to narrow, usually abrupt, 
slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin pale greenish-yellow with faint splashes and stripes of red. 

Calyx tube large, wide, broadly conical. Stamens basal to median. 

Core medium size, often abaxile; cells usually unsymmetrical, closed or 
open; core lines clasping or nearly meeting. Carpels broadly roundish to 
elliptical. Seeds medium brown, medium to below, plump, rather obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, mild subacid. 

Season September to December. 

The other Russian apple, above referred to, was disseminated some years 
ago by Professor Budd. In 1885 he remarked that he was sending out, under 
the name Golden Reinette (51 Vor.), a variety having fruit medium to large, 
golden in color, fine-grained, juicy, subacid, almost best in quality (i). In 
1890 he stated : " This has proven a fine tree on a great variety of soils 
where the air had free circulation. Its northern limit is not yet known, but I 
have not known its wood colored at Ames when the Wealthy by its side in 
nursery was nearly killed. Fruit medium to large, golden yellow, fine-grained, 
subacid, and nearly best in quality. Season here, December to February, 
depending on time of picking and mode of storage" (2). In 1892 Budd 
further reported : " This has not proven true to name as received from the 
Bogdanoff estates in Russia. It is a member of the Anis family, of fine size 
and excellent quality. Season late fall, and early winter north" (3). 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 81 



GOLDEN SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Kenrick, 1832:37. 2. Downing, 1845:84. 3. Phoenix, 
Horticulturist, 1:361. 1846. 4. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1846:189. 5. Thomas, 
1849:136. 6. Cole, 1849:102. fig. 7. Barry, 1851:280. 8. Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 3 :40. 1851. fig. 9. Elliott, 1854 :8i. fig. 10. Gregg, 1857 -.37. fig. 
ii. Hooper, 1857:41. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 13. Warder, 1867:551. 
fig. 14. Downing, 1869:196. fig. 15. Wickson, 1889:244. 16. Lyon, Mich. 
Hart. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 17. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240. 18. Wangh, 
Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:295. 1901. 19. Budd-Hansen, 1903:90. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Early Golden Sweet (14). GOLDEN SWEET (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 
9, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19). GOLDEN SWEETING (7, 10). Orange 
Siveet (6, 9). ORANGE SWEETING (i). Orange Sweeting (2, 13, 14). 
Trenton Early (9). Yellow Sweeting ? (i). 

Fruit of good medium size, attractive clear yellow when fully 
mature, rich, sweet, very good in flavor and quality. Cultivated 
principally for home use. Of no commercial value except that it 
is sold in limited quantities in local markets. In season from the 
middle of August to the last of September. The tree is a good 
grower, healthy, hardy, moderately long-lived, comes into bearing 
rather young and yields moderate to heavy crops biennially. 

Historical. An old Connecticut variety (2). Its exact origin is unknown. 
It has been pretty generally disseminated throughout the state but is nowhere 
grown extensively. It is listed by nearly all nurserymen (17). 

TREE. 

Tree large, vigorous. Form roundish spreading, inclined to droop, dense. 
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes long. Bark brown, lightly mottled 
with scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, oval, 
slightly raised. Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly 
pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit below medium to nearly large, uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish to roundish oblate or somewhat ovate, regular or faintly ribbed. 
Stem very long, moderately thick. Cavity acute, of medium depth, medium 
in width to rather narrow, symmetrical, usually partly russeted, often with 
outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to small, closed; lobes medium in 
length, narrow, acute. Basin shallow to moderately deep, narrow to medium 
in width, somewhat obtuse, smooth, symmetrical, furrowed. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, waxy, yellowish-green becoming clear pale yellow 
when fully mature. 

Calyx tube medium in width, cone-shape to truncate funnel-form. Stamens 
median. 



82 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Core medium to rather small, abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, open; 
core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels ovate. Seeds medium to 
rather small, rather narrow, angular, acute, medium brown. 

Flesh .yellowish-white, firm, fine-grained, moderately tender, juicy, very 
sweet, aromatic, good to very good. 

Season mid-August to late September. 

GOLDEN WHITE. 

REFERENCES, i. Gibb, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883 : 447- 2 - Brodie, Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885:72. 3. Hoskins, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:221. 
4. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-7:16. 5. Can. Hort., 13:157, 332. 1890. 
6. Beach and Paddock, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:252. 1895. 7. Beach, IV. N. 
Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1896:50. 8. Buad-Hansen, 1903:91. 

SYNONYMS. Be el Solotofskaja (i). GOLDEN WHITE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). 
No. 978 (3, 5, 8). No. 979 (8). No. 981 (8). 

Fruit of medium size, greenish-yellow, streaked with bright red in the sun, 
subacid, fair quality; season September. The tree comes into bearing rather 
young, and yields full crops biennially. Evidently not desirable for planting 
in New York. 

Historical. A Russian apple received for testing at this Station from T. H. 
Hoskins, Newport, Vt, in 1888. 

TREE. 

Tree rather small, a slow grower with short, stout branches. Form 
spreading, open. Twigs short, curved, stout, with large terminal buds ; inter- 
nodes short. Bark dull brown mingled with olive-green, coated with gray 
scarf-skin ; heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, large, oval or elongated, 
raised. Buds large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, much pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium size. Form oblate inclined to conic, flattened at the base, 
ribbed. Stem small to medium. Cavity small, acuminate, narrow, moderately 
shallow, russeted. Calyx open or partly open. Basin large, irregular, 
moderately deep, wrinkled. 

Skin greenish-yellow nearly overlaid with red and striped with carmine. 
Dots numerous, large, light. Prevailing effect red or striped red. 

Calyx tube large, cone-shape to funnel-form. 

Core medium size, somewhat abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical, closed or 
partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish, emarginate, tufted. 
Seeds above medium, plump, wide, obtuse. 

Flesh white with faint salmon tinge, fine-grained, moderately juicy, subacid, 
fair or sometimes good in quality. 

Season September and October. 

GOLDING. 

REFERENCES, i. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 479. 2. Kenrick, 1835: 
64. 3. Downing, 1857:79. fig. 4. Mag. Hort., 30:162. 1864. 5. Warder, 
1867:636. fig. 6. Thomas, 1875:226. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877:6, 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 83 

8. Barry, 1883:342. 9. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui., 105:108. 1894. *- Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1897:13. ii. Budd-Hansen, 1903:92. fig. 12. Ragan, U. S. B. P. 
I. Bui, 56:125. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. American Golden (12). AMERICAN GOLDEN PIPPIN (2, 4, 

5, 7, 8). American Golden Pippin (3, 6, 10, n, 12). Golden Apple (12). 
GOLDEN PIPPIN (3, of Westchester Co., 6). Golden Pippin (5, of West- 
chester Co., 8 and 12). GOLDING (i, 9, 10, u, 12). Newtown Greening 
(3, 12). N. Y. Greening (3, 5, 6, 12). Ribbed Pippin (3, 12). 

Fruit medium or above, yellow, sometimes with shade of brownish-red; 
flesh rather coarse, aromatic, subacid and excellent in quality for either 
dessert or culinary uses. It is much subject to scab and a comparatively 
large percentage of the crop is apt to be unmarketable unless thorough treat- 
ment is given to prevent injury from insects and fungus diseases. The tree 
is rather large, vigorous, hardy, long-lived and moderately productive yield- 
ing moderate to heavy crops biennially. In some sections it is regarded as a 
pretty good commercial variety particularly in portions of Eastern New York. 

Historical. In 1857 Downing wrote (3) regarding this variety, that al- 
though it was one of the finest American fruits and an old variety, it was not 
generally known. It was said to have been cultivated in Westchester and 
adjoining counties for more than fifty years where it was considered profit- 
able for market and superior for family use. So far as we can learn Golding 
is now seldom or never planted in New York. 

GRANDMOTHER. 

REFERENCES, i. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881-82:39,73. 2. Budd, la. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882:78. 3. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:105. fig. 4. 
Gibb, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:443. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:72. 

6. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 1883:27. 7. Ib., 1885:18. 8. Schroeder, Mon- 
treal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 12:71. 1886-7. 9. la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1890:24. 10. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240. u. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 19:542. 1892. 12. Mun- 
son, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:74,80. 1896. 13. Thomas, 1897:277. fig. 14. 
Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1899 '-79- I 5> Troop, Ind. Sta. An. Rpt., 
12:80. 1899. 16. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:54. 1902. fig. 17. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903 192. 

SYNONYMS. Baboushkino (i). Babuscheno (16, 17). BABUSCHKINO (3). 
Babushkino (4, 7). Bogdanoff (14). Bogdanoff Steklianka (14). GRAND- 
MOTHER (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, u, 12, 13, 14, 15, 1 6, 17). Grandmother (3). 
GRAND MOTHER (i, 10). No. 6 M (i, 2, 6, 9, n). No. 6 (8). No. 469 (i, 2, 
3.. 6, 7, n, 12, 16, 17). No. 84 Vor. (9, n). Red Reinette (14). 

Fruit of good medium size, greenish-yellow, sometimes with slight blush. 
It shows the marks of handling readily, is not very uniform in size nor does 
it excel _n ouality. Season late fall and early winter. The tree is a good 
thrifty grower, conies into bearing young, is reliably productive and is almost 
an annual bearer, yielding moderate to good crops. It does not appear to 
be valuable for planting in New York. 

Historical A Russian variety which has been disseminated for trial in 
various sections of the country. It has been thus far but little planted in 
this state. 



84 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

TREE. 

Tree large, rather vigorous with long, stout branches. Form spreading, 
rather flat, open. Twigs medium length, curved, moderately stout ; inter- 
nodes short. Bark dark brown or reddish-brown, lightly streaked with 
scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, roundish, 
raised. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to rather large. Form ovate to roundish conic, quite flat 
at base, a little angular; sides unequal; fairly uniform. Stem short or very 
short, rather thick. Cavity acute to acuminate, narrow, moderately deep to 
shallow or scarcely depressed, much russeted and often with outspreading 
russet. Calyx large to medium, closed or somewhat open ; lobes medium in 
length, broad, acute. Basin deep to medium in depth, medium in width to 
rather wide, abiupt, usually furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, light greenish-yellow, sometimes with faint blush. Dots 
numerous, inconspicuous, light and submerged, or sometimes areolar with 
dark center. 

Calyx tube medium in length, wide, broadly conical. Stamens basal. 

Core medium to small or abortive, axile or abaxile ; cells symmetrical, 
usually closed; core lines meeting Carpels variable, irregular, broadly ovate 
or obovate, emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds below medium to rather 
large, rather dark brown, plump, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh with slight green or yellow tinge, moderately firm, coarse, neither 
crisp nor tender, very juicy, subacid to briskly subacid, slightly aromatic, 
fair to good in flavor and quality. 

Season November to January. 

GRAVENSTEIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Forsyth, 1824:105. 2. Pom. Mag., s:No. 98. 1830. col. pi 
3. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 489. 4. Kenrick, 1832:34. 5. Floy-- 
Lindley, 1833:52. 6. Manning, 1838:53. 7. Ib., Mag. Hort., 7:45. 1841. 
8. Downing, 1845 :8s. fig. g. Horticulturist, 1:196. 1846. 10. Cole, 1849 :iio. 
fig. n. Thomas, 1849:149. fig. 12. Horticulturist, 5:200. 1850. 13. Barry, 
1851 :284- 14. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:32, 104. 1851. fig., col. pi. No. 28. 
15. Hovey, 2:15. 1851. col. pi. 16. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 17. Elliott, 
1854:83. 18. Gregg, 1857:43. fig. 19. Hooper, 1857:41,107,111. 20. De 
Wolf and Hovey, Mag. Hort., 23:444. 1857. 21. Warder, 1867:487. fig. 
22. Fitz, 1872:143,149,152. 23. Leroy, 1873:338. fig. 24. Horticulturist, 
30:32. 1875. 2 5' Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 26. Hogg, 1884:96. 27. 
Wickson, 1889 :243. 28. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890 :292. 29. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:240. 30. Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 6:55. 1893. 31. 
Gaucher, 1894 :No. 10. col. pi. 32. Saunders, Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn. An. Rpt., 
27:51. 1895. 33. Amer. Card., 16:381. 1895. fig. 34. Burrill and McCltier, 
III. Sta. Bui, 45 :303. 1896. 35. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898 :354- 
36. Can. Hort., 22:133. 1899. 37. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 59:20. 1900. 
38. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 8:8. 1901. figs. 39. Waugh, Vt. 
Sta. An. Rpt.., 14:295. 1901. 40. Can. Hort.., 25:167. 1902. fig. 41. Budd- 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 85 

Hansen, 1903:93. fig. 42. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bui., 182:20. 1903. 43. 
Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:43. 1903. 44. Beach and Clark, 
N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:122. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Blumcn-C alvill (31). Cak'illc de Gravenstein (31). Calville 
Grafensteiner (23, 31). Diel's Somnierhonig (31). Early Congress (25). 
Grafen-Apfel (31). Grafensteiner (15, 23, 31). Grave Slige (23). Grave 
Slije (8, 15, 17, 31). GRAVENSTEIN (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 
15, 16, 17, i3, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 
38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 4-j ). Gra-'enstcin (31). GRAVENSTEINER (31). Graven- 
sterner (23). Gravenstine (31). Ohio Nonpareil (17, 23, 31). Paradies 
Apfel (31). Pomme Gracfenstein (31). Prinsessin-Apfel (31). ^i/>/> ^/?/r/ 
(31). Sabine (31). Sabine of the Flemings (15, 23). Strohmcr (31). 
Stromling (31). Tom Harryman (31). 

Gravenstein is an apple of good size, attractive appearance and 
excellent quality. For culinary purposes it is perhaps unexcelled 
by any variety of its season. It often sells at comparatively high 
prices. In many sections of the state the tree is regarded as not 
quite hardy, being somewhat subject to snnscald and canker. It 
comes into bearing moderately early, is quite productive and a 
pretty reliable cropper. The crop ripens continuously during a 
period of several weeks and should have two or three pickings. 
Beginning in the latter half of September it continues in season till 
early November. When properly handled a considerable portion 
of the fruit may remain apparently sound much later than this but 
the color fades and the quality and flavor deteriorate. As com- 
pared with other varieties of its class it stands up well in good 
dry cold storage (44). There is apt to be considerable loss from 
the dropping of the fruit before it is properly colored and there 
is also a rather high percentage of low grade or unmarketable 
fruit. In spite of these serious faults its cultivation in commer- 
cial orchards is gradually increasing in some sections of the state, 
particularly in portions of the Hudson valley where fruit growers 
find it a desirable apple for both domestic and foreign markets. 

Historical. The following excellent account of the history of this variety 
was given by Hovey in 1851 (15). "The origin of the Gravenstein remains 
in some doubt. It is said to have been originally found in the Duke of 
Augustinberg's garden at Gravenstein, in Holstein, and that the original tree 
was growing there in the middle of the last century; another statement is, 
that it derived its name from being found in the garden of the castle of 
Grafenstein, in Sleswick ; and Diel says, that it was supposed by some to 



86 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

have been introduced from Italy. Be this as it may, it is a common apple 
throughout Germany and Sweden, and was received from thence into the 
English collections. It is undoubtedly of similar origin with the Red Astra- 
chan and Duchess of Oldenburg, possessing the peculiar habit of growth, 
form of foliage, and texture of the fruit, which distinguish the German 
apples. 

"At what time it was first introduced into our gardens we are not aware. 
But as neither Coxe or Thacher describe or name it, we suppose it was some 
time subsequent to the account given of it in the Transactions of the London 
Horticultural Society in 1822. It is at the present time considerably culti- 
vated, though not to the extent its merits deserve." 

In 1857 Captain DeWolfe stated that the Gravenstein was imported by 
him from Denmark in May, 1826 (20). In a letter dated October n, 1829, 
published in the New England Farmer, Judge Buel, of Albany, called at- 
tention to the importation of Gravenstein and other German apples, trees of 
which he had presented to the members of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society. Hovey states that in view of this it appears that Gravenstein was 
imported to the vicinity of Albany probably prior to 1826 (20). After these 
early importations Gravenstein gradually found its way into cultivation in 
various portions of the country. For many yetrs it has been pretty gen- 
erally disseminated through New York state, but in most localities it is grown 
to a limited extent only. 

TREE. 

Tree large, vigorous. Form upright spreading to roundish, open. Twigs 
medium to long, curved, moderately stout; internodes long. Bark brownish- 
red, mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. 
Lenticeh very scattering, medium to small, oblong, not raised. Buds medium 
in size, plump, acute, free, pubescent. 

FJXUIT. 

Fruit large to above medium, fairly uniform in size but not in shape. 
Form oblate to roundish, somewhat irregular, broad at the base, slightly 
angular about the basin. Stem short to medium, thick. Cavity rather large, 
acute to acuminate, moderately deep to deep, rather narrow to broad, irregu- 
larly russeted. Calyx large, open or sometimes closed ; lobes large, long, very 
broad, acute. Basin irregular, medium in depth to deep, medium to wide, 
obtuse to somewhat abrupt, wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tender, slightly rough, greenish-yellow to orange-yellow over- 
laid with broken stripes of light and dark red. Dots few, small, light. Pre- 
vailing effect yellow striped. 

Calyx tube large, conical to funnel-shape. Stamens median. 

Core medium in size, strongly abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping the 
funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly ovate, emarginate. Seeds medium to 
large, medium in width, rather long, plump, acute to acuminate, medium 
brown. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, 
sprightly subacid, aromatic, very good to best. 

Season late September till early November. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 87 

RED TYPES OF THE GRAVENSTEIN. 

Several instances are known where bud sports of the Gravenstein 
have originated which bear highly colored red fruit, but in other 
respects are quite like the typical Gravenstein. Some of these 
sports have neither been described nor propagated but others of them 
have been introduced into cultivation under distinct names. Gaucher 
and Leroy each describe a Red Gravenstein. 1 A Red Gravenstein 
which originated in Nova Scotia is now cultivated under the name 
Banks. For an account of this variety the reader is referred to 
Banks, page 14. 

GREAT MOGUL. 

REFERENCES, i. Regel, 1:453. 1868. 2. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 1885:24, 
35, 36, 37. 3. Lyon, U. S. Pom. Bui., 2:41. 1888. 4. Budd, la. Sta. Bui., 
18:519. 1892. 5. Troop, hid. Sta. Bui., 53:124. 1894. 6. Stinson, Ark. Sta. 
An. Rpt., 9:105. 1896. 7. Troop, Ind. Sta. Rpt., 12:80. 1899. 8. Ib., 
la. Sta. Bui, 41:85. 1899. 9- Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:128. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. GREAT MOGUL (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). 54 M (3). Grosser 
Mogul (2, 9). Vilikui Mogul (2, 9). 

Fruit large, greenish, blushed and striped with red, somewhat resembling 
Alexander in type but tending to be more oblong, less broadly striped with 
carmine, and on the whole less attractive in color and form. Tree a fine 
grower, comes into bearing rather young, is an annual bearer and productive. 
It is not recommended for growing in New York. 

Historical. An apple of Russian origin which was introduced into the 
United States about twenty-five years ago (i, 2, 3). 

TREE. 

Tree a good grower when young but when full grown is rather below 
medium size. Form open, spreading, rather drooping with rather short stout 
branches and drooping laterals. Twigs below medium to short, stout, irregu- 
larly geniculate. Bark clear brownish-red to very dark brown almost black, 
mottled lightly with gray scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels very con- 
spicuous, medium to large, oblong, generally elongated and russeted. Buds 
very prominent, large, broad, plump, acute, free, lightly attached to the bark, 
scales not well united, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large to very large. Form roundish ovate, sometimes varying to 
oblong conic or to oblate conic, slightly angular. Usually the fruit is pretty 
regular in form, shape and size. Stem medium to nearly long, rather thick, 
often clubbed or swollen. Cavity usually very acuminate, sometimes acute, 
moderately deep, moderately wide, sometimes with outspreading russet rays, 
smooth, symmetrical, often lipped. Calyx medium to rather large, closed or 

1 Leroy, 1878:339. Gaucher, 1894: No. n. 



88 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

slightly open, lobes long, broad, acute. Basin rather small, often oblique, 
narrow to medium in width, shallow to moderately deep, somewhat abrupt, 
smooth or slightly wrinkled, symmetrical. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, pale greenish-yellow 
more or less overspread with rather bright pinkish-red, often indistinctly 
striped with carmine. Dots inconspicuous, numerous, small, scattering, gray. 

Calyx tube medium, elongated, conical or somewhat funnel-form with 
wide limb and fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Stamens marginal 
to median. 

Core somewhat abaxile ; cells often unsymmetrical, varying from wide 
open to nearly closed ; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels broadly ovate, 
elongated, slightly emarginate. Seeds numerous, compactly filling the cells, 
medium to large, variable in shape, rather short, very wide, plump, obtuse 
or sometimes acute, light brown. 

Flesh nearly white, slightly tinged with yellow, not very firm, moderately 
fine, not crisp, tender, juicy, subacid mingled with sweet, fair to good in 
quality. 

Season October to December. 

GREEN SEEK-NO-FURTHER. 

REFERENCES, i. Coxe, 1817:131. fig. 2. Kenrick, 1832:53. 3. Thomas, 
1849:181. fig. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:38. 1851. fig. 5. Elliott, 
1854:137. 6. Warder, 1867:720. 7. Downing, 1869:202. 

SYNONYMS. Autumn Seeknofurthcr (4). Bracy's Seek-no-further (5). 
Flushing Seek-no-further (7). GREEN SEEK-NO- FURTHER (3, 5, 6, 7). 
SEEKNOFURTHER (4). Seeknofurther (5, 7, of Coxe 3). SEEK-NO-FURTHER 
(i). White Seek-no-further (7). WINTER SEEK-NO-FURTHER (2). 

A large yellowish-green apple with faint blush of orange-red, 
very good in quality ; season early winter. The tree is a rather 
slow grower, but eventually forms a regular, compact head and is 
quite productive. Desirable for the home orchard (i, 7.) 

Historical. The earliest description of this variety which we find is that 
given by Coxe ( i ) who remarks that it is a native of one of the eastern 
states. Downing states that it originated in the garden of William Prince, 
Flushing, N. Y. (7). It is now seldom found in cultivation in New York. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large. Form roundish conic or a little inclined to oblate conic, 
ribbed. Stem short to medium, thick. Cavity large, acute to somewhat 
acuminate, deep, broad, more or less marked with faint greenish-russet. 
Calyx moderately large, closed or slightly open. Basin deep, rather wide, 
abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, greenish-yellow or yellow with faint orange- 
red blush. Dots variable, large and small, often irregular, areolar with 
russet center or whitish and submerged. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 89 

Calyx 1 tube large, moderately long, wide, conical. Stamens median. 

Core small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines meeting or slightly 
clasping. Carpels roundish to broadly ovate, tufted. Seeds rather numerous, 
above medium, narrow, long, acute to acuminate, tufted. 

Flesh yellowish-white, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, very juicy, sprightly, 
rich subacid, very good. 

Season October to January. 

GROSH. 

REFERENCES, i. Western Horticultural Review, 1853 (cited by 4). 2. Card. 
Monthly, 1861:124 (cited by 3). 3. Kenrick, Mag. Hort., 29:73. 1863. fig. 
4. Warder, 1867 -.464, 735. fig. 5. Warder, 1867 720. 6. Downing, 1869 - 2 O5- 
7. Ib., 1869:89. 8. Ib., 1872:37 app. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877:16. 10. 
Barry, 1883:356. n. Thomas, 1885:528. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 
13. ///. Sta. Bui, 45 :345. 1896. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897 :i3. 15. Lyon, 
Mich. Sta. Bui, 143:200. 1897. 16. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 58:722. 1899. 
fig. 17. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:132. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. BEAUTY OF THE WEST (7, 13). Beauty of the West (17). 
Big Rambo (4, 8, 16, 17). Cummings Rambo (17). English Rambo (16). 
French Rambo of some (17). GROSH (5, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17). Grosh (9). 
Crash's Mammoth (17). Large Rambo (17). Large Summer Rambo (17). 
Lothringer Rambour (17). Mammoth Rambo (17). Monstrous Rambo 
(17). Musgrove (16). Musgrove's Cooper (4, 7, 8, 17). Naylor Rambo 
(17). OHIO BEAUTY (2). Ohio Beauty (4, 7, 8, 16, 17). Pickaway 
Rambo (17). Rambour Lorraine (17). Summer Rambo (9, 17). Sweet 
Rambo incorrectly (17). WESTERN BEAUTY (3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12). Western 
Beauty (7, 13, 16, 17, ? 14). 

Fruit large, uniform and when well colored rather attractive, 
being mottled and striped with red. The flesh is tender, sprightly, 
pleasant subacid, in season from September till early winter. The 
tree is a strong grower, comes into bearing early and is a reliable 
cropper, yielding moderate to good crops almost annually. There 
is apt to be considerable loss from premature dropping of the fruit. 
So far as we can learn this variety has been as yet but little grown 
in New York. It appears to be worthy of further testing. 

Summer Rambo much resembles this variety in general appear- 
ance but ripens about a month earlier. 

Historical Origin unknown. It was first brought to notice in Ohio, where 
it has been much grown under the name of Western Beauty. 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous with very long, moderately stout, curved branches. Form 
upright spreading to roundish, open. Twigs long to below medium, somewhat 



90 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

curved, moderately stout; internodes medium or below. Bark clear reddish- 
brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent 
near tips. Lenticels clear brownish, conspicuous, quite numerous, medium or 
above, roundish, raised. Buds medium to large, prominent, broad, plump, 
obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent. 



FRUIT. 

Fruit large or very large, very uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate to somewhat conical, regular or sometimes elliptical. Stem short to 
above medium, moderately thick. Cavity acuminate to acute, deep, wide, 
often somewhat compressed, smooth and green or sometimes russeted, sym- 
metrical or gently furrowed, sometimes lipped. Calyx above medium to very 
large, usually somewhat open disclosing the yellow calyx tube; lobes sepa- 
rated at the base, rather long, often leafy, acute to acuminate. Basin often 
oblique, large, medium in depth and width to deep and rather wide, abrupt, 
usually somewhat furrowed. 

Skin thick, tough, waxy, greenish-yellow becoming clear bright yellow when 
fully mature, washed and mottled with bright red and striped and splashed 
with carmine, except in highly-colored specimens the yellow predominates. 
Dots numerous, small to rather large, pale gray or russet, often areolar or 
whitish and submerged. 

Calyx tube rather large, wide at the top, conical or approaching funnel- 
form. Stamens nearly basal to above median. 

Core small to medium, axile or somewhat abaxile with hollow cylinder in 
the axis; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. 
Carpels broadly roundish to ovate, emarginate, often tufted. Seeds mod- 
erately numerous, moderately dark brown, often abortive, medium size, mod- 
erately wide, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, rather firm, medium to rather 
coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, a little aromatic, good or some- 
times very good. 

Season September to January. 



GRUNDY. 

REFERENCES, i. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:56. 1902. 2. Budd-Hansen, 
1903 '-95- 3- Jeivell Nursery Co. Cat., 1903 7. 4. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 

56:133- IQOS- 

SYNONYMS. GRUNDY (i, 2, 3, 4). Thompson Seedling No. 38 (i, 2, 3, 4). 

Fruit large, regular, subacid, yellow marbled with red. Season September 
and October. Tree vigorous, spreading, productive: Originated from seed 
taken from New York to Grundy county, Iowa, by Mrs. J. S. B. Thompson in 
1861. It has received favorable notice as a hardy variety in that region, but 
has not been sufficiently tested in this state to determine its value here (2). 






HAAS 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 91 



HAAS. 

REFERENCES. I. Horticulturist, 25:55. 1870. 2. Downing, 1872 :io app. fig. 
3. Barry, 1883:345. 4. Thomas, 1885:512. 5. Can. Hort., 11:69, 73. 1888. 
6. Bailey, ^4n. //or*., 1892 -.240. 7. Woolverton, Owf. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., i -.24. 
1894. 8. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui., 43:103. 1896. 9. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 
1896:70. 10. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:296. 1901. n. Munson, Me. Sta. 
Bui., 82:95. 1902. 12. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui., 106:53. JQ 02 - 
13. Hansen, 5. D. Sta. Bui., 76 156. 1902. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :96. fig. 
15. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 205 :44. 1903. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. 
Bui., 248:123. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. FALL QUEEN (2, 3, 7). Fall Queen (4, 5, 14, 16). Gros 
Pomier (2, 14). Gros Pommicr (2). HAAS (5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16). 
Haas (2, 3, 7). HASS (8). Horse, of some (2). Hoss (i). Hoss (2). 

Fruit of good medium size and very attractive bright red color 
but only fair in quality. With some growers it has proved profit- 
able because the tree comes into bearing young and is very thrifty, 
hardy and productive, but on account of the inferior quality of its 
fruit doubtless it will be eventually wholly supplanted by better 
kinds. 

Historical. Originated on the grounds of Gabriel Cerre, St. Louis, Mo. (2). 
It has been widely disseminated throughout the Middle West and Southwest 
where it is recognized as one of the hardiest of American apples. In New 
York it has been planted to a limited extent only and its cultivation is not 
increasing. 

TREE. 

Tree large, very vigorous with long, slender branches. Form at first com- 
paratively tall and upright but becoming spreading or roundish. Twigs long, 
curved, slender with large terminal buds ; internodes long. Bark brown or 
reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels quite 
numerous, medium size, oval, not raised. Buds medium to large, broad, 
plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to above. Form oblate a little inclined to conic, somewhat 
ribbed ; sides usually unequal. Stem medium to short, thick, often partly red. 
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, broad, usually symmetrical, more or less 
covered with thin greenish-russet. Calyx small to medium, closed or nearly 
so; lobes separated at base, short, narrow, acuminate. Basin moderately 
narrow, rather deep, abrupt, smooth or slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, yellow, mottled, washed and nearly covered with 
deep bright red or brownish-red, striped and splashed with deep carmine. 
Dots small to rather large, inconspicuous, numerous, pale or russet. Prevail- 
ing effect red striped with carmine. 



92 T HE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Calyx tube very variable, rather long and wide, conical or approaching 
funnel-form. Stamens median or below. 

Core below medium to above, somewhat abaxile ; cells symmetrical, open or 
sometimes closed; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish to elliptical. 
Seeds dark brown, medium to large, of medium width, plump, acute. 

Flesh white, often stained with red, firm, moderately fine, a little tough, 
moderately juicy to juicy, sprightly subacid, aromatic, a little astringent, 
poor to fair or sometimes nearly good. 

Season October to early winter. In common storage the ordinary com- 
mercial limit is November (16). 

HAGLOE. 

REFERENCES, i. Coxe, 1817:107. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:126. 3. Fessen- 
den, 1828:131. 4. Downing, Horticulturist, 3:249. 1848. 5. Thomas, 1849: 
141. 6. Downing, 1854:146. 7. Elliott, 1854:137. 8. Hooper, 1857:42. 9. 
Horticulturist, 14:425. 1859. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. n. Warder, 
1867:596. 12. Barry, 1883:334. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240. 14. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:17. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:96. 

SYNONYMS. HAGLOE (7, 8, n, 12, 13, 14, 15). HAGLOE CRAB (i, 2, 3), but 
incorrectly. SUMMER HAGLOE (4, 5, 6, 9, 10). Summer Hagloe (7). 

In 1817 Coxe gave the following description of this variety (i). "The 
fruit, when fully ripe, has a yellow ground streaked with bright red 
the size about middling, the form round, flat at the ends ; the stalk large 
the flesh remarkably soft and woolly, but not dry the taste acid, but highly 
flavoured. * * * It ripens in August and September ; keeps a long time 
without rotting it bears abundantly and early : the growth of the tree is 
very uncommon; thick strong shoots; buds, particularly at the extremity of 
the branches, very large ; the colour of the wood dark the size of the tree 
small : the Hagloe is an uncommonly fine cooking apple ; and from its great 
beauty and large size, added to its abundant bearing, is a valuable market 
fruit." 

The tree is not a very good grower but comes into bearing rather young 
and yields moderate to good crops annually or nearly annually. The quality 
of the fruit is such that it is valued chiefly for culinary use and market. It 
is of good size and pretty uniform but the color is predominantly pale yellow 
rather faintly striped with red. It is not sufficiently attractive for a good 
market sort. 

Historical. It is now held that Hagloe originated in America (14, 15). 
Coxe and some later writers confused this variety with the English cider 
fruit known as Hagloe Crab but eventually this error was discovered (4) 
and the name Summer Hagloe came to be commonly accepted among pomol- 
ogists for this variety, under which name it was listed by the American 
Pomological Society in 1862 (10). In 1899 the name was changed to Hag- 
loe (14) in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society. This variety 
is but little known in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree rather small, a slow grower with moderately long, crooked branches. 
Form flat, spreading, rather dense. Tzvigs short, straight, stout with large 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 93 

terminal buds; internodes medium. Bark brown with some olive-green, 
lightly mottled with scarf-skin ; pubescent near tips. Lenticels scattering, 
large to medium, oblong, raised. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, 
obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform. Form roundish truncate to 
roundish conic, ribbed; sides often unequal. Stem short to medium, rather 
thick. Cavity acute, medium in width and depth, symmetrical, russeted and 
with rather irregular, outspreading russet. Calyx below medium to above, 
closed or open ; lobes often separated at the base, narrow, acuminate. Basin 
moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, abrupt, nearly smooth. 

Skin rather tender, smooth, somewhat glossy, pale greenish-yellow washed 
and mottled with pinkish-red marked with splashes and narrow stripes of 
bright carmine. Dots light, inconspicuous. Prevailing effect yellow, faintly 
striped. 

Calyx tube moderately long, wide, conical. Stamens basal. 

Core usually small, axile to abaxile ; cells usually open ; core lines clasping. 
Carpels broadly ovate, emarginate, tufted. Seeds rather light brown, small 
to medium, roundish, very plump, obtuse. 

Flesh white, moderately fine, tender, rather juicy, sprightly subacid, good 
for culinary purposes. 

Season late August and September. 

HARVEST REDSTREAK. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:214. 2. Warder, 1867:436. 3. Downing, 
1869:211. 4. Thomas, 1875:501. 5. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:138. 
1905. 

SYNONYMS. Early Red Pippin (5). Early Redstrcak (2). Early Red 
Streak (3). HARVEST REDSTREAK (2, 5). HARVEST RED STREAK (i, 3, 4). 
Striped Harvest (3, 5). 

Fruit of medium size, smooth, greenish-yellow or whitish striped and 
splashed with red. Flesh whitish, coarse, subacid, good for culinary use; 
season August and September. It is not sufficiently attractive in color for 
a good market variety. The tree is medium to large, with round head, mod- 
erately vigorous to very vigorous and yields good to heavy crops biennially. 

Historical. This is an old variety of unknown origin. It is rarely found 
in New York and is now seldom or never planted. 

HASKELL. 

REFERENCES, i. Manning, Mag. Hort., 6:172. 1840. 2. Ib., 7:45. 1841. 
3. Thomas, 1849:145. fig. 4. Cole, 1849:108. fig. 5. Cultivator, 6:342. 
1849. 6. Barry, 1851:284. 7. Elliott, 1854:137. 8. Gregg, 1857:43. 9. 
Downing, 1857:82. 10. Warder, 1867:385. n. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:292. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240. 13. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53: 
278. 1894. 14- Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:44. 1903. 15. 
Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:124. 1904. 



94 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

SYNONYMS. HASKELL (14, 15). HASKELL SWEET (i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
u, 12, 13). Haskell Sweet (4, 14, 15). SASSAFRAS SWEET (4). Sassafras 
Sweet (6, 7, 8, 9). 

Fruit large, of good appearance for a greenish-yellow apple, 
sweet, excellent for culinary use, in season from September to late 
fall or early winter. The crop does not ripen uniformly. The 
earliest ripening fruit becomes fully mature in September while 
at the same time others are green and hard. In ordinary storage 
the commercial limit appears to be early November and in cold 
storage the middle of January (15). The tree is a thrifty grower, 
comes into bearing moderately young and yields full crops bien- 
nially. Desirable for the home orchard. 

Historical. Origin, Ipswich, Mass. (2, 5). It is not commonly known 
in New York. It is occasionally listed by nurserymen (12) but is now seldom 
planted. 

TREE. 

Tree large, vigorous; branches long, moderately stout with numerous 
small spurs. Form upright spreading or roundish, rather open. Tiuigs 
moderately long, curved, moderately stout ; internodes long. Bark brown, 
heavily mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, small, 
round, not raised. Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large or above medium, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
or oblate, regular. Stem short, usually not exserted. Cavity acute to acumi- 
nate, deep or moderately deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, somewhat 
furrowed, russeted and with some outspreading russet rays. Calyx large, 
closed. Basin wide, moderately deep, rather abrupt, smooth or somewhat 
wrinkled. 

Skin greenish-yellow, more or less dotted and flecked with russet, occa- 
sionally with a bronze blush. Dots numerous, large, dark. 

Calyx tube large, cone-shape to funnel- form. Stamens median. 

Core rather small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping. 
Carpels broad at the middle narrowing toward base and apex, emarginate. 
Seeds medium size, short, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish, a little coarse, moderately crisp, tender, very sweet, aro- 
matic, very good in flavor and quality. 

Season September to late fall or early winter. 

HAWLEY. 

REFERENCES. i. Hovey, Mag. Horl., 13:112,535. 1847. fig. 2. Culti- 
vator, 4:114. 1847. fig. 3. Leavenworth, Horticulturist, 2:27. 1847. fig. 
4. Cultivator, 5:246. 1848. 5. Cole, 1849:112. fig. 6. Thomas, 1849:156. 





HAWLEY 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 95 

fig. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:48. 1851. col. pi No. 24, fig. 8. 
Hovey, 2:39. 1851. col. pi. and fig. 9. Barry, 1851:284. 10. Horticulturist, 
7:484. 1852. ii. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 12. Mag. Hort., 19:68. 1853. 
13. Elliott, 1854:137. 14. Mag. Hort., 20:241. 1854. 15. Downing, 1857:82. 
16. Gregg, 1857:44. fig. 17. Hooper, 1857:43. 18. Horticulturist, 13:481. 
1858. 19. Warder, 1867:410. fig. 20. Leroy, 1873:375. fig. 21. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:240. 22. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:296. 1901. 

SYNONYMS. Douse (3, 5, 8, 10, 13, 20). Dows (i, 3, 8, 13, 20). Dowse 
(2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 16, 20, 22). HAWLEY (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 
15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22). Howley (20). 

Hawley is a very large apple of the Fall Pippin type in color, 
size and form. When the color is fully developed it is a handsome 
yellow. Season September and October. It is of delicious dessert 
quality and desirable for the home orchard but not well adapted 
for market because the tree is not very productive and the fruit 
often is scabby and sometimes it water-cores and rots at the core. 
The tree is a moderate grower in the nursery but in the orchard 
it is rather vigorous, medium in size to large, hardy and rather long- 
lived. It does not come into bearing very young. When mature 
it bears quite regularly but is usually a light or moderate cropper. 

Historical. Originated on the farm of Mr. Mathew Hawley, New Canaan. 
N. Y., about 1750, from seeds which Mr. Hawley obtained from Milford, 
Conn. (T, 3). The original tree lived nearly a century. The variety 
gradually became disseminated throughout New York state. It has long 
been known in cultivation in different parts of the state, particularly in 
Columbia, Onondaga, Caynga, Tompkins, Seneca and Monroe counties. It 
is now rarely listed by nurserymen and is seldom planted. 



FRUIT. 

Fruit large or very large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form nearly 
globular to somewhat oblate or slightly conic, sometimes inclined to elliptical, 
more or less distinctly ribbed. Stem medium in length, rather slender. 
Cavity acute to nearly obtuse, deep, wide and with outspreading russet rays. 
Calyx below medium to rather large, partly closed; lobes often separated at 
base, reflexed, wide, acute. Basin moderately deep to deep, medium to wide, 
very abrupt, often decidedly furrowed. 

Skin fair, smooth, waxy, rather thin, pale green deepening to yellow as it 
matures, sometimes showing a faint brownish blush, with scattering russet 
dots and flecks especially toward the cavity. 

Calyx tube large, wide, cone-shape, yellow or brownish. 

Core below medium to above ; cells closed ; core lines meeting. Carpels 
rather flat, tufted, roundish, emarginate. Seeds few, obtuse. When well 
developed they are medium in size, but often some are abortive. 



96 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, soft, very tender, rather fine-grained, juicy, rich, 
mild subacid, very good especially for dessert. 
Season September to November or later. 

HAWTHORNDEN. 

REFERENCES, i. Hooker, Pom. Land., 1813 :T. 44 (cited by 2). 2. Forsyth, 
1824:106. 3. Pom. Mag., 1828 :No. 34. col. pi. 4. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 
1831 :No. 530. 5. Mag. Hort., 1:326. 1835. 6. Manning, 1838:48. 7. Ib., 
Mag. Hort., 7:45. 1841. 8. Downing, 1845:86. 9. Cole, 1849:113. 10. 
Hovey, Mag. Hort., 17:18. 1851. fig. u. Barry, 1851:284. 12. Emmons r 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:40. 1851. 13. Mag. Hort., 19:174- 1853. 14. Elliott, 
1854:171. 15. Gregg, 1857:43. 16. Hooper, 1857:43. 17. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1862. 18. Warder, 1867:410. fig. 19. Leroy, 1873:376. fig. 20. 
Thomas, 1875:501. 21. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1:10. 1876. 22. Ib., 
5:24. 1879. 23. Hogg, 1884:105. 24. Rural N. Y., 45:233. 1886. figs. 
25. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 26. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 
27. Gaucher, 1894 :No. 13. col. pi c8. Dempsey, Out. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 
1:24. 1894. fig. 29. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:354. 

SYNONYMS. Hawley (27) but erroneously. HAWTHORNDEAN (2, 6, 7). 
Hawthorndean (23). HAWTHORNDEN (i, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 
16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29). Lincolnshire Pippin (27). 
Lord Kingston (27). Maiden's Blush erroneously (10). Old Hawthorn- 
dean (23, 27). Pomme. de Hawthornden (27). Red Hawthornden (10). 
Shoreditch White (27). Weisser Hawthornden (27). Wheeler's Kernel 
(27). White Apple (27). White Hawthorndean (23, 27). White Haw- 
thornden (3, 4, 8, 10, 12, 14). 

A Scotch variety which has done fairly well in various parts of this 
country from New England to California. Warder (18) says of it: "This 
famous Scotch fruit appears to do very well in this country, but it must yield 
the palm to its American cousin and representative, the Maiden's Blush, 
which possesses all its good qualities as a market and kitchen fruit, with 
attractive appearance." 

The tree is said to be a vigorous grower and a biennial cropper, and the 
fruit is above medium to large, regular, fair, white sometimes nearly over- 
spread with faint blush that deepens to bright red in the sun. Flesh mild 
subacid, not of high flavor, pleasant, good. Season September and October. 

We are not acquainted with this variety. It appears to be but little known 
among New York fruit growers. It is still occasionally listed by nursery- 
men (26). 

HIBERNAL. 

REFERENCES, i. Budd, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:525. 2. Gibb, Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:156. 3. Tuttle, Ib., 8:136. 1881-82. 4. Ib., 1883:98. 
5. Gibb, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:440. 6. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885:15. 
7. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87 : 15. 8. Schroeder, Ib., 1886-87 71. 
9. Craig, Ib., 1886-87:103. 10. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1890:20. n. Can. 
Hort., 13:216. 1890. 12. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 19 :537- 1892. 13- Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:241. 14. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57, 58. 15- 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. J 

Freeborn, Nat. Nurseryman, 1894:132. 16. Can. Hort., 17:7. 1894. I 7 
Card, and For., 8:340. 1895. 18. Mtinson, Me. Sta. R/>t., 1896:74. 19. Waugh, 
Vt. Sta. Bui., 61 :30. 1897. 20. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:13. 21. Troop, Ind. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 12:80. 1899. 22. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:296. 1901. 
23. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bui., 37:39. 1901. 24. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 
76:57. 1902. fig. 25. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 1902:83, 87. 26. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903 :98. fig. 

SYNONYMS. HIBERNAL (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 
19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26). Hibernal (8). ATo. j/# (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 
18, 25, 26). Orsimui (4, 5, 6). OSIMOE (8). Ronma (23). 

A Russian variety which is proving valuable in portions of the Upper Mis- 
sissippi valley and the Northwest because of its ability to withstand the rigor- 
ous climatic conditions of those regions. Hansen says of it : " This variety 
represents what is probably the hardiest type of the Russian race of apples ; there 
are several sorts closely resembling, or identical with, Hibernal. Tree vigor- 
ous, very spreading, productive. The strong spreading growth makes it 
especially desirable as a stock for top-grafting, probably the best we have 
at the present time. Fruit large, irregular, oblate to roundish oblate coni- 
cal; skin thick; surface greenish-yellow, with a dull bronze mixed red on 
sunny side, with a few dull crimson splashes ; dots white, minute, obscure, 
often some large russet dots ; cavity regular, medium deep, with a large patch 
of russet radiating out irregularly over nearly the entire base, this is a 
marked characteristic ; stem medium, often short ; basin narrow, rather 
shallow, wrinkled; calyx half open or open. Core closed, meeting; tube 
funnel-shaped ; stamens median ; seeds few ; flesh acid, with some astrin- 
gency, juicy, good for cooking. Early winter" (24, 26). 

Macoun reports "Flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, acid; core small; 
quality above medium; season September to November. Tree very hardy, a 
strong, spreading grower, and very productive. Although not a good dessert 
fruit this is a fine cooking apple and on account of its great hardiness and 
productiveness is one of the best of the Russian apples" (23). 

HICKS. 

REFERENCES, i. Hicks, Horticulturist, 21 :333. 1866. fig. 2. Downing, 
1869:215. 3. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:308, 316, 324. 1896. 
4. Thomas, 1897 :639. 

SYNONYMS. Buckram (2, 3). HICKS (i, 2, 3, 4). 

A sweet apple of medium size, yellowish striped and splashed with crim- 
son; season middle of August. It is but little known except in certain locali- 
ties on Long Island. Not recommended for general planting in this state. 

Historical. Hicks originated as a chance seedling and was brought to 
notice by Isaac Hicks, North Hempstead, L. I. (i, 2). 

HIGHTOP SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Thacher, 1822:128. 2. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:390. 1848. 
3- Cole, 1849:97. 4. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 5. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:16. 1851. fig. 6. Elliott, 1854:139. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. 



98 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Cat., 1856. 8. Mag. Hort., 22:181. 1856. 9. Downing, 1857:151. 10. 
Gregg, 1857:40. ii. Warder, 1867:553. 12. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1869:33. 

13. Fitz, 1872:145. 14. Thomas, 1875:189. 15. Downing, 1881:11 index, 
app. 16. Barry, 1883:333. 17. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 18. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:250. 19. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:132. 20. Hos- 
kins, Rural N. Y., 1894 :248. 21. Biidd-Hansen, 1903 :99. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Early Sweet (15). HIGH TOP SWEET (19). High Top Sweet 
(13). HIGHTOP Sweet (21). HIGH TOP SWEETING (i, 5, 6, 8, 12, 15). High 
Top Sweeting? (2, 3). SUMMER SWEET (3). Summer Sweet (5, 6, 9, 14). 
SUMMER SWEETING (2). SWEET JUNE (4, 10, 13, 18). Sweet June (6, 9, n, 

14, 16, 19, 20, 21 ). 

Fruit of medium size ; flesh yellowish, very sweet, 'rich and of very good 
quality; season July and August. Tree upright, vigorous, very productive. 

Historical. In 1822 Thacher (i) remarked: ''This tree, it is believed, is 
peculiar to the old Plymouth colony. The first settlers, either from choice, 
or for want of other varieties, cultivated it more generally than any other 
apple. It is now much on the decline. The fruit is under the middle size; 
of a yellowish colour, pleasant taste ; but chiefly used for baking, and for 
drying. It is ripe in August, and is not long preserved. The tree is remark- 
able for its long upright stem." 

It appears that this variety was introduced into Ohio from Connecticut and 
Massachusetts and afterward disseminated westward under the name of 
Sweet June. In 1892 Bailey (18) found that although various nurserymen 
were offering Sweet June for sale none of them mentioned Hightop Sweet. 
Some have held that the Sweet June of the West is not identical with the 
Hightop Sweet of Massachusetts (12). We have not had the opportunity of 
determining whether this is true, but if they are identical it appears strange 
that the name Hightop Sweet should be entirely dropped by those who are 
propagating it in the West. This variety is but little known in New York. 

HILAIRE. 

REFERENCES, i. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879 :453. 2. Montreal Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1886-87:95. 3. Bailey, Mich. Sta. Bui, 31:54. 1887. 4. Downing, 
1881:102 app. fig. 5. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui, 83:87. 1900. 

SYNONYMS. Cabane du Chien (3, 5, 6). Fameuse Baldwin, of some (5). 
ST. HILAIRE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). 

An apple which resembles Fameuse in the color of its skin and in the 
color and texture of its flesh, but the flesh has more of a sprightly acid 
flavor and the fruit keeps better than that of Fameuse. Waugh reports (5) 
that it is not now grown in the vicinity of its origin. Professor U. P. Hed- 
rick of the Michigan Agricultural College, who supplied the fruit for the 
following description, states that as grown in Michigan the variety is hardy, 
productive and gives promise of being a valuable acquisition. 

Historical This is said to have originated in the orchard of Alexis Dery, 
Quebec (4). Probably a seedling of Fameuse (2). So far as we know 
it is not grown in New York. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 99 

TREE. 

Tree large, vigorous; a heavy alternate bearer (2). Twigs short, curved, 
slender; internodes short. Bark dark brown, with light coat of streaked 
scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, raised. 
Buds small, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to above, uniform in size. Form oblate to roundish-oblate, 
rather irregular. Stem medium, moderately slender. Cavity acuminate or 
acute, moderately deep and broad, not russeted, symmetrical. Calyx medium, 
usually closed ; lobes broad, obtuse. Basin medium in depth to shallow, mod- 
erately wide to rather narrow, rather abrupt, slightly wrinkled, symmetrical. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, pale yellow or whitish almost completely over- 
spread with attractive red of the Fameuse hue becoming as highly colored as 
the Fameuse or Mclntosh and covered with faint bloom; stripes obscure if 
any. Dots very numerous, small, red, sometimes gray or russet. Prevailing 
effect brilliant deep pinkish-red deepening to purplish-red. 

Calyx tube long, rather narrow, funnel-shape. Stamens median to basal. 

Core nearly axile, small to medium ; cells closed or partly open ; core 
lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels round, slightly emarginate. 
Seeds dark, numerous, medium to large, wide, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh whitish sometimes tinged with red, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly 
subacid, good to very good. 

Season November to January. A better keeper than Fameuse. 

HE-TON. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:151. 2. Warder, 1867:721. 3. Thomas, 
1875:502. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

This variety originated in Columbia county, N. Y. According to Down- 
ing ( i ) the tree is vigorous and productive : the fruit large, yellowish-green, 
subacid, excellent for culinary purposes. Season September and October. 

So far as we can discover this variety is not now known in cultivation. 

HOADLEY. 

REFERENCES, i. Goff, Wis. Sta.An.Rpt., 11:347. 1894. 2 Ib., Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1899:236. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

A variety of the Oldenburg type which much resembles Olden- 
burg except that its season is about a month later. It is decidedly 
attractive in general appearance and of good quality for culinary 
purposes. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bearing 
early and so far as tested here is very productive. It appears to 
bt worthy of testing where an apple of this type is desired. 



IOO THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Historical. Received from the Wisconsin Experiment Station in 1896 for 
testing at this Station. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading when young. Tivigs 
short, straight, stout ; internodes medium. Bark brown and reddish-brown, 
lightly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, 
medium size, round, not raised. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, 
free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large, sometimes very large. Form roundish oblate 
inclined to conic, a little angular ; sides unequal. Stem short, thick to slen- 
der. Cavity acute to obtuse, deep, broad, pretty symmetrical, thinly and 
irregularly russeted. Calyx rather large, closed or partly open; lobes long, 
broad, acute to obtuse. Basin deep to medium in depth, rather narrow to 
moderately wide, abrupt, slightly furrowed. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, attractive yellow or greenish-yellow largely 
overspread with rather light bright red, mottled and irregularly striped and 
splashed with carmine. Dots inconspicuous, small, submerged, pale. 

Calyx tube variable, short, rather wide, funnel-shape, sometimes broadly 
conical with core lines meeting. Stamens median to nearly marginal. 

Core medium size, abaxile ; cells open ; core lines meeting or slightly clasp- 
ing. Carpels broadly cordate or elliptical, slightly tufted. Seeds medium or 
below, wide, moderately long, usually plump, rather obtuse, dark colored. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, pretty firm, a little coarse, crisp, tender, very 
juicy, brisk subacid, good. 

Season late September to November. 

HOG ISLAND SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:152. 2. Warder, 1867:721. 3. Downing, 
1872:10 index, app. 4. Thomas, 1875:502. 5. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890 :2Q2. 

SYNONYMS. HOG ISLAND SWEET (i, 2, 3, 4, 5). Sweet Pippin (i). Van 
Kleek's Sweet (3). 

A beautiful and excellent sweet apple in season from September to early 
winter. It is an old variety which had its origin on Hog Island, near Long 
Island, N. Y. (i). It is but little known. The tree is vigorous and pro- 
ductive. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform. Form roundish conical to oblate, 
broad at the base, regular or obscurely ribbed. Stem short to medium, mod- 
erately thick. Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, heavily russeted and with 
outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open ; 
lobes short, broad, acute. Basin shallow to medium in depth, narrow to 
moderately wide, abrupt, broadly furrowed. 

Skin thick, rather tough, somewhat roughened with flecks and patches of 
russet, pale yellow or greenish washed and mottled with red overlaid with 





HOADLEY 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 101 

broad and narrow stripes and splashes of carmine. Dots numerous, small, 
russet. Prevailing effect bright striped red over a yellow background. 

Calyx tube long, wide, conical to funnel-shape. Stamens basal to median. 

Core small to medium, abaxile to nearly axile; cells somewhat unsym- 
metrical, open; core lines slightly clasping the funnel cylinder or meeting. 
Carpels roundish obovate to elliptical, emarginate. Seeds medium or below, 
sometimes tufted, rather wide, rather short, plump, acute to somewhat 
obtuse. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, very sweet, 
somewhat aromatic, good to very good. 

Season September to early winter. 



HOLLAND PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Coxe, 1817:109. fig. 2. Downing, 1845:86. 3. Ib., Hor- 
ticulturist, 3:345. 1848. 4. Thomas, 1849:156. fig. 5. Cole, 1849:110. 
6. Downing, Chas., Horticulturist, 8:196. 1853. 7- Elliott, 1854:138. 8. 
Hovey, Mag. Hort., 22:555. 1856. fig. 9. Hooper, 1857:45. 10. Gregg, 
1857:37. ii. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 12. Warder, 1867:506. 13. Wick- 
son, 1889:244. 14. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 15. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:241. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:124. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. FALL PIPPIN (i). French Pippin (7). HOLLAND PIPPIN (i, 
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16). Pie Apple (2, 7, 8). Reinette 
d'Hollande (2). Reinette d'Holland (7). Summer Pippin (2, 7, 8). 

There are two varieties in cultivation in New York under the 
name Holland Pippin. One is a winter apple in season from late 
autumn to April or May which has already been described under 
the name Holland Winter, Vol. I., page 159. The other begins to 
ripen earlier than Fall Pippin and is in season during September 
and October. This variety was formerly confused by some with 
the Fall Pippin. The following comparison of the two varieties 
was given by Downing in 1848 (3). 

" The Holland Pippin, though considerably resembling this apple 
in the growth of the tree, and size and shape of the fruit, is a 
totally distinct apple from the Fall Pippin. In fact, while the Fall 
Pippin is one of the best autumn table apples (at least in this dis- 
trict), the Holland Pippin is of very inferior quality for dessert, 
and is, in fact, only a cooking apple. As a kitchen fruit, however, 
it is one of the most valuable summer fruits we know for it bears 
regularly and well, comes into use at the beginning of August, and 
continues fit for pies, tarts, and sauce, until October, when the Fall 
Pippin begins to ripen. The Holland Pippin is fit for use while 



iO2 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

the skin is quite green, but the Fall Pippin, not until it turns quite 
yellow. Finally, the stalk of the Holland Pippin is short, and set 
in a wide cavity, while that of the Fall Pippin is large, and set in a 
cavity often narrow, and comparatively shallow. With these points 
of difference, these two apples ought not to be confounded." 

Holland Pippin is grown to a limited extent for market. It 
appears to be more valued for this purpose in certain portions of 
the Hudson valley than in other sections of the state. The fruit 
is large and when kept free from scab its general appearance is 
good for a green apple. The crop ripens unevenly. Some of the 
apples ripen early and are correspondingly short-lived while others 
ripen later and keep correspondingly later. It varies greatly in 
keeping qualities in different seasons, some years keeping well till 
late fall or early winter (16). The tree is a good grower, hardy 
or nearly so, healthy, pretty long-lived and generally quite pro- 
ductive yielding moderate to heavy crops biennially or sometimes 
annually. 

Historical. Origin unknown. It is an old variety which has long been in 
cultivation in this and adjoining states. It is still listed by nurserymen but 
it is not being planted to any considerable extent. 

TREE. 

Tree large or moderately large, vigorous. Form spreading or roundish. 
Twigs medium to long, curved, stout ; internodes medium. Bark dark 
brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels scattering, 
small to medium, oval, not raised. Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, 
pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit usually large or very large, sometimes medium, pretty uniform in 
size and shape. Form roundish often decidedly flattened at the end varying 
to oblate conic, obscurely ribbed. Stem medium to short, usually rather 
slender. Cavity acute or sometimes acuminate, medium in width to broad, 
moderately shallow to deep, usually covered with thick outspreading russet. 
Calyx pubescent, medium to small, closed or partly open ; lobes rather long, 
acute. Basin usually rather shallow but varying to moderately deep, medium 
in width to rather narrow, abrupt to somewhat obtuse, ridged and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, nearly smooth, rather pale yellow or greenish with more 
or less of a brownish-red blush which is conspicuously marked with large, 
irregular, areolar dots. Dots numerous, large and small, often submerged 
and greenish. 





HOOK 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 103 

Calyx tube wide, broadly conical to truncate funnel-form. Stamens below 
median to basal. 

Core medium to large, abaxile ; cells unsymmetrical, open ; core lines meet- 
ing or somewhat clasping. Carpels broad, narrowing toward base and apex, 
slightly emarginate, a little tufted. Seeds medium size, rather narrow, acute 
to somewhat acuminate. 

Flesh nearly white, medium to slightly coarse-grained, moderately crisp, 
rather tender, very juicy, brisk subacid, good for culinary uses. 

Season September and October. 

HOOK. 

REFERENCE, i. (?) Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1880:183. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit of good medium size, rather attractive pale yellow with 
tender flesh of mild subacid flavor. It is in season during October 
and November. It is especially esteemed for dessert use. 

Historical. This variety was received from Schoharie county, N. Y., 
where it is well known and has the reputation of being one of the most 
desirable dessert apples of its season. We have not yet been able to deter- 
mine its origin, nor the extent of its distribution. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium size, pretty uniform in shape and size. Form roundish ovate 
or inclined to oblong conic, sometimes roundish truncate. Stem short, rather 
slender. Cavity acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, broad, often lipped, 
smooth or with some outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium size, usually 
somewhat open ; lobes rather narrow to wide, acute to acuminate. Basin 
medium in width and depth, obscurely furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, clear yellow or greenish-yellow. Dots inconspicuous, minute, 
usually submerged. 

Calyx tube large, conical or approaching funnel-form. Stamens median or 
below. 

Core rather small, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed or a little open ; core 
lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth, flat, obcordate to 
elliptical, emarginate. Seeds medium brown, rather large, wide, flat, obtuse. 

Flesh whitish with slight tinge of yellow, very tender, fine-grained, juicy, 
mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, very good. 

Season October and November. 



HOWARD BEST. 

REFERENCES, i. Bailey, Mich. Sta. Bui, 31 152. 1887. 2. N. Y. Sta. An. 
Rpt., ii 1223. 1892. 

SYNONYMS. HOWARD'S BEST (2). HOWARD'S BEST RUSSIAN (i). 



IO4 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

This is an attractive apple which bears a decided resemblance to Alexander 
in form, color and quality. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bear- 
ing rather young and yields moderate to good crops almost annually. We 
have not yet determined whether or not it is superior to Alexander. 

Historical. Received in 1892 for testing at this Station from C. G. Patten, 
Charles City, la. (2). 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, crooked branches. 
Form rather flat and spreading, inclined to droop. Tivigs short, straight, 
slender with large terminal buds ; internodes short to medium. Bark dull 
brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. 
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised. Buds small, plump, obtuse, 
free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium, usually large to very large. Form oblate conic, rather 
flat at the base, somewhat ribbed, symmetrical. Stem medium to long, thick. 
Cavity acute, deep, medium in width to wide, symmetrical, sometimes com- 
pressed, heavily russeted. Calyx large, open ; lobes separated at base, short, 
narrow, acute. Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, rather narrow, 
abrupt, distinctly furrowed to nearly smooth. 

Skin rather tough, smooth, waxy, light yellowish-green, mottled, striped 
and splashed with bright, dark red over a large part of the surface. Dots 
indistinct, medium size, gray, scattering. 

Calyx 1 tube short, wide, conical or approaching funnel-form. Stamens basal 
to median. 

Core medium size, nearly axile ; cells closed or slightly open ; core lines 
clasping or nearly meeting. Carpels very broadly ovate or inclined to ellipti- 
cal, slightly emarginate, tufted. Seeds medium to small, wide, short, rather 
flat, obtuse. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, tender, very juicy, 
sprightly subacid, fair to good. 

Season September and October. 

HUNTER PIPPIN. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1876 :54 app. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

A chance seedling which originated in Westport, N. Y. Downing de- 
scribes the tree as moderately vigorous and a good annual bearer; fruit 
medium size, whitish-yellow; flesh brisk subacid; season August (i). 

So far as we can leani this variety is not being propagated. 

HURLBUT. 

REFERENCES, i. Cole, 1849:118. fig. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:31. 
1851. col. pi. and fig. 3. Downing, 1857:155. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 
5. Warder, 1867:722. 6. Thomas, 1875:201. 7. Barry, 1883:347. 8. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 10. Mun- 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 105 

son, Me. Sta. Rpi., 1893:133. n. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 1:24. 
1894. 12. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui., 45:326. 1896. 13. Munson, 
Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18 :8g. 1902. 14. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
48:45. 1903. 15. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:126. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. HURLBURT (2). HURLBUT (i, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 
15). Hurlbut Stripe (3). HURLBUTT (5). 

The general appearance of Hurlbut is good yet it is not particu- 
larly attractive either in size or color nor does it take first rank for 
either home use or market. The tree is a strong grower, comes 
into bearing moderately young and yields heavy crops biennially. 
Because of the tendency of the tree to overproduction in bearing 
years the size of the fruit is in many cases reduced and a con- 
siderable portion of it is too small to be marketable. Hurlbut has 
proved to be a profitable variety with some fruit growers but 
although it has long been known in cultivation and has been quite 
widely disseminated it has nowhere gained prominence as a com- 
mercial variety. 

Historical. In 1849 Cole (i) wrote: "The original tree is still flourishing 
on the farm of General Leonard Hurlbut, Winchester, Conn." It is still quite 
frequently listed by nurserymen (9) but is not being planted to any consider- 
able extent. 

TREE. 

Tree rather large, vigorous or moderately vigorous. Form spreading or 
roundish and somewhat inclined to droop. Tzvigs moderately long, slightly 
curved, moderately stout to rather slender; internodes below medium to 
short. Bark dark brown to clear brownish-red, heavily mottled with scarf- 
skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, round, slightly raised. 
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit below medium to above, fairly uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish, slightly oblate or inclined to oblate conic, somewhat angular, rather 
symmetrical. Stem medium to short, rather slender. Cavity acute, shallow 
to medium in depth, medium in width, symmetrical or compressed, usually 
covered with heavy outspreading russet. Calyx medium or below, usually 
closed; lobes medium to long, narrow, acute. Basin shallow to medium in 
depth, narrow to nearly medium in width, somewhat abrupt, smooth or 
slightly wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, greenish-yellow largely overspread with brown- 
ish-red or dull red, splashed and striped with carmine. Dots scattering, in- 
conspicuous, usually submerged, sometimes russet. 

Calyx tube very short, wide, truncate conical with fleshy pistil point pro- 
jecting into the base. Stamens marginal. 

Core medium size, abaxile; cells wide open to nearly closed; core lines 



io6 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels nearly round. Seeds numerous, rather 
large, moderately wide, long, rather plump, acute. 

Flesh white or yellowish, moderately firm, rather fine, tender, crisp, very 
juicy, aromatic, mildly subacid, good to very good. 

Season variable; October to December or January (15). 

ISHAM. 

REFERENCES, i. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 1242. 2. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 
53:310. 1894. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:17. 4. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 
76:60. 1902. fig. 5. Kan. Sta. Bui., 106:53. 1902. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 
105. 

SYNONYMS. ISHAM SWEET (i, 2, 3, 4, 5). ISHAM Sweet (6). 

A red sweet apple of medium size, in season in late fall and early winter. 
It has been grown to some extent in some of the Western states but it has 
not been much tested in New York and it is doubtful whether it is desirable 
for planting in any portion of this state. 

Historical. Isham originated from seed of Bailey Sweet. It was intro- 
duced about 1864 by F. K. Phoenix, Delavan, Wis. (2). 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading. Twigs medium to 
long, rather stout, in some cases quite blunt at the tips, straight or nearly 
so ; internodes rather long. Bark reddish-brown overlaid with heavy grayish 
scarf-skin, not pubescent or very sparingly so. Lenticels rather inconspicu- 
ous, rather scattering, irregular in size and shape, not raised. Buds large, 
prominent, fleshy, heavily pubescent, adhering to bark. 

FRUIT (4, 6). 

Fruit medium. Form roundish, slightly tapering. Stem short. Cavity 
regular, acute, with much radiating russet. Calyx open; segments flat, con- 
vergent. Basin very shallow, minutely wrinkled. 

Skin yellowish-green mostly covered with brownish-red, solid and mixed 
on sunny side, striped and broadly splashed on the shady side. Dots distinct, 
russet, numerous, minute ; a few large russet dots. 

Calyx tube funnel-shape. Stamens median. 

Core closed ; cells round, entire. Seeds long, large, flat. 

Flesh very yellow with yellow veinings, firm, very sweet, very good. 

JACK. 

REFERENCES, i. (?) Hooper, 1857:46. 2. (?) Downing, 1869:206. 3. 
(?) ///. Sta. Bui., 45:334. 1896. 
SYNONYMS. (Early Jack i)? (JACK APPLE i)? (OSKALOOSA 2, 3)? 

Fruit of good medium size, yellow ; flesh very tender, rich, mild subacid. 
It is highly esteemed for its excellent dessert quality but it is too tender 
to stand shipping very well and on account of its irregular shape and yellow 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 107 

color it is not sufficiently attractive for market purposes. The tree is not 
a vigorous grower and has rather slender twigs. 

Possibly this is identical with Oskaloosa which has Jack as a synonym, 
(2, 3) but we have been unable to obtain fruit of Oskaloosa and the avail- 
able descriptions of that variety are so meager that it is impossible to deter- 
mine whether or not it is identical with the variety described above. 

Historical. Jack is grown to a very limited extent in East Bloomfield, 
Ontario county, N. Y. We have not obtained it from any other locality. We 
have been unable to learn where it originated, or whether it is the Jack 
mentioned by Hooper (i). 

TREE. 

Tree not very vigorous with moderately long, slender, crooked branches. 
Form at first upright spreading but becoming roundish and rather dense. 
Twigs long, straight, slender; internodes short. Bark brown or reddish- 
brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent near tips. Len- 
ticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, oblong, slightly 
raised. Buds small, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above, sometimes rather large, not uniform in shape or 
size. Form oblate varying to roundish oblate or to oblate conic, very irregu- 
lar, obscurely ribbed, often with the sides somewhat furrowed and unequal. 
Stem short to medium, slender. Cavity acuminate, usually deep, medium in 
width, russeted, with concentric russet lines often extending beyond the 
cavity, sometimes lipped. Calyx medium size, usually open. Basin small to 
medium, rather shallow to moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, un- 
symmetrical, irregularly furrowed or nearly smooth. 

Skin rather thin, waxy, glossy, attractive yellow with shades of green, 
sometimes faintly tinged with red and marbled with whitish scarf-skin over 
the base somewhat after the manner of Yellow Newtown. Dots mostly small 
and depressed mingled with a few that are larger, scattering and irregular 
with russet center. 

Calyx tube medium in width and length, conical to somewhat funnel-form. 
Stamens median or below. 

Core medium in size, somewhat abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical, some- 
what open; core lines clasping. Carpels elliptical, deeply emarginate. Seeds 
medium or below, wide, short, rather flat, obtuse, mingled with light and 
dark brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, moderately crisp or breaking, 
very tender, moderately juicy, very mild subacid, very good for dessert. 

Season October and November. 

JARVTS. 

REFERENCE, i. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., n 1223. 1892. 
SYNONYMS. Crandall Seedling (i). JARVIS (i). No. 25 (i). 

Fruit large and when well colored partly overspread and striped with 
red; flesh tender, juicy, subacid, pleasant but not superior in flavor or 



io8 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

quality ; season late September to early winter. It is possibly desirable for 
local market but it is not recommended for general cultivation. 

Historical. The original tree is standing near Ithaca, N. Y., on land once 
owned by a Mr. Jarvis from whom the variety takes its name. It is grown 
to a limited extent in the vicinity of Ithaca but so far as we know is not 
cultivated in any other portion of the state. Received for testing at this 
Station in 1892 from C. B. Crandall. 

JEFFERIS. 

REFERENCES, i. Thomas, 1849:149. 2. Mag. Hort., 18:491. 1852. 3. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 4. Elliott, 1854:139. S.Mag. Hort., 21:62. 1855. 
6. Gregg, 1857:44. 7. Downing, 1857:83. fig. 8. Hooper, 1857:47. 9. Mag. 
Hort., 24:109. 1858. 10. Hoffy, N. A. Pom., 1860. col. pi. n. Horticul- 
turist, 17:104, 150. 1862. 12. Warder, 1867:440. fig. 13. Barry, 1883:338. 
14. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1888:570. 15. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. 
Rf>t., 1890:292. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 17. Burrill and McCluer, 
///. Sta. Bui, 45:309, 323. 1896. 18. Powell, Del. Sta. Bui, 38:18. 1898. 
19. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901 :g6. 20. Beach, Western N. Y. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1901:76. 21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:105. 22. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bui, 
182:21. 1903. 23. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:45. 1903. 24. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:45. 1903. 25. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. 
Bui, 248:126. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Everbearing (20). Grantham (17). JEFFERIES (10, 12, 14, 17, 
20). JEFFERIS (3, 4, 7, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25). JEFFRIES (i, 2, 
5, 6, 8, 9, ii). 

Fruit of medium size, yellow, blushed and splashed with red ; 
Mesh tender, mild subacid, delicious. It begins to ripen in Septem- 
ber and continues in season till early winter. Commercial limit 
October (25). It is an excellent variety for the home orchard but 
not for commercial planting because it ripens unevenly, is apt to be 
deficient in size and is not especially attractive in color. The tree 
is a moderately vigorous grower, hardy, healthy, comes into bearing 
moderately early and is a reliable cropper yielding full crops bien- 
nially. 

Historical. Originated with Isaac Jefferies, Newlin township, Chester 
county, Pa. It was named after the originator by the Committee of the Penn- 
sylvania Horticultural Society which awarded this variety the premium for the 
best seedling apple exhibited in 1848 (10). 

TREE. 

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous. Form upright to roundish, open. 
Twigs short, straight, slender; internodes long. Bark brown mingled with 
olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels 






JEFFERIS 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 109 

scattering, small, oblong, not raised. Buds small, plump, obtuse, free, 
pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit small to medium, very uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate often inclined to conic, regular or obscurely ribbed. Stem medium 
length, thick to moderately slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, medium in 
depth to deep, medium to broad, symmetrical, russeted but slightly if at all. 
Calyx: small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes short, rather broad, 
acute. Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, moderately wide, somewhat 
abrupt, smooth or nearly so, symmetrical. 

Skin thin, tough, greenish-yellow or pale yellow more or less blushed and 
mottled with moderately dull red overlaid with narrow splashes and stripes 
of carmine. Dots small, scattering, inconspicuous, submerged or russet. 

Calyx tube narrow, conical to funnel-shape. Stamens marginal to median. 

Core small, axile, or nearly so; cells slightly open; core lines somewhat 
clasping or meeting. Carpels elliptical to somewhat obovate, emarginate, 
sometimes tufted. Seeds numerous, medium to rather large, wide, long, flat, 
very irregular, obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish- white, firm, fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, mild subacid, 
very good. 

Season September to January. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

REFERENCES, i. Horticulturist, 10:254. J 855. fig. 2. Downing, 1857:156. 
3. Warder, 1867:723. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 5- Thomas, 1875:201. 
6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This variety originated in Jefferson county, N. Y., hence its name (2). 
The tree is of medium size, moderately vigorous; form somewhat drooping; 
twigs rather slender. It comes into bearing young and is a reliable bearer 
producing some fruit nearly every year, alternating heavy with lighter crops. 
The fruit is yellow shaded and splashed with red, not very bright in color, 
in season during October and November. It is particularly suitable for 
dessert, the flesh being tender, rather firm, crisp, of good flavor and excellent 
quality but it is not regarded as a good market variety for there is apt to be 
a rather large amount of small, imperfect or otherwise unmarketable fruit 
and when the fruit does not color properly, as happens in many cases, it is of 
poor flavor. It was listed by the American Pomological Society in 1873. 
It has been sparingly disseminated in various parts of the country but is as 
yet little known. So far as we can learn it is not being planted in New 
York. 

JENNETTING or JUNEATING, 

This name has been applied by some to White Juneating. For 
a description of this variety together with Hogg's account of the 
derivation of the name the reader is referred to White Juneating, 
page 240. 



no THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



JERSEY SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1845:87. 2. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1846:190. 
3. Cole, 1849:110. 4. Thomas, 1849:145. fig. 5. Barry, 1851:284. 6. Em- 
mons, Nat. Plist. N. Y.. 3:25. 1851. 7. Waring, 1851:26. 8. Elliott, 1854: 
86. fig. 9. Hooper, 1857:48. 10. lb., 1857:107, in. n. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1862. 12. Horticulturist, 17:104, 150. 1862. 13. Warder, 1867:395. 
14. Fitz, 1872:153. 15. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 16. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:242. 17. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53:278. 1894. iS. Mich. 
Sta. Bui., 118:60. 1895. 19. Ib., 143:200. 1897. 20. II)., 205:45. 1903. 
21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:105. 22. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:126. 
1904. 

SYNONYMS. American (13). JERSEY SWEET (5, 7, 10, 12, 13, 16, 18, 21). 
JERSEY SWEETING (i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 14, 17). 

An early autumn apple of medium size. It does not always 
color well but under favorable conditions it is highly colored, rich 
in flavor, tender and excellent in quality for either dessert or cul- 
inary uses. It is one of the best of the sweet apples of its season 
for planting for home use in New York but it has proved unsatis- 
factory as a commercial sort because it ripens at a time when there 
is little demand for fruit of this kind, is not a good keeper, is apt 
to be scabby and does not always color well. The tree is hardy, 
moderately long-lived, comes into bearing young and bears nearly 
every year, yielding moderate to good or sometimes heavy crops. 
The fruit comes in season late in August or early in September 
and ripens in succession during a period of several weeks ; often 
some portion may be kept till early winter, but its commercial limit 
in ordinary storage is September or early October (22). 

Historical. Origin unknown. Elliott calls it an American variety (8). 
It is pretty well known in different parts of New York state, but is now 
rarely found except in old orchards. It is commonly listed by nurserymen 
( 16) but is now seldom or never planted except occasionally for home use. 

TREE. 

Tree rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous ; branches long, moder- 
ately stout, filled with spurs. Form upright to roundish, open. Twigs mod- 
erately long, straight, slender; internodes long. Bark brown, lightly streaked 
with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips. Lenticels scattering, medium to small, 
oblong, not raised. Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 








JERSEY SWEET 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. in 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium size. Form roundish ovate inclined to conic or to oblate conic ; 
sides unequal. Stem long to medium length, rather slender. Cavity acute, 
usually rather deep, varying to shallow, medium in width, occasionally 
lipped, sometimes slightly russeted. Calyx small, closed; lobes medium to 
long, narrow, acute to acuminate. Basin rather small, moderately shallow 
to rather deep, narrow to medium in width, somewhat abrupt, ribbed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tender, at first greenish-yellow but becoming clear yellow washed 
and mottled with brownish-red and overlaid with narrow stripes of bright 
carmine. Dots inconspicuous, greenish, submerged. 

Calyx tube narrow, conical to funnel-form, often with fleshy pistil point 
projecting into the base. Stamens median. 

Core medium size or above, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, usually 
closed ; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels elongated ovate, 
tufted. Seeds medium to large, variable in length and width, acute to acu- 
minate. 

Flesh yellowish, moderately firm, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sweet, good to 
very good. 

Season September to December. 

JUDSON. 

REFERENCES, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:17. 2. Ib., Rpt., 1901:49. 
3. Hansen, 5. D. Sta. Bui, 76:62. 1902. fig. 4. Budd-Hansen, 1903:108. fig. 
SYNONYMS. JUDSON (i, 2, 3, 4). Thompson's Seedling No. 29 (3, 4). 

Fruit large, green or yellowish, more or less covered with red, 
not especially attractive in appearance and only fair to good in 
quality. Season October to December. Not valuable enough to 
be worthy of trial in New York except perhaps in those districts 
where superior hardiness is particularly desirable. 

Historical. Originated in Grundy county, Iowa, by J. S. B. Thompson. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, somewhat drooping 
branches. .Form open, roundish to spreading. Twigs above medium to 
short, somewhat curved, medium to stout, rather pubescent with large ter- 
minal buds ; internodes medium or below. Bark brown or reddish-brown 
tinged with olive-green, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent. 
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium or below, round or 
irregularly elongated, not raised. Buds prominent, large to medium, broad, 
plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large or very large, fairly uniform in size but not in shape. Form 
roundish conical or a little inclined to oblong, indistinctly ribbed, irregular; 



112 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

sides often unequal. Stem short to medium, thick. Cavity very acuminate, 
deep, moderately narrow to rather broad, somewhat furrowed, irregularly 
russeted, frequently compressed. Calyx large, usually somewhat open. 
Basin moderately deep to deep, medium in .width, very abrupt, furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, rather tough, clear bright yellow washed with red which 
sometimes deepens to a pinkish blush, striped and splashed with carmine 
and mottled over the base with dull scarf-skin. Dots scattering, small to 
large, pale gray, conspicuous. Prevailing effect greenish-yellow ; not par- 
ticularly attractive. 

Calyx tube long, wide, funnel-shape. Stamens variable but usually median. 

Core rather small, usually abaxile ; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, wide 
open ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical, emarginate, 
sometimes tufted. Seeds rather dark brown, small to medium, rather numer- 
ous, very short, very plump, obtuse. 

Flesh nearly white, firm, rather coarse, crisp, juicy, brisk subacid, fair to 
good. 

Season October to December. 

JULY. 

REFERENCES, i. Rural N. Y., 1861 (cited by 15). 2. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 
29:112. 1863. 3. Hanford, Horticulturist, 19:273. 1864. fig. 4. Warder, 
1867:719. 5. Downing, 1869:181. fig. 6. Thomas, 1875:499. 7. ///. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1876:252. 8. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:471. 9. Hoskins, Rural 
N. Y., 47:646. 1888. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. n. Amer. 
Card., 12:570. 1891. figs. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. 13. Burrill and 
McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:321. 1896. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:108. 15. 
Ragan, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 56:160. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. August (4, 15, of Cassel, Germany, 3). FOURTH OF JULY (2, 
4, 6, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13). Fourth of July (15, ? 5). JULY (i, 3, 7, 15). 
JULY, Fourth of (14). McAdoiv's June (4, 15). Siberian August (4, 15, 
of Germany 2). Stewart's Nonpareil (15, ? 4). TETOFSKI (5). Tctofsky, 
erroneously (4, 15). 

This fruit closely resembles Tetofsky and some have considered the two 
varieties identical (4) but they are quite distinct in tree. It is not recom- 
mended for planting in New York because it is not equal to standard 
varieties of its season. 

Historical Hovey states that " The Fourth of July apple, in Germany 
called the Siberian August apple, was sent from the Russian province Lief- 
land, in the year 1807, to the celebrated pomologist, Dr. Diel, and is cele- 
brated, like all our summer apples which originated in Russia, for its great 
productiveness and hardiness" (2). It was introduced into Columbus, O., 
from Cassel, Germany (3). It has been disseminated to a considerable extent 
in various parts of this country and is still listed by a considerable number 
of nurserymen (12). 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous. Form upright, roundish and rather dense. Twigs short, 
straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium. Bark dull 




JUDSON 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 113 

brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. 
Lenticcls scattering, small, oblong, not raised. Buds medium size, plump, 
obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit below medium to above, pretty uniform in shape but not in size. 
Form usually roundish conical, irregularly ribbed; sides often unequal. Stem 
medium to long, moderately slender, often bracted. Cavity acuminate to 
acute, moderately deep, medium to narrow, slightly furrowed, thinly rus- 
seted. Calyx medium to large, usually closed ; lobes medium in length, 
moderately narrow, acuminate. Basin rather shallow to medium in depth, 
narrow, somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, rather glossy, pale yellow washed and mottled 
with red striped and splashed with carmine and overspread with whitish 
bloom. Dots small, numerous, submerged, inconspicuous, light, areolar. 

Calyx tube variable in length, funnel-shape. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium or below, axile ; cells closed ; core lines slightly clasping or 
meeting. Carpels roundish ovate or elongated ovate. Seeds very dark dull 
brown, medium size, moderately wide, short, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish, a little coarse, crisp, tender, moderately juicy, sprightly 
subacid, fair to good. 

Season last of July to September. 



KAIGHN. 

REFERENCES, i. Coxe, 1817:128. fig. 2. Downing, Horticulturist, 1:341. 
1847. 3. Cole, 1849:125. 4. Thomas, 1849:173. 5. Emmons, Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 3:60. 1851. 6. Elliott, 1854:141. fig. 7. Hooper, 1857:49. 8. Down- 
ing, 1857:158. 9. Warder, 1867:681. fig. 10. Downing, 1876:55 app. n. 
Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 

SYNONYMS. KAIGHN (n). KAIGHN'S SPITZEMBURG (i). KAIGHN'S SPIT- 
ZENBERG (3, 6, 9). KAIGHN'S SPITZENBERGH (2). KAIGHN'S SPITZENBURG (7, 
12). KAIGHN'S SPITZENBURGH (4, 5, 8). KAIGN'S SPITZENBURG (10). Lady 
Finger (erroneously 6, 7). Long John (6, 7). Long Pearmain (6, 7). 
Ohio Wive (6). Red Pearmain (6, 7, 8). Red Phoenix (6). Red Pippin 
(6). 'Red Spitzenberg (6). Red Spitsenburg (8). Red Winter Pear- 
main (6). Russam (6). Scarlet Pearmain, erroneously (6). Downing 
states that Kaign's Spitzenberg and Long Red Permain, for many years 
considered identical, are in reality distinct varieties in both tree and fruit. 
He gives a long list of synonyms for Long Red Pearmain including all of 
the synonyms cited above and adds, " The true Kaign's Spitzenburg, so far as 
I know, has no synonyms " (10). 

This is an old variety of New Jersey origin which has been disseminated 
through various parts of the West even to the Pacific Coast. The fruit is 
showy and the tree productive. The tree makes a spreading, straggling 
growth (i, n). According to Coxe (i) the fruit bears "a faint resemblance 
to the Esopus Spitzemberg but is more pointed toward the crown ; the 
color is a lively but pale red, faintly streaked and full of white spots; the 



H4 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

skin is smooth, the stem long and deeply planted, the crown very hollow 
the flesh finely flavored, yellow, juicy and tender." It is now practically 
obsolete in New York. 

KALKIDON. 

REFERENCES, i. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 1885:25. 2. Schroeder, Mon- 
treal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-7:76. 3. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:56. 
4. Lyon, U. S. Pom. Bui, 2:41. 1888. 5. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., n :593. 
1892. 6 Ib., 13:589. 1894. 7. Ib., 14:261. 1895. 8. Beach, Paddock and 
Close, Ib., 15:272, 281. 1896. 9. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:127. 
1904. 10. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:161. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. KALKIDON (3, 4, 9, incorrectly 10). KALKIDONSKOE (i). 
KALKIDOUSKOE (5, 6, 7, 8). KALKIDOVSKOE (2). Khalkidonskoe (4, 9). 
Khalkidouskoe (3, 10). No. 540 (10). No. 94 (i, 2, 3, 10). 

A Russian variety which was received from Ellwanger and Barry, Roch- 
ester, N. Y., in 1884 for testing at this Station. It is an apple of moderately 
attractive appearance and fair to good quality, in season in September and 
October. The tree comes into bearing moderately young and is a reliable 
biennial cropper. It is not recommended for planting in New York because 
it is inferior to standard varieties of its season. 



FRUIT. 

Fruit large to medium, fairly uniform in size and shape. Form oblate 
conical to ovate, regular or faintly ribbed. Stem medium to very short, 
moderately thick. Cavity acute to almost acuminate, moderately shallow to 
deep, medium in width, furrowed and compressed, russeted and with out- 
spreading greenish-russet rays. Calyx medium to large, closed or partly 
open ; lobes medium in length, broad, acute. Basin shallow to medium in 
depth, narrow to medium in width, rather abrupt, slightly furrowed. 

Skin thick, rather tough, smooth, greenish or pale yellow, largely washed 
and mottled with dull red, splashed and striped with carmine. Dots variable 
in size, numerous, inconspicuous, submerged. 

Calyx tube rather long, moderately wide, conical or funnel-shape. Stamens 
median to marginal. 

Core small, axile or sometimes abaxile ; cells symmetrical, closed or open ; 
core lines clasping. Carpels ovate to elliptical, slightly emarginate, slightly 
tufted. Seeds medium to large, wide, plump, acute to obtuse, dark brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellowish-green, moderately fine-grained, tender, rather 
juicy, mild subacid, fair to good. 

Season September to midwinter (9). 



KARABOVKA. 

REFERENCES, i. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883.74. 2. Budd, la. 
Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885:7. 3. Gibb, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885:274. 4. N. Y. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 13:582. 1894. 5. Ragan, U. S. B..P. I. Bui, 56:161. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Kajaboivka (5). KARABOFF (2, 3, 4). Karaboff (i, 5). 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 115 

KARABOVKA (5). Karabovka (3, 4). KARABOWKA (i). Karabowka (2, 
4). No. 21 M (3, 4)- No. 205 (2, 3, 4, 5). Shro. to la. No. 21 (5). 

A Russian variety received from Elhvanger and Barry, Rochester, N. Y., 
in 1884 for testing at this Station. As grown here the tree does not Tome 
into bearing very early but when mature yields full crops biennially. The 
fruit is medium to rather small, not specially attractive in appearance, fair 
to possibly good in quality being inferior to standard sorts of its season 
Season late August and September. It does not agree with the description 
of Karabovka given by Budd (2). 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, stout, . curved branches. 
Form rather open, flat, spreading. Tivigs long, curved, stout, with large 
terminal buds ; internodes medium. Bark dark brown, heavily streaked with 
scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels quite numerous, small to 
medium, round, slightly raised. Buds large, prominent, plump, obtuse, free, 
slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit small to medium, uniform. Form oblate, regular, symmetrical. 
Stem medium in length, moderately thick to rather slender. Cavity acute 
to nearly acuminate, moderately deep to deep, narrow to medium in width, 
occasionally lipped, usually russeted. Calyx large, open or nearly closed ; 
lobes short, rather broad, acute. Basin medium in depth, wide, furrowed or 
wrinkled and with mammiform protuberances. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, rather dull pale greenish-yellow, with scatter- 
ing narrow stripes of dull dark red, or when highly colored it is largely 
striped, splashed and shaded with red, and overspread with pinkish bloom. 
Dots rather numerous, small, light, obscure, submerged. 

Calyx tube large, medium in length, rather wide, broadly conical to funnel- 
shape. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium size, axile; cells closed; core lines clasping. Carpels ellip- 
tical, emarginate. Seeds very dark dull brown, medium size, wide, rather 
short, flat, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh nearly white, moderately fine, tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid 
with peculiar flavor, fair to good in quality. 

Season late August and September. 

KENTISH FILLBASKET. 

REFERENCES. I. Kenrick, 1832:95. 2. Downing, 1845:114. 3. Thomas, 
1849:168. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:62. 1851. 5. Elliott, 1854:172. 
6. Hooper, 1857:49. 7. Warder, 1867:723. 8. Hogg, 1884:120. 9. Green, 
Country Gentleman, 1885:840. 10 Ib., Can. Hort., n :8. 1888. n. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:242. 12. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 4:3. 1897. 
figs. 13. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:354. 

SYNONYMS. KENT FILLBASKET (13). KENTISH FILBASKET (3). KENTISH 
FILLBASKET (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12). Lady de Grey's (2, 5, 8). 



u6 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Potter's Large (8). Potter's Large Grey Seedling (5). Potter's Large 
Seedling (2). 

A very large, handsome, late autumn apple, desirable for cooking but not 
for dessert use. Tree a strong grower and a fair cropper. Not recommended 
for planting in New York. 

According to Hogg (8) the Kentish Fillbasket of Miller, Forsyth and 
Rogers is a different variety being evidently the Kentish Codlin or common 
old English Codlin, a lemon-yellow apple which is in season from August 
to October. 

The Kentish Fillbasket of Buel 1 appears to be the same as that of 
Forsyth. 2 

Historical. This is an old English variety. It has been sparingly culti- 
vated in portions of New York state for many years and has been grown to 
some extent also in Ontario (12). 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large. Form oblate or roundish, ribbed broadly and obscurely 
if at all, irregular, fairly uniform. Stem not exserted, short, medium in 
thickness. Cavity acute to somewhat acuminate, deep, broad, symmetrical 
or somewhat furrowed, green or more often with outspreading russet. 
Calyx small to rather large, closed or partly open ; lobes broad, obtuse to 
acute. Basin pretty abrupt, moderately deep to deep, medium in width to 
wide, sometimes a little furrowed or wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, pale yellow with thin brownish 
blush often deepening to red, somewhat mottled and splashed with carmine. 
Dots small usually not conspicuous, dark brown or grayish or submerged 
and whitish. Prevailing effect yellow somewhat striped with red. 

Calyx tube wide, conical. Stamens basal to nearly median. 

Core abaxile, medium to large; cells often unsymmetrical and open, some- 
times closed; core lines nearly meeting. Carpels broadly ovate, mucronate, 
not emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds medium or below, plump, acute. 

Flesh whitish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather tender, juicy, brisk 
subacid, good. 

Season October to December. 

KESWICK. 

REFERENCES, i. Forsyth, 1824:132. 2. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 
225. 3. Kenrick, 1832 -.89. 4. Floy-Lindley, 1833 123. 5. Downing, 1845 187. 
6. Thomas, 1849:156. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y. 3:37. 1851. 8. Barry, 
1851:280. 9. Elliott, 1854:141. 10. Barry, Horticulturist, 10:87. 1855. n. 
Gregg, 1857:37. 12. Hooper, 1857:25, 49, 107, in. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1860. 14. Mead, Horticulturist, 17:150. 1862. 15. Warder, 1867:688. fig. 
16. Fitz, 1872:160. 17. Hogg, 1884:122. 18. Wickson, 1889:243. 19. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 20. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 21. Taft, 
Mich. Sta. Bui, 105:108. 1894. 22. Lyon, Ib., 118:60. 1895. 23 Ib., 143: 
200. 1897. 24. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort: Soc., 1898:354. 25. Dickens and 

1 Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 

2 Forsyth, 1808:50. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 117 

Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui., 106 153. 1902. 26. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 205 145 . 
1903. 27. Budd-Hansen, 1903:110. 28. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 
248:128. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. CODLIN, KESWICK (i, 2, 24). KESWICK (19, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 
28). KESWICK CODLIN (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 
20, 24, 25). Keswick Codlin (27, 28). KESWICK CODLING (15). No. 225 (2). 

This variety is particularly esteemed on account of its excellence 
for culinary use. It is not adapted for storage, its commercial 
limit in ordinary storage being September and early October. It 
comes into season late in August or early in September and ripens 
continuously during a period of several weeks. It does not stand 
heat well before going into storage and goes down quickly (28). 
The fruit is of good medium size to rather large, greenish-yellow, 
sometimes with faint blush ; flesh brisk subacid. It is grown 
chiefly for home use and only to a very limited extent for local 
market. The tree is a good grower, hardy, healthy, long-lived, 
comes into bearing quite young and yields good to very good crops 
almost annually. 

This is distinct from the Codling or English Codling described 
by Coxe, Thacher, Forsyth and others. 

Historical. Hogg (17) states that: "This excellent apple was first dis- 
covered growing among a quantity of rubbish behind a wall at Gleaston 
Castle, near Ulverstone, and was first brought into notice by one John 
Sander, a nurseryman at Keswick, who, having propagated it, sent it out 
under the name of Keswick Codlin. 

" In the Memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, 1813, Sir John 
Sinclair says : ' The Keswick Codlin tree has never failed to bear a crop 
since it was planted in the episcopal garden at Rose Castle, Carlisle, twenty 
years ago.' " 

It has long been known in this country and very old trees of it are found 
in some orchards but it is nowhere extensively cultivated being grown 
chiefly for home use. It is quite commonly listed by nurserymen (20). 

TREE. 

Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading to 
roundish. Twigs moderately long, curved, stout; internodes short. Bark 
dull brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels numer- 
ous, rather conspicuous, medium to small, round, not raised. Buds medium to 
large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to nearly large, not very uniform. Form roundish 
conic or inclined to oblong conic, rather broad at the base, distinctly ribbed; 



n8 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

sides frequently a little unequal. Stem medium to short, slender to rather 
thick. Cavity variably acute, medium in depth to shallow, rather narrow to 
moderately broad, more or less russeted. Calyx medium size, closed; lobes 
long, medium in width, nearly acuminate. Basin shallow, moderately nar- 
row, furrowed or angular, often with fleshy protuberances alternating with 
the calyx lobes. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, waxy, pale greenish or yellow, sometimes with 
a faint blush and often with a suture line extending out from the cavity. 
Dots submerged, inconspicuous or russet. 

Calyx tube medium in length, rather wide, bluntly cone-shape. Stamens 
median. 

Core variable, large, abaxile ; cells wide open ; core lines meeting. Carpels 
variable, roundish ovate. Seeds very light brown, very small, medium in 
width, short, very plump, acute. 

Flesh nearly white, fine, tender, very juicy, brisk subacid, good for 
culinary use, too acid for dessert unless very ripe. 

Season August and September. 

KIRKBRIDGE. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:160. 2. Mag. Hort., 24:108. 1858. 3. 
Warder, 1867:671. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8. 5. Downing, 1872:10 
index, app. 6. Thomas, 1875:195. 7. Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 8. Ib., 
1881:12 index, app. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:111. 

SYNONYMS. Bohannon (2). Conic June (7). KIRKBRIDGE (2, 3, 7, 8, 9). 
KIRKBRIDGE WHITE (i, 4, 5, 6). White June (5). Yellow Flat (8). Yellow 
June (6, erroneously 3, of some 5). 

Fruit small to medium, oblong conic, pale yellow or whitish; flesh white, 
line, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, good to very good. The tree is a moder- 
ate grower, comes into bearing young and is productive. Season August 
and September. Not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. In 1867 Warder (3) wrote concerning Kirkbridge White: 
" This fruit has been pretty extensively cultivated in some parts of the 
Western states and sometimes it is mistaken for the Yellow June." It is 
said to be of American origin. It is but little known in New York. 

LADY FINGER. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869 :245. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

Under this name Downing (i) describes an apple which he received from 
Maryland, the fruit of which is of medium size, yellowish, nearly overspread 
with deep crimson; flesh white, tender, pleasant subacid, good to very good; 
season August. 

Other varieties have been known under the name Lady Finger several of 
which have already been mentioned in the discussion of the winter apples. 
See Vol. I, page 183. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 119 



LANDSBERG. 

REFERENCES, i. Berghuis, 1868 :No. 8. col. pi. 2. Downing, 1872 -.20 app. 3. 
Leroy, 1873701. fig. 4. Lauche, i :No. 38. 1882. col. pi. 5. Hogg, 1884:128. 
6. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885:34, 41. 7. Lyon, U. S. Pom. Bui, 2:42. 
1888. 8. Gaucher, 1894 :No. 17. col. pi 9. Beach and Paddock, N. Y. Sta. 
An. Rpt., 14:253, 261. 1895. 10. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 
48:47. 1903. ii. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:129. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. LANDSBERG (7, n). LANDSBERGZR REINETTE (2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9). 
Landsberger Reinetle (n). LANDSBURG (6). Landsburger Reinette (6, 7). 
LANSBERGER REINETTE (10). REINETTE DE LANDSBERG (3). Reinette de 
Landsberg (2, 8). REINETTE LANDSBERGER (i). 

An attractive late autumn and early winter apple of good size and pleasant 
subacid flavor. The tree is thrifty, comes into bearing rather early and is 
reliably productive yielding good crops biennially. The fruit has a clear, 
pale waxen yellow or greenish skin which readily shows bruises. It is a 
good dessert apple but less desirable for 'culinary uses because when it is 
cooked it lacks character in texture, color and flavor. It is easily excelled 
for any purpose by standard sorts of its season and is not recommended 
for planting in New York. 

Historical. Raised from seed about 1840 by Mr. Burkhardt, justice of 
the peace in Landsberg, Germany (2, 4). Imported from Silesia, Germany, 
in 1883 by Professor Budd for the Iowa State College (6). 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous. Form roundish or spreading, rather open. Twigs short 
to medium, nearly straight, rather stout ; internodes medium. Bark olive- 
green tinged with brownish-red, mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent. Len- 
ticels quite numerous, small, round, not raised. Buds large to below medium, 
broad, plump, generally obtuse, free, quite pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in shape and size. Form roundish 
conic to roundish oblate, obscurely angular, pretty regular ; sides sometimes 
unequal. Stem short to medium. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, rather 
wide, sometimes obscurely furrowed, usually smooth but sometimes russeted. 
Calyx segments long, acute, reflexed, sometimes closed. Basin medium in 
width and depth, often somewhat furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth or slightly roughened by russet dots, waxen yel- 
low or pale green, sometimes with attractive crimson blush. Dots numerous, 
submerged and whitish, sometimes russet. Prevailing color pale yellow, 
rather attractive. 

Calyx tube large, wide, cone-shape. Stamens median. 

Core abaxile, medium; cells usually symmetrical and wide open; core 
lines slightly clasping. Carpels broadly ovate, much concave, narrow to- 
ward the apex, nearly smooth. Seeds numerous, medium in size, broad, 
obtuse, medium brown, smooth or nearly so. 



I2O THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Flesh nearly white, very tender, crisp, rather fine-grained, mild subacid, 
agreeable in flavor, good to very good for dessert. 

Season mid-October to January (8, 9) Some of the fruit keeps appar- 
ently sound till March or later but after January it loses in quality. 

LATE STRAWBERRY. 

REFERENCES, i. Thomas, Cultivator, 5:246. 1848. 2. Thomas, 1849:150. 
fig. 3. Cole, 1849:111. 4. Waring, 1851:21. 5. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
3:27. 1851. fig. 6. Barry, 1851:282. 7. Elliott, 1854:65. 8. Downing, 
1857:163. 9. Hooper, 1857:54. 10. Gregg, 1857:41. u. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1862. 12. Warder, 1867 :54O. 13. Downing, 1869 :25o. fig. 14. Todd, 
1871 1154. fig. 15. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:538. 16. Roach, Montreal Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1886-7:27. 17. Wickson, 1889:245. 18. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1890:294. 19. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 20. Burrill and McCluer, 
III. Sta. Bui., 45:329. 1896. 21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:113. fig. 

SYNONYMS. AUTUMN STRAWBERRY (i, 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 15). Autumn Straw- 
berry (2, 5, 8, 12, 13, 17, 21). FALL STRAWBERRY (3). LATE STRAWBERRY (2, 
5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 ). Late Strawberry (i, 3, 6, 7). Straw- 
berry (2, 7). 

Different varieties have been called Late Strawberry but the name 
is now almost exclusively applied to the variety described below. 
This is an attractive apple, pale yellow overspread or striped and 
splashed with light and dark red, very good in quality especially 
for dessert use. Many esteem it one of the best dessert apples of 
its season. It comes into use in September and ripens in succession 
during a period of several weeks continuing in season till December. 
While this habit of successive ripening makes the variety more 
desirable for the home orchard it renders it less valuable for com- 
mercial purposes, since several pickings are required to secure the 
crop in prime condition. The fruit is hardly as large as is desir- 
able for a good market variety but its attractive appearance and 
excellent quality render it suitable for local and fancy trade. The 
tree is medium to rather large, vigorous; form upright spreading 
to roundish. It is hardy, healthy, long-lived and a regular cropper- 
yielding moderate to heavy crops biennially or nearly annually. 

Historical. Late Strawberry originated at Aurora, Cayuga county, N. V. 
(13). In 1848 Thomas described it as a new and newly introduced apple (i). 

FRUIT. 

Fruit below medium to above, uniform in size and fairly uniform in shape. 
Form roundish to slightly oblong conic, sometimes quite strongly ribbed. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 121 

rather irregular. Stem long, rather slender, often curved. Cavity acuminate, 
deep, usually broad, furrowed, sometimes with thin radiating streaks of light 
russet mingled with carmine. Calyx large, open or partly open ; lobes often 
separated at base, rather short, acute, erect or reflexed. Basin deep, mod- 
erately narrow to rather wide, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin attractive pale yellow often almost entirely overspread with bright 
pinkish-red, dotted and streaked with purplish-carmine. Dots small, not 
very numerous, inconspicuous, light colored. Prevailing effect bright striped 
red" 

Calyx tube rather wide, conical to slightly funnel-shape. Stamens basal. 

Core rather small, nearly axile to somewhat abaxile ; cells closed or 
somewhat open ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels obovate. 
Seeds rather large, flat, obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish-white, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, somewhat sprightly aro- 
matic, subacid, very good. 

Season September to December. 

LATHAM. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869:251. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

This is a variety which we have not seen; so far as we can learn it is no 
longer cultivated. According to Downing it originated in Sag Harbor, 
Suffolk county, N. Y. ; tree very productive ; fruit medium size, yellow mostly 
covered with light and dark red; flesh white, juicy, mild subacid, good; 
season November and December (i). 

LEAD. 

REFERENCES, i. Montreal Jlort. Soc. Rpt., 8:40. 1881-82. 2. la. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1882:78. 3. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:102. 4. la. Agr. Coll. 
Bui, 1883:28. 5 Ib., 1885:11. 6. Schroeder, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1886-7:71. 7. la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 1890:23. 8. Budd, la. Sta. Bui., 19:540. 
1892. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :243. 10. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1896 74, 79. 
ii. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui, 43:105. 1896. 12. Thomas, 1897:291. fig. 
13. Troop, Ind. Sta. Rpt., 1899 :8o. 14. Hansen, 5. D. Sta. Bui, 76 -.64. 1902. 
15. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18 :84. 1902. 

SYNONYMS. LEAD (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, IT, 12, 13, 14, 15). Lead 
Apple (3). No. 3 M (2, 4, 7, 8, 10, 14, 15). No. 277 (2, 4, 5, 10). Svinsovka 
(i). SWINEZ (3). Swinsovska (5). 

As noted below two distinct Russian varieties have been disseminated un- 
der the name Lead. Some of the references cited above refer to one of 
these varieties and some to the other. 

A Russian variety was received from the Iowa Agricultural College in 
1890 for testing at this Station, the fruit of which is pale greenish-yellow 
with a blushed cheek and carmine splashes, medium size or above; flesh 
tender, rather juicy, subacid, fair quality; season late August and September. 
The tree does not come into bearing very young. It is an annual cropper but 
only moderately productive. It is not worthy of further testing for this 
region. 



122 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

This appears to be the same variety as that described by Hansen under 
the name Lead with the synonym No. 362 (14). This he says is not the 
true Lead. He describes the true Lead with synonym No. 3 M as a Russian 
variety, large, heavy, roundish, greenish-yellow with dull blush ; flesh green- 
ish-white, sharp subacid, good in quality; season early winter. 

LINCOLN PIPPIN. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1881 193 app. fig. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit medium to large, yellow with no blush, subacid, excellent for either 
dessert or culinary uses ; season November and December. Under favorable 
conditions some portion of the fruit may be kept through the winter. The 
tree is large, spreading, somewhat open, moderately vigorous with rather 
short, stout twigs, hardy, long-lived. It does not come into bearing very 
young but when mature is a pretty reliable annual bearer, ripening the crop 
evenly. The fruit is fair, averages pretty uniform in size and shape and is 
reliable and satisfactory in color and quality. Downing describes it as 
" medium to large, roundish oblate, slightly conical, slightly angular, sides 
sometimes a little unequal ; skin pale greenish-yellow, moderately sprinkled 
with grayish dots; stalk short to long, slender; cavity large, deep, calyx 
small, closed; basin small or medium, slightly corrugated; flesh half fine, pale 
whitish-yellow, tender, juicy, subacid, slightly aromatic; very good; core 
rather large. October, December" (i). 

Historical. So far as we can learn this variety : cultivated only in the 
vicinity of Syracuse. Downing states that it is an old variety, said to have 
been brought to Syracuse from Connecticut ; the original name having been 
lost it was named Lincoln after Reuben Lincoln who brought it into 
notice (i). 

LINDENWALD. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869 1254. 2. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui., 
45:330. 1896. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A variety which originated with J. G. Sickles, Stuyvesant, Columbia county, 
N. Y. Downing describes the fruit as of medium size, yellow with light 
shades of red; flesh crisp, juicy, pleasant subacid, good to very good; season 
September (i). 

We have received no report of this being grown outside of the locality of 
its origin. 

LONGFIELD. 

REFERENCES, i. Webster, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 7:52. 1881. 2. Ib., 
8:71. 1881-82. 3. Budd, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882:77. 4. Gibb, Ib., 1883:425. 
5. Webster,' Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:113. 6. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 
1883:28. 7. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:66. fig. 8. Budd, la. Agr. 
Coll. Bui, 1885:5. 9. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:15. 10. 
Schroeder, Ib., 1886-87:74. u. Craig, Ib., 1886-87:103. 12. Hoskins, Rural 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 123 

N. Y. 47:558. 1888. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:8. 14. Gibb, Can. Hort., 
12:27. 1889. 15. Ib., 13:207, 216, 301. 1890. 16. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 
1890:19. 17. la. Sta. Bui, 19:536. 1892. 18. Can. Hort., 15:29. 1892. 19. 
Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57, 58. 20. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 
21. Amer. Card., 14:50, 177, 305. 1893. 22. Can. Hort., 16:204, 360. 1893. 
23. Craig, Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn. An. Rpt., 26:16. 1894. 24. Beach, N. Y. Sta. 
An. Rpt., 13:582. 1894. 25. Troop, hid. Sta. Bui, 53:123. 1894. 26. Craig,, 
Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1894:126. figs. 27. Freeborn, Nat. Nurseryman, 2:133. 
1894. 28. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 55:848. 1896. 29. Munson, Me. Sta. 
Rpt., 1896:75. 30. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui., 43:105. 1896. 31. Buckman, 
Rural N. Y., 56:39. 1897. 32. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui, 61:31. 1897. 33- 
Thomas, 1897:291. fig. 34. Am. Card., 19:650, 682. 1898. 35. Rural N. Y., 
57:736, 819. 1898. 36. Troop, Ind. Sta, Rpt., 1899:80. 37. Hansen, S. D. 
Sta. Bui, 76 167. 1902. fig. 38. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18 184, 85, 87, 95. 
1902. 39. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48 147. 1903. 40. Farrand, 
Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:45. 1903. 41. Budd-Hansen, 1903:116. 42. Beach and 
Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:129. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. English Pippin (26). 587 (26). 57 M (16). 56 M (2, 3, 6, 
10). Good Peasant (9). LANGERFELDSKOE (i, 4, 5, 7, 13). Langerfeldskoe 

(8). LONGFIELD (2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, II, 12, 14, 15, l6, 17, l8, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 

25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42). Longfield 
(4, 7). Longfield's Apple (i, 5)- No. 161 (2, 3, 6, 8, 16, 24, 29, 37). 

The fruit of Longfield is usually below medium size but decidedly 
attractive in appearance for a yellow apple, being clear waxen yel- 
low, lightly blushed with bright red. Its flesh is white, crisp, fine, 
very tender and of pleasant quality. It may well be classed among 
the fancy dessert apples ; it is good also for culinary uses. In mar- 
keting this fruit it is necessary to handle it with great care because 
ordinarily its texture is so very tender and its color so delicate that 
it shows bruises very readily. It is not well adapted for holding 
outside of cold storage. In ordinary storage its commercial limit 
at Geneva is late September or early October (42) and in cold 
storage it may be kept till December (42) ; but as grown further north 
it may be kept through the winter (26). The tree is a moderate 
grower, very hardy and very productive ; in fact it bears such heavy 
crops that the fruit is liable to be deficient in size. On account of 
the hardiness and productiveness of the tree and the beauty and 
good quality of the fruit Longfield is recommended for planting 
for home use and for local and special markets. 

Historical Longfield was first imported from Russia by the United States 
Department of Agriculture in 1870; later it was imported from various 
European sources for the Iowa Agricultural College by Professor Budd. 



124 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

It is now frequently listed by nurserymen (20) and is being planted to a 
limited extent in various parts of the state, but it has not yet come to be 
commonly known among New York fruit growers. 

TREE. 

Tree medium in size with short, moderately stout, crooked branches and 
drooping laterals filled with small spurs. Form roundish or spreading, dense, 
rather low. Twigs medium in length, curved, moderately stout ; terminal 
buds large; internodes short. Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf- 
skin; pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium size, oval, not raised. Buds 
medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to small, usually below medium; uniform in size and shape. 
Form roundish conic, slightly ribbed. Stem medium to short, rather slender. 
Cavity acuminate to acute, medium to rather deep, narrow, quite symmetrical, 
usually slightly russeted. Calyx small, leafy, closed or partly open; lobes 
long, rather narrow, acute to acuminate. Basin small, shallow to medium 
in depth, narrow, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, glossy, pale waxen yellow or whitish usually 
with a lively pinkish blush but not striped. Dots few, small, inconspicuous, 
whitish, usually submerged. Prevailing effect attractive bright pale yellow 
partly blushed with lively red. 

Calyx' tube narrow and elongated, often extending to the core. Stamens 
basal to median. 

Core medium to above, axile or nearly so ; cells symmetrical, not uni- 
formly developed, closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel 
cylinder. Carpels roundish, slightly emarginate. Seeds rather large, mod- 
erately dark brown, long, acute approaching acuminate. 

Flesh nearly white, fine, crisp, very tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly, 
aromatic, good to very good. 

Season September to October or later. 

LONG ISLAND PEARMAIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Coxe, 1817:144. fig. 2. Warder, 1867:682. 3. Downing, 
1869 ^55. 

SYNONYMS. Autumn Pcarmain (2). Hollow Crown Pearmain (3). LONG 
ISLAND PEARMAIN (i, 2, 3). Winter Pcarmain (2). 

This is an old variety which Coxe (i) thus describes: "A' handsome large 
apple, of an oblong form, about the size of a Priestly the stem is short, 
not deeply planted ; the crown large and hollow ; the skin streaked with large 
blotches of red on a rich yellow ground, with faint russet spots the flesh 
is tender, coarse and pleasant, partaking of that dryness characteristic of all 
the varieties of the pearmain it ripens in October and keeps till March." 
Downing (3) states that it has sometimes been confused with Winter Pear- 
main which is an entirely different fruit. So far as we can discover. Long 
Island Pearmain is now obsolete in New York, 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 125 



LONG RED PEARMAIN. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1876 155 app. 

SYNONYMS. English Pear main incorrectly (i). Hudson Red Streak (i). 
Kentucky BellHower (i). Kentucky Gillflower (i). Kaighn s Spitzenburg 
incorrectly (i). Lady Finger incorrectly (i). Long John (i). Long Pear- 
main (i). LONG RED PEARMAIN (l). Mudhole (i). Park (not of Kansas) 
(i). Pearmain (i). Pound Royal incorrectly (i). Red Bellftoiver incor- 
rectly (i). Red Pearmain (i). Red Phoenix (i). Red Pippin (i). Red 
Spitzenberg (i). Red Winter Pearmain incorrectly (i). Russam (i). 
Scarlet Pearmain (i). Sheepnose of some (i). Striped Pearmain (i). 
W abash Bellflower (i). Winter Pearmain (i). 

This variety was for many years considered identical with Kaighn. See 
page 113. In 1876 Downing (i) stated that it was distinct from Kaighn in 
tree and fruit and gave the list of synonyms for it which is cited above. 

The fruit is medium to large, oblong approaching conic, yellowish, shaded 
and striped with red ; flesh coarse, pleasant subacid, good ; season late fall and 
early winter. 

LONG STEM. 

REFERENCES, i. Cole, 1849:106. 2. Hooper, 1857:55. 3. Warder, 1867: 
725. 4. Downing, 1809:256. 5. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:183. 1905. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

Several varieties of the apple have been known in cultivation under the 
name Long Stem. One of these has already been described (Volume I, 
page 196) as Long Stem of Pennsylvania; others are noticed below. The 
references cited above do not all refer to the same variety. 

LONG STEM OF MASSACHUSETTS. The following is Cole's description of this 
variety (i) : "Large medial; flattish-round ; pale yellow, brown full in the 
sun ; dark specks and patches ; stem extremely long, slender, in a broad, deep 
cavity ; calyx large, rather open, in a broad, shallow basin ; flesh white, rather 
tender, juicy, of a rich, mild, delicious, sprightly, aromatic flavor. First-rate 
for the dessert or cooking. Sept. 1st, to the last of Oct. Good and constant 
bearer. Origin, East Bridgewater, Ms." 

LONG STEM OF CONNECTICUT. Downing (4) describes this variety as hav- 
ing young shoots of dull reddish-brown, somewhat downy, with prominent, 
flattened buds. Fruit medium, roundish oblate, yellow; flesh fine-grained, 
sweet, rich, good. Season September to January. 



LONGWORTH. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1881 :94 app. 2. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. 
Bui., 248:129. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. LONGWORTH (2). LONGWORTH RED WINTER (i). 

Fruit of fairly good color but not very large ; inferior in quality to standard 
varieties of its season. It is variable in season (2) ; some years it keeps 
fairly well till midwinter, but generally speaking, as grown at this Station, 



126 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

its commercial limit in ordinary storage is November. The tree comes into 
bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to rather 
heavy crops biennially or sometimes annually. Not recommended for planting 
in New York. 

Historical. Originated at Dubuque, la. (i). It was received for testing 
here in 1889 from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, 111. 

LORD SUFFIELD. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869 1257. 2. Ib., Tilt. Jour. Hort., ^ 1303. 1870. 
3. Hogg, 1884:136. 4. Goff, Rural N. Y., 46:685. 1887. figs. 5. Can. Hort., 
15:347. 1892. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 7. Gaucher, 1894 :No. 18. 
col. pi. 8. Dempsey, Out. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., i -.24. 1894. 9- Jour. Roy. 
Hort. Soc., 1898:356. 

SYNONYMS. Lady Suffield (7). Lady Sutherland (7). Livesley's Im- 
perial (7). LORD SUFFIELD (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). 

This variety of the Keswick Codlin group is considered by some one of 
the best apples of the group. The fruit is suitable for cooking as early as 
the middle of July and remains in use till September. It is large, roundish, 
varying from oblate to somewhat oblong ; green, marked with clear light 
russet flecks and dois ; calyx closed ; basin ridged, shallow ; stem short ; 
cavity moderately wide, shallow ; core large, abaxile ; cells open ; flesh white, 
rather fine, moderately juicy, subacid, good for culinary use. The tree is 
very productive, which perhaps accounts in part for its being short-lived. 
As grown at this Station it has blighted so badly as to make it an unde- 
sirable variety for the orchard. 

LOU. 

REFERENCES, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:28. 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1886:233. 3. Mich. Sta. Bui, 118:60. 1895. 4. Beach, Paddock and Close, 
.V. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:272. 1896. 5. Mich. Sta. Bui, 143:200. 1897. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A striped red apple of fairly good quality in season in early August. The 
tree is a good grower, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable 
biennial cropper. It was originated from seed of Oldenburg by Peter M. 
Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from whom it was received in 1888 for testing at 
this Station. It is not valuable for planting in New York. 

LOUISE. 

REFERENCES, i. Woolverton, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1889:155. 2. Can. Hort., 
15:19, 28. 1892. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 4. Can. Hort., 16:401. 
1893. 5. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:601. 1893. 6. Hoskins, Rural N. Y. t 
53:278. 1894. 7. Smith, Can. Hort., 18:349. 1895. 8. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui., 
143:200. 1897. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:18. 10. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui., 
83:91. 1900. ii. Woolverton, Can. Hort., 23:46. 1900. fig. 12. Ib., Ont. 
Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 7 :8. 1900. figs. 13. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76 :6g. 1902. 
14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:117. fig. 15. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:45. 1903. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 127 

SYNONYMS. LOUISE (8, 10, 13, 15). LOUISE, Princess (9, 14). PRINCESS 
LOUISE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, n, 12). Princess Louise (7, 10, 13). WOOLVERTON 
(7). Woolverton (4, n, 12). 

Louise is an apple of the Fameuse group. It is larger than 
Fameuse but not as large as Mclntosh and has less red color and 
is less attractive than either of these apples. It is very desirable 
for dessert use but for culinaary purposes it is decidedly inferior 
to other varieties of its season. It is of a clear pale yellow color with 
lively blush and delicate bloom. It shows bruises readily and 
requires very careful handling. The tree is hardy, healthy, comes 
into bearing rather young and yields fair to moderately good crops 
almost annually. It is doubtful whether it will ever prove a desir- 
able commercial variety. 

Historical. Originated with L. Woolverton, Grimsby, Ontario, who states 
that it was a chance seedling that sprung up among a half dozen old Fameuse 
trees. 1 It was first exhibited before the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association 
in 1879 under the name of " Woolverton." It has been disseminated to a 
limited extent only in New York. The Mclntosh has sometimes been mis- 
takenly disseminated for this variety. 

TREE. 

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous to vigorous with long, slender 
branches and willowy laterals. Form upright spreading to roundish, rather 
dense. Twigs moderately long, straight or somewhat irregularly curved, 
rather geniculate, slender; internodes medium. Bark reddish-brown with 
some pale olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent 
toward the tips. Lenticels scattering, small to medium, roundish to oblong. 
Buds small to medium, deep-set, plump, acute, free or nearly so, somewhat 
pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit of good medium size ; fairly uniform in size and shape. Form 
usually roundish, sometimes roundish oblate, often somewhat elliptical or 
obscurely angular; sides often unequal. Stem red, medium to rather long, 
usually slender. Cavity obtuse to acute or sometimes approaching acuminate, 
shallow to medium in depth, moderately broad, frequently furrowed. Calyx 
medium size, closed or sometimes slightly open. Basin usually shallow to 
medium in depth, narrow to moderately wide, rather obtuse, lightly furrowed 
and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, rather tough, clear pale yellow or greenish, with lively red or 
pinkish blush, striped obscurely if at all, overspread with thin bloom. Dots 
inconspicuous, pale, usually submerged. 

Calyx tube short, wide, conical to funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 

1 L. Woolverton, Letter, 1894. 



128 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Core medium to rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, partly 
open ; core lines meeting. Carpels elongated ovate, sometimes emargmate. 
Seeds medium or below, moderately long, acute to acuminate. 

Flesh whitish, not very firm, fine, crisp, very tender, very juicy, mild sub- 
acid, aromatic, with some of the perfume and texture of Mclntosh, very good 
for dessert. 

Season October to February or later. 

LOWELL. 

REFERENCES, i. Cultivator, 5:246. 1848. 2. Cole, 1849:109. 3. Thomas, 
1849:157. 4. Waring, 1851:27. 5. Barry, 1851:285. 6. Elliott, 1854:88. fig. 
7. Hooper, 1857:55. 8. Gregg, 1857:46. fig. 9. Downing, 1857:166. 10. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. n. Warder, 1867:576. 12. Fitz, 1872:145. 13. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 15. Mich. 
Sta. Bui, 105:108. 1894. 16. Lyon, /&., 118:60. 1895. 17. Burrill and Mc- 
Cluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:330. 1896. 18. N. C. Bd. Agr. Bui., 1900:7. 19. 
Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:53. 1902. 20. Mo. Fr. Sta. Bui., 3:27. 1902. 21. 
Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:48. 1903. 22. Farrand, Mich. 
Sta. Bui., 205:45. 1903. 23. Budd-Hansen, 1903:117. 24. Beach and Clark, 
N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:130. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Greasy Pippin (6, 9, 16, 22, 24, of some 23). LOWELL (2, 3, 4, 
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, u, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24). Lowell (i). 
LOWELL (Pippin) (14). Orange (i, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, of some 6). Pound Royal 
(2, 7, erroneously 6). Queen Anne (i, 2, 6, 7, 9, n, of Northern Ohio 3, 
of Ohio 5). Tallow (2, 7). TALLOW APPLE (i). Tallow Apple (3, 6, 9, of 
some 23). Tallow Pippin (3, 5, 6, 11, 15, 24). 

Fruit rather large ; clear yellow with waxy surface. Flesh a 
little coarse, very juicy, sprightly subacid and desirable for either 
dessert or culinary uses. It ripens in succession through a period 
of several weeks and is apt to drop as it ripens. Its season extends 
from late August to October and under favorable conditions a por- 
tion of the fruit may be kept till winter (24). The tree is a good 
grower, hardy, long-lived and a reliable cropper giving good crops 
biennially and sometimes annually. This fruit is grown for home 
use and to a limited extent for local market. 

Historical Lowell is an old variety of American origin (6) which is quite 
generally known in many parts of the state, especially in Western New York. 
It is still commonly listed by nurserymen, but is being planted but little and 
its cultivation appears to be on the decline. 

TREE. 

Tree rather large, vigorous. Form upriglit spreading, rather open. Twigs 
long,, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium, Bark dark brown, 





LOWELL 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 129 

mottled with scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lenticels numerous, small to 
medium size, not raised. Buds prominent, medium to large, broad, plump, 
obtuse, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large, fairly uniform in size but somewhat variable in shape. Form 
roundish oblong inclined to conic, unsymmetrical, irregular. Stem medium 
to rather long, moderately thick, deflected to one side. Cavity acute or 
approaching acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, medium to rather 
broad, sometimes furrowed, occasionally compressed, often lightly russeted. 
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open. Basin rather shallow to 
moderately deep, medium in width, somewhat abrupt, often slightly furrowed 
and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth or with occasional russet dots and flecks, waxy, 
at first green but eventually becoming rich yellow. Dots very numerous, 
small, inconspicuous, brown or russet or submerged. 

Calyx tube usually rather long, rather wide, conical approaching funnel- 
form. Stamens median or nearly so. 

Core rather large, axile to somewhat abaxile ; cells closed ; core lines meet- 
ing or somewhat clasping. Carpels roundish to pointed obovate, emarginate. 
Seeds dark brown, not uniform in shape, medium size, obtuse to somewhat 
acute. 

Flesh greenish or tinged with yellow, rather firm, medium to rather fine- 
grained, crisp, tender, very juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good. 

Season August to October. 

LOWLAND RASPBERRY. 

REFERENCES, i. Gibb, la. Hort. Sac. Rpt., 1883:438. 2. Ib., Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:94. 3. lb.,Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:46. 4. Thomas, 
1897:254. fig. 5. U. S. Pom. Bui., 8:18. 1899. 6. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 
76:69. 1902. fig. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 1*17. fig. 

SYNONYMS. HIMBEERAPFEL LIEVLANDER (i, 2). Himbeerapfel Lievlander 
(3). Himbeerapfel Livlandcr (3). Licvland Raspberry (7). LIVELAND 
RASPBERRY (4). LIVLAND RASPBERRY (3). LOWLAND RASPBERRY (6). LOW- 
LAND Raspberry (5, 7). Lowland Raspberry (i, 2, 3). No. 340 (i, 2, 6, 7). 

A Russian apple which, according to Hansen (6, 7), is medium to large, 
clear waxen-white, striped, shaded and marbled with light crimson; flesh 
white, often stained with red, fine, very tender, pleasant mild subacid, almost 
sweet ; season August ; as early as Yellow Transparent. 

We do not know that this variety has been tested in New York. 

LUBSK QUEEN. 

REFERENCES, i. Tuttle, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt:, 8:136. 1881-82. 2. Gibb, 
la. Hort. Soe. Rpt., 1883:442. 3. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 1885:17. 4. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:8. 5. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1890:19. 6. la. Sta. 
Bui, 19:536. 1892. 7. Can. Hort., 16:361. 1893. 8. Freeborn, Nat. Nursery- 



J3O THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

man, 2:152. 1894. 9- Thomas, 1897:291. fig. 10. Hansen, 5*. D. Sta. BnL, 
76:70. 1902. fig. ii. Budd-Hansen, 1903:119. 12. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. 
Bui., 56:185. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. LUBSK QUEEN (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n). Lubsk Queen (12). 
LUBSK REINETTE (3, 12). Lubsk Reinette (10, n). No. 444 (3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 
n, 12). Reinette Liubski (2, 12). Re.net Liubskui (3, 12). 

A Russian variety which has attracted attention because of the beauty of 
the fruit and superior hardiness and productiveness of the tree. In other 
respects it does not rank high. It is fairly good in quality. Season August 
and September. 

Historical. Imported from Russia by the United States Department of 
Agriculture in 1870 under No. 444. It was entered on the list of the 
American Pomological Society in 1889 and dropped from the list at the 
following meeting in 1891 (4). It has been planted but little in New York, 
and so far as we have been able to learn its cultivation in this state is not 
increasing. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with long, slender, curved branches. Form 
upright spreading or roundish, rather open. Twigs short, curved, slender; 
internodes medium. Bark dull brown, roughly mottled with scarf-skin; 
slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels scattering, medium size, round, not 
raised. Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, not pubescent. 

FRUIT (10). 

Fruit medium to large. Form regular, nearly round, truncated. Stem 
medium to long. Cavity acute, rather small, slightly russeted. Calyx closed ; 
segments long, pointed. Basin shallow, wide, regular, with generally five 
fine corrugations around the eye. 

Skin very smooth, polished and waxlike, a brilliant white, more or less 
covered with solid light rosy red, with delicate white bloom ; a self-colored 
apple, but sometimes with short red splashes on lighter ground. Dots 
white, minute, numerous. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-shape. Stamens marginal. 

Core closed ; cells ovate, slit. Seeds nine, plump. 

Flesh snow white, firm, juicy, fine-grained, subacid, good. 

Season August, September. 

LYSCOM. 

REFERENCES, i. N. E. Farmer, 1830 (cited by 17). 2. Kenrick, 1832:36. 
3. Mag. Hort., i 1364, 395. 1835. 4- Hovey, Ib., 4 :48. 1838. 5. Manning, 
1838:51. 6. Ib., Mag. Hort., 7:46. 1841. 7. Downing, 1845:89. 8. Cole, 
1849:111. 9. Thomas, 1849:151. 10. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:32. 
1851. ii. Elliott, 1854:145. 12. Mag. Hort., 20:241. 1854. 13. Hooper, 
1857:56. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 15. Warder, 1867:605. 16. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rj>t., 1890:294. 17. Ragan, U. S. P. B. I. Bui, s6:f86: 
IQ05- 



THE APPLES OF XEW YORK. 131 

SYNONYMS. LYSCOM (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17). 
Matthew's Stripe (3, 8, 17). Osgood's Favourite (3, 7, 8, 9; 17). 

A very large apple somewhat resembling Twenty Ounce in general appear- 
ance but less attractive ; flesh tender, mild, not high in flavor but accept- 
able for either dessert or culinary uses. The tree is a moderate grower 
and yields moderate to good crops. It is in season from late September or 
October to November or December. Not recommended for planting in New 
York because it is not superior to other varieties of its season. 

Historical. Origin Southborough, Worcester county, Mass. (2). It is an 
old variety which has been quite widely disseminated. It is now nearly 
obsolete in New York. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large or very large. Form roundish varying from a little oblate to 
slightly oblong conic, often broadly ribbed especially toward the apex. 
Stem deep set, short, moderately thick. Cavity acuminate, very deep, broad, 
symmetrical, russeted and with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to 
large, usually closed, pubescent. Basin often oblique, deep, moderately 
narrow to rather wide with broad, deep furrows. 

Skin thick, tough, rather dull green or somewhat yellowish, striped, 
splashed and somewhat blushed with red. 

Calyx tube wide, elongated cone-shape. Stamens median to basal. 

Core rather large, axile ; cells closed ; core lines meeting or slightly clasp- 
ing. Carpels ovate, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds short, 
often nearly round, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, rather fine, tender, juicy, subacid be- 
coming very mild subacid, good. 

Season late September or October to November or December. 

MABffi. 

A red sweet apple of very good general appearance. It belongs 
in the same group as Victoria Sweet. Season late fall and early 
winter. A desirable variety of its class. 

Historical. This is a local variety which has been grown to a limited 
extent in southern Rockland county. The following account of its origin 
is given by M. L. Bell, Sparkill, N. Y. i 1 " Mabie has been grown in South- 
ern Rockland county, N. Y., and the adjacent portion of New Jersey for about 
forty-five years. About fifty years ago the original tree stood in an old 
stone fence row on the farm of Wm. Mabie. It was propagated in a local 
nursery and disseminated through the surrounding region where it is gen- 
erally highly esteemed by those who have tested it." 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to nearly large. Form roundish or somewhat inclined 
to oblong, a little irregular, unsymmetrical, not very uniform. Stem medium 

1 Letter, 1904. 



132 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

to rather long, moderately thick. Caiity large, acute to acuminate, mod- 
erately deep, wide, often obscurely furrowed, sometimes completely covered 
with russet which extends over the base of the fruit in broken rays. Caly.v 
medium to rather large, closed or partly open. Basin medium size or below, 
pubescent, saucer-shape, medium in width and depth, a little obtuse to rather 
abrupt, smooth or slightly furrowed. 

Skin very thick, tough, smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots, 
bright yellow mottled or deeply blushed with bright red, in highly colored 
specimens rather deep, dark red, obscurely striped with carmine and marked 
over the base with whitish scarf-skin. Dots often very small, gray, mingled 
with others that are large, whitish and areolar with russet center. 

Calyx tube short, moderately wide, conical to funnel-form. Stamens 
median. 

Core medium to rather large, axile to somewhat abaxile ; cells closed or 
somewhat open ; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to broadly obovate, 
slightly tufted. Seeds dark brown, medium to small, plump, broadly acute. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, medium grained, somewhat crisp, 
tender, juicy, sweet, good. 

Season late fall and early winter. 

McCARTY. 

This appears to be a distinct strain or sport of Pumpkin Sweet. 
It is discussed under Pumpkin Sweet, page 173. 

MAC DONOUGH. 

REFERENCE, i. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:299. 1901. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

A medium sized yellow apple of mild rlavor, in season in August and 
September. We are unacquainted with this variety. Waugh (i) gave the 
following account of it in 1901 : "A local variety, said to have originated on 
Cumberland Head, Clinton county, N. Y., opposite Grand Isle. A fairly 
good apple in many ways, but not common and not likely ever to become 
popular. 

" Fruit roundish oblate, size medium, cavity medium deep and broad, 
waxy, slightly russetted, stem medium straight, basin shallow, corrugated, 
calyx nearl closed, color greenish-yellow, fine yellow when ripe, dots many, 
light greenish, bloom waxy, skin smooth, flesh greenish-white, mealy, core 
medium, closed, flavor neutral, nearly sweet, quality fair to good, season 
August-September. Tree hardy, rough dark bark, irregular in form, pro- 
ductive." 

McINTOSH. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1876:55 app. fig. 2. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
5:17. 1879. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1883:12. 4. Thomas, 1885:517. 5. 
Hoskins, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:220. 6. Ib., Rural N. Y., 47:558. 1888. 
7. Budd, Can. Hort., 13:24. 1890. 8. Ib., 15:19, 92, 124. 1892. 9. Bailey, 





MclNTOSH 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 133 

An. Hort., 1892:244. 10. Can. Hort., 16:369. 1893. col. pi. n. Hoskins, 
Am. Card., 15:288. 1894. 12. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1894:125. 13. 
Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53 :279. 1894. 14. /&., 54:238. 1895. * 5- I b., 55:656, 
691. 1896. 16. Ib., 55738, 819. 1896. 17. Ib., 56:839- 1897- 18. Can. 
Hort., 22:506. 1899. 19. Whitney, Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn. An. Rpt., 31:12. 
1899. 20. Ib., Can. Hort., 23 :24. 1900. fig. of tree. 21. Ib., 23 145. 1900. 
figs. 22. Vt. Sta. Bui., 83:91. 1900. figs. 23. Taylor, U. S. Dept. Agr. Yr. 
Bk., 1901:383. col. pi. 24. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:299. 1901. 25. 
Ib., Rural N. Y., 61:781. 1902. figs. 26. Kan. Sta. Bui., 106:54. 1 9 2 
27. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:72. 1902. 28. Btidd-Hansen, 1903:119 
29. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 205:45. 1903. 30. Powell and Fulton, U. S. 
B. P. I. Bui., 48:48. 1903. 31. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:130. 
1904. 32. Scriber, Can. Hort., 28:277. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. MACINTOSH RED (18). MC!NTOSH (14, 16, 17, 19, 21, 25, 29). 
MclNTOSH RED (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 15, 20, 26, 32). Mcln- 
tosh Red (22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30, 31). 

This variety belongs in the Fameuse group. It is adapted to 
a wider range of localities than is the Fameuse. The fruit is very 
attractive in appearance, of bright deep red color and good size. 
The flesh is very tender, perfumed and delicious. It is desirable 
for local markets and special trade but because of its lack of firm- 
ness it is less suitable for general handling. As grown at this 
Station it begins to ripen in late September or early October. In 
Western New York it cannot be expected to keep much later than 
October in ordinary storage without considerable loss but in cold 
storage it may be held until December or January (31). When 
grown in more northern or elevated regions it is often held in good 
condition till midwinter or later. It is susceptible to scab but this 
may readily be controlled with proper treatment. 1 The crop ripens 
unevenly and a considerable portion of the fruit is liable to drop 
before it is ready to pick. On this account it is best to make two 
or three pickings. In some localities the tree is said to be a some- 
what slow grower and not satisfactorily productive, but more often 
it is found to be a rather strong grower, hardy and healthy. It 
comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper yielding 
good crops biennially and sometimes annually. It has not been 
sufficiently tested to demonstrate fully its value for commercial 
purposes but it is regarded by many as one of the most promising 
varieties of its class for general cultivation in New York. 

IN. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:399-418 1899. Ib., 22:321-386. 1903. 



134 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Historical. Originated as a chance seedling on the Mclntosh homestead, 
Matilda township, Dundas county, Ontario, where Allan Mclntosh hegan 
the propagation of this variety in the nursery about 1870 (20). It has 
been widely disseminated. It is now commonly propagated by nurserymen 
and its cultivation is on the increase in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous with numerous, small, slender laterals. Form roundish or 
spreading. Twigs above medium to short, straight or nearly so, rather 
slender; internodes long to below medii'm. Bark bright reddish-brown, 
lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. Lenticels quite nu- 
merous, small, oval or elongated, raised. Buds deeply set in bark, medium to 
below, plump, obtuse to acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium, sometimes large, pretty uniform in shape and size. 
Form roundish to somewhat oblate, regular or faintly ribbed, obscurely 
angular. Stem short, stout or moderately slender, usually not exserted, often 
with irregular protuberances. Cavity large, acuminate or somewhat acute, 
wide, medium in depth, somewhat broadly furrowed, often partly russeted. 
Calyx small, closed or partly open; lobes short to long, narrow, acute. Basin 
pubescent, rather small, medium in depth, narrow, abrupt, smooth or ob- 
scurely furrowed. 

Skin thin, moderately tender, smooth, readily separating from the flesh, 
clear whitish-yellow or greenish washed and deeply blushed with bright 
red and striped with carmine; highly colored specimens become dark, almost 
purplish-red with the carmine stripes obscure or obliterated, overspread with 
thin, lilac bloom. Often the effect of the deep red is heightened by lively 
contrast with one or more spots of the clear pale yellow ground color where 
some twig or leaf pressed closely against the growing fruit. Dots whitish 
or yellow, usually very small. 

Calyx tube short, conical or funnel-shape with broad limb. Stamens 
median to basal. 

Core medium size, usually abaxile ; cells usually wide open ; core lines 
nearly meeting. Carpels roundish to elliptical, narrowing toward base and 
apex, smooth, much concave. Seeds medium brown, rather large, acute. 

Flesh white or slightly tinged with yellow, sometimes veined with red, 
firm, fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, characteristically and agreeably aromatic, 
"perfumed, sprightly, subacid, becoming mild and nearly sweet when very 
ripe, very good to best for dessert. 

Season October to December or later. 



McLELLAN. 

REFERENCES, i. Leavenworth, Horticulturist, 2 -.26. 1847. fig. 2. Thomas, 
1849:169. 3. Cole, 1849:125. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:67. 1851. 5. 
Hovey, Mag. Hort., 20:508. 1854. fig. 6. Elliott, 1854:147. 7. Downing, 
1857:87. 8. Hooper, 1857:57. 9. Warder, 1867:726. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. 





Me LELLAN 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 135 

Cat., 1871:8. ii. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 12. Taylor, Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:193. 13. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui., 45:309, 
330. 1896. 14. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 205:42. 1903. 15. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:120. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Martin (i, 2, 6, 7). MCCLELLAN (i, 5). McLELAN (8, 9). 
MCLELLAN (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15). 

A very choice dessert apple, handsome, fragrant, tender and 
excellent in quality. It comes into season a little later than Maiden 
Blush and may keep till January or February. When properly 
colored it is well adapted for fancy market and fruit-stand trade 
but when the color remains greenish, as it often does, the flavor 
is inferior. The fruit shows bruises readily and must be handled 
with extra care. It drops easily from the tree and on this account 
should be picked as soon as colored. In some cases it may pay to 
make two pickings. The tree comes into bearing young and is a 
reliable biennial bearer yielding good crops. It is only a moder- 
ately vigorous grower and probably it would be an advantage to 
topwork it upon some more vigorous and longer-lived stock, such 
as Northern Spy or Baldwin. It is not recommended for extensive 
commercial planting but in some cases it may be grown to a lim- 
ited extent with profit. 

Historical. The original tree was planted in a seedling orchard in Wood- 
stock, Conn., about 1780 (i, 5). It has been sparingly disseminated and is 
known locally in various parts of New York state, but it is now seldom 
offered by nurserymen (12) and is little propagated. 



TREE. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous with long and moderately stouc 
branches. Form erect, roundish, open. Twigs medium to long, erect, stout, 
generally somewhat curved; internodes short to medium. Bark dull, very 
dark reddish-brown, sometimes tinged with green and overlaid with rather 
heavy scarf-skin; rather heavily pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, not 
very conspicuous, medium to small, roundish, sometimes a little raised. 
Buds above medium to large, rather deeply set in the bark, broad, flat, 
obtuse to somewhat acute, free, very pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large; uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate to roundish conic, rather broad and flat at the base, symmetrical or 
nearly so, regular to elliptical. Stem short to medium, slender. Cavity 
acute to acuminate, rather wide, deep, symmetrical, sometimes a little fur- 



136 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

rowed, smooth. Calyx small to medium, partly open or closed; lobes long, 
acuminate. Basin medium to rather small, abrupt, moderately shallow to 
deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, nearly round or sometimes angular, 
sometimes distinctly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin tough, waxen, pale yellow or greenish, blushed and mottled with 
bright light red splashed and striped with bright carmine. Highly colored 
specimens are almost entirely red and very attractive. Dots numerous but 
mostly inconspicuous, whitish or russet. 

Calyx tube funnel-form with wide limb or sometimes elongated. Stamens 
basal to median. 

Core below medium to small, axile or nearly so ; cells not uniformly de- 
veloped, usually pretty symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasp- 
ing the funnel cylinder. Carpels smooth, roundish to elliptical narrowing 
toward the base and apex, slightly emarginate. Seeds rather small, obtuse, 
smooth, dark. 

Flesh tinged with, yellow, moderately firm, very tender, moderately fine- 
grained, juicy, moderately crisp, almost sweet, excellent in flavor, very good 
for dessert. 

Season October to January or February or sometimes to March. 



McMAHON. 

REFERENCES, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:27. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1886:221. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:93. 4. Rural N. Y., 46:751. 1887. 
5. Can. Hart., 11:220. 1888. fig. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:10. 7. Am. 
Card., 11:243. 1890. 8. Can. Hort., 13:174, 216. 1890. 9. Van Deman, 
U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1890:413. 10. Can. Hort., 14:339. 1891. n. Taylor, Me. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57, 59. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 13. Can. 
Hort., 15:393. 1892. 14. Ib., 16:77, 134. 1893. col. pi 15. Craig, Ib., 
16:137. 1893. fig- X 6. Ib., Out. Fr. Gr. Assn. An. Rpt., 26:16. 1894. 17. 
Ib., Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1894:125. 18. Ib., 1895:93. fig. 19. Beach, N. Y. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 15:273. 1896. figs. 20. Thomas, 1897 :6.;> 21. Waugh, Vt. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 14:300. 1901. 22. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:72. 1902. fig. 
23. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48 :48. 1903. 24. Farrand, Mich. 
Sta. Bui, 205:42. 1903. 25. Budd-Hansen, 1903:121. fig. 26. Beach and 
Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:130. 1904. 27. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
56:188. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. McMAHAN (14, 20). McMahan (27). MCMAHAN WHITE 
(6, 7, 15, 16, 17, 18). MCMAHON (u, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27). MCMAHON 
WHITE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 24). McMahon White (19, 21, 22, 23, 
25, 26, 27). 

A large apple of the Aport group, pale yellow or almost white, 
often with a delicate pink blush. The flesh is juicy, brisk subacid, 
fair to good in quality, excellent for culinary use. As grown at 
this Station it ripens unevenly and does not appear well adapted 
for storage (26). Season October to January or February. The 




LEE 




Me LELLAN 






McMAHON 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 137 

tree comes into bearing rather young and yields good crops bien- 
nially. In 1895 Craig wrote concerning McMahon: "Attention is 
again drawn to some of its merits as an apple of value for regions 
where Northern Spy, Ribston Pippin and Rhode Island Greening 
cannot be grown profitably on account of their inability to with- 
stand the severity of the climate. It has proved so far a remark- 
ably vigorous and healthy grower, making probably more well 
matured wood growth than any other variety in the orchard, and is 
free from many of the defects characteristic to varieties unadapted 
to this climate. It has borne moderately heavy crops for the last 
two years. The fruit is of the largest size, smooth and handsome, 
though lacking in color as grown in this vicinity and somewhat 
soft in texture " (18). It is less desirable than standard kinds of 
its season for growing commercially in New York because it is 
only moderately attractive in general appearance, its color is such 
that it readily shows bruises and it does not rank high either in 
flavor or quality. 

Historical. This variety originated about 1860 in Richland county, Wis., 
and is supposed to be a seedling of the Alexander. It is frequently listed by 
nurserymen, but it has thus far been but little planted in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree medium size, vigorous. Form rather spreading. Twigs medium 
size, slender, straight or nearly so; internodes above medium. Bark dull 
dark reddish-brown; slightly pubescent. Lenticels numerous, below medium 
or sometimes medium, elongated, somewhat raised, dull. Buds medium or 
below, rather acute, thin, often appressed, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large or very large. Form roundish inclined to conic, faintly ribbed. 
Stem medium in length, moderately thick. Cavity remarkably acuminate, 
very deep, broad, compressed, slightly russeted and with outspreading rays. 
Calyx rather small, slightly open; lobes separated at base, short. Basin 
moderately deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, abrupt, compressed, 
slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin pale greenish-yellow or nearly white with irregular stripes and 
patches of whitish scarf-skin extending out from the cavity over the base, 
and often having the cheek overspread with a thin blush which sometimes 
is faintly splashed and striped with carmine. Dots few, inconspicuous, 
small, greenish or russet. 

Calyx tube rather long, wide, broadly conical inclined to funnel-form or 
cylindrical. Stamens median to basal. 



138 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Core medium to small, slightly abaxile to axile ; cells pretty symmetrical, 
closed or slightly open ; core lines nearly meeting or clasping. Carpels 
roundish or inclined to elliptical, slightly emarginate. Seeds rather dark 
brown, medium or below, moderately plump, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh nearly white, nearly fine, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to 
good. 

Season October to January or February. 

MAGOG. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1876:56 app. 2. Thomas, 1885:516. 3. Can. 
Hort., 13:174. 1890. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 5. Hoskins, Am. 
Card., 15:256. 1894. 6. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:273. 1896. 7. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:18. 8. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:48. 
1903. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:122. 10. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 205:45. 
1903. ii. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:130. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. MAGOG (4, 8, 10). MAGOG Red Streak (7, 9). MAGOG RED 
STREAK (i, 2, 3, 5, 6). Magog Red Streak (4, n). 

Fruit of good size, rather attractive appearance and good to very 
good quality, especially for culinary uses. Dr. Hoskins, who prop- 
agated it for several years, said in 1894: " It is a fair but uneven 
keeper, and might be well described as not quite valuable enough 
to retain, vet hardly deserving to be cast aside." It is reported as 
being very hardy in Northern New York, a good grower and a 
good bearer. As fruited at this Station the tree is a moderately 
good grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate 
to good crops nearly annually. The keeping quality of the fruit 
varies in different seasons but its commercial limit in ordinary 
storage appears to be October. It remains in season to January or 
possibly later (n). It is not recommended for planting except 
perhaps for home use in localities where its superior hardiness gives 
it an advantage over ordinary varieties of its season. 

Historical. Originated by Wm. Warren, Newport, Vt. (i). It has been 
planted to a considerable extent in portions of Northern New England. 
Northern New York and the parts of Canada adjoining. It is still propa- 
gated in a few nurseries (4). 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading or roundish. Twigs 
short to medium, straight or nearly so, rather slender; internodes short to 
medium. Bark dark brown or brownish-red, lightly streaked with scarf- 
skin, pubescent. Lcnticels scattering, small, oval, not raised. Buds small to 
above medium, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 





MAGOG 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 139 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium, rather uniform in size 
but variable in shape. Form roundish to oblong, inclined to conic or some- 
what ovate, regular or faintly ribbed; sides often unequal. Stem medium to 
short, moderately thick to rather slender. Cavity acute or approaching 
acuminate, medium in depth, medium to rather narrow, usually smooth, oc- 
casionally lipped, often irregularly russeted. Calyx' medium to small, closed ; 
lobes medium length, rather narrow, acute to acuminate. Basin usually 
medium in width and depth, sometimes rather abrupt, coarsely wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, waxy, pale greenish or yellow, lightly washed 
and mottled with thin brownish-red, sparingly striped and splashed with 
deeper red. Dots numerous, light, submerged, areolar, brown and russet. 
Prevailing effect yellow. 

Calyx tube medium in width, long, conical to funnel-shape with long 
cylinder. Stamens nearly marginal. 

Core large to medium, abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping the funnel 
cylinder. Carpels long ovate to broadly obcordate, sometimes tufted. Seeds 
light brown, small to medium, rather wide, short, very plump, obtuse to 
broadly acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, medium to rather fine-grained, 
tender, very juicy, sprightly, pleasant subacid, aromatic, good. 

Season October to January or later. 



MADDEN BLUSH. 

REFERENCES, i. Coxe, 1817:106. fig. 2. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 
1826:476. 3. Wilson, 1828:136. 4. Fessenden, 1828:131. 5. London Hort. 
Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 704. 6. Kenrick, 1832:27. 7. Thacher, 1822:130. 8. 
Mag. Hort., 1:363, 396. 1835. 9. Downing, 1845:90. fig. 10. Thomas, 
1849:157. fig. ii. Cole, 1849:113. fig. 12. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:40. 
1851. col pi. No. 30 and fig. 13. Barry, 1851:285. 14. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 
18:544. 1852. fig. 15. Elliott, 1854:469 app. 16. Hooper, 1857:57. 17. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:240. 18. Warder, 1867:412. fig. 19. Fitz, 1872:143, 
164. 20. Hogg, 1884:138. 21. Rural N. Y., 47:713. 1888. 22. Wickson, 
1889:244. 23. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 24. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:243. 25. Can. Hort., 15:65. 1892. 26. Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 6:55. 
1893. 27. Ib., 7 144. 1894. 28. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53 :279. 1894. 29. Ib., 
557- 1896. 30. ///. Sta. Bui., 45:331- 1896. 31. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. 
Rpt., 14:299. 1901. 32. Fa. Sta. Bui., 130:124. 1901. 33. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1901:18. 34. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:48. 1903. 35. 
Budd-Hansen, 1903:122. fig. 36. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:130. 
1904. 

SYNONYMS. Lady Blush (36). MAIDEN BLUSH (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 

II, 12, 13, 14, 15, l6, 17, l8, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 

33,34,35,36). Red Cheek (11). 

This is a beautiful apple of pale lemon-yellow color with crim- 
son cheek. The flesh is white, sprightly, not superior in flavor but 



140 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

good in quality. It is valued especially for market and culinary 
uses. It makes very white evaporated stock. As grown in West- 
ern New York it is in season from September to November or 
December. Later than this although the fruit may appear sound 
it is deficient in quality. In cold storage its commercial limit 
appears to be about December I5th. It does not stand heat well 
before going into storage. It varies greatly in the time of maturing 
in different seasons. The earlier it matures the less satisfactory 
is it as a keeper (36). It is recognized as a standard market 
variety and usually sells above the average prices for varieties of its 
class. In many localities it has proven a very satisfactory variety 
for the commercial orchard, because the tree is a fine grower, hardy, 
pretty long-lived, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable 
cropper, yielding good to heavy crops biennially or almost annually. 
In many cases the fruit does not mature uniformly and there is 
considerable loss from drops unless more than one picking is made 
in gathering the crop. Usually the fruit is pretty uniform in size 
but on unthrifty, old trees or under unfavorable circumstances a 
considerable amount of the fruit may be too small for market. It 
is sometimes badly injured by scab but this may readily be pre- 
vented by proper treatment. 

Historical. Coxe described this variety in I&I7 as very popular in the 
Philadelphia market and the best variety of its season for evaporating. He 
stated that it was named by Samuel Allinson, of Burlington, N. J., who 
first brought it to notice. In the American Pomological Society's Catalogue 
of fruits it is reported as either " wholly successful or successful " in nearly 
all the important apple-growing districts of the United States (33)- It has 
long been well and favorably known in New York and it is still being 
planted both for commercial purposes and for home use. 



TREE. 

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form spreading, 
open. Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes short. Bark brown or red- 
dish-brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels 
quite numerous, small, round, not raised. Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, 

free, slightly pubescent. 
( 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above, sometimes iarge, uniform in size and shape. 
Form oblate a little inclined to conic, regular, symmetrical. Stem short to 



I 










MAIDEN BLUSH 



THE APPLES OF XEW YORK. 141 

medium, rather slender. Cavity rather large, acute to obtuse, medium to 
wide, moderately deep to shallow, usually symmetrical, sometimes rus'setecl. 
Calyx medium size, closed ; lobes separated at base, medium length, mod- 
erately broad, acute. Basin moderately shallcw, medium to wide, obtuse, 
regular, smooth or slightly furrowed, symmetrical. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale waxen yellow with crimson blush. Dots 
numerous, whitish and submerged or areolar. 

Calyx tube small, narrow, conical to funnel-shape. Siamens median to 
marginal. 

Core medium size, axile or somewhat abaxile, broadly elliptical ; cells 
closed or slightly open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels 
very broadly ovate. Seeds medium brown, moderately wide, moderately long, 
plump, acute. 

Flesh white or with slight yellow tinge, fine, moderately crisp, tender, 
very juicy, subacid, good in quality especially for culinary uses. 

Season September to November or December. 

MAIDEN FAVORITE. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:167. 2. Warder, 1867:725. 3. Thomas, 
1875:505. 

SYNONYMS. Maiden's Apple (i). MAIDEN FAVORITE (i, 2, 3). 

A late fall and early winter variety which originated in Stuyvesant, 
Columbia county, N. Y. According to Downing it is a desirable amateur 
variety of delicacy and beauty, medium size or below, whitish or pale waxen 
yellow sometimes mottled with crimson. Flesh tender, crisp, very delicate, 
vinous, sweet, good to very good. Tree a rather slow grower with upright, 
slender branches, and a good bearer. We are not acquainted with this variety. 
So far as we have been able to learn it is not cultivated outside of the 
vicinity of its origin and is no longer propagated. 

MARGARET. 

REFERENCES, i. Forsyth, 1803:50. 2. Am. Card. Cal., 1806:584. 3. For- 
syth, 1824:114. 4. Pom. Mag., i :No.46. 1828. col. pi. 5. London Hort. 
Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 708. 6. Kenrick, 1832:26. 7. Floy-Lindley, 1833:7. 
8. Manning, 1838:46. 9. Downing, 1845:73. fig. 10. Cole, 1849:98. n. 
Thomas, 1849:137. fig. 12. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:11. 1851. 13. 
Elliott, 1854:145. 14. Hooper, 1857:31. 15. Warder, 1867:717. 16. Fitz, 
1872:160. 17. Downing, 1872:10 index, app. 18. Leroy, 1873:454. fig. 19. 
Barry, 1883:332. 20. Hogg, 1884:141. 21. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 
22. four. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:354. 23. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:299. 
1901. 24. Budd-Hansen, 1903:124. 

SYNONYMS. D'Eve (18). Duverson's June (17). Early June of South 
(13). EARLY MARGARET (16). Early Margaret (4, 20). Early Red (24). 
EARLY RED JUNEATING (6). Early Red Juneating (7, 9, u, 12, 13, 20). 
EARLY RED MARGARET (4, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21). Early Red 
Margaret (6, 13, 18, 20, 23). Early Striped Juneating (4, 5, 6, 7, 20). 
Eve Apple (7, of Ireland 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 20). Herr's June (17). June of 



142 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

some in Ohio (13). Lammas (3, 20). Magdalene (20). MARGARET (i, 2, 3, 
13, 20, 22, 23, 24). Margaret (4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 18). Margaret, Early (5). 
MARGARET, EARLY RED (5). Margaretha Apfel (4, 7, 9, 12, 13). Margct 
Apple (20). MARGUERITE (18). Marguerite (5, 20). Maudlin (18, 20). 
7??c/ Joaneting (22). ^d /MH* of South (13). Red Juneating (4, 5, 6, 7, 
9, 10, n, 12, 13, 20). Red Juneting (3). Reinette Quarrendon (18). Rothcr 
Jacobs (18). Rother Jacobs Apfel (4, 7). Striped Juneating (5, 9, n, 12, 
13, 18, 20). Striped Quarendon (17). Striped Quarrenden (5, 18, 20). 
Summer Traveller (5, 17, 20). Virginia June (17). 

An early summer apple, small to nearly medium, roundish ovate, yellowish 
striped and marbled with dull red. Flesh pleasant subacid, good; season late 
July and early August. It is a dessert apple suitable for the home orchard 
only. The tree is of medium size, moderately vigorous, upright, hardy, long- 
lived, comes into bearing fairly young and is a pretty reliable biennial 
cropper. 

Historical. This is a very old English variety. Hogg (20) states that 
" It is without doubt the Margaret of Rea, Worlidge, Ray, and all our early 
pomologists except Miller." It has long been cultivated in this country, but 
only to a very limited extent. It is now rarely propagated by our nursery- 
men and seldom planted. 

MILLER. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:172. 2. Horticulturist, 13:530. 1858. 3. 
Warder, 1867:726. 4. Downing, 1869:275. 5. Leroy, 1873:469. fig. 6. 
Thomas, 1875:506. 7. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 

SYNONYMS. MILLER (i, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). MILLER SEEDLING (2). 

This apple was brought to notice by James O. Miller, Montgomery, Orange 
county, N. Y. (i). Downing (4) describes the fruit as rather large, roundish 
oblate inclined to conic, yellow shaded, striped and splashed with light red. 
Flesh yellowish, crisp, pleasant subacid, good to very good. Season October 
and November (3). Lyon refers to it as a promising fruit for market and 
general purposes (7). We are unacquainted with this variety and have 
received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents. 

MILLIGEN. 

REFERENCES, i. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:348. 1889. 2. U.' S. B. P. /. Bui., 
48:49. 1903. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:132. 1904. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit of good size, rather attractive in general appearance, yellow striped 
with red, good to very good. It comes into season in October and some 
portion of the fruit may be kept in good condition till spring. In common 
storage there is apt to be a rather high rate of loss during late autumn, so 
that its commercial limit is October or early November, but it may be held 
in cold storage till midwinter (3). The tree is a vigorous grower, almost 
an annual bearer and usually produces good crops. It does not excel 
standard varieties of its season for any purpose. Not recommended for 
planting in New York. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 143 

Historical. This variety was originated by Mrs. Milligen, near Claysville, 
Washington county, Pa. It was received for testing at this Station from 
J. R. and R. A. Murdock, Pittsburg, Pa., in 1888. 



MOSHER. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1881 :Q7 app. 2. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 
14:300. 1901. 
SYNONYMS. MOSHER (2). MOSHER SWEET (i). Mosher Sweet (2). 

A good variety for the home orchard but not attractive enough for 
market (i). Originated in the orchard of Ephraim Mosher, Washington, 
N. Y., many years since. So far as we can learn this variety is not now 
being propagated by nurserymen and its cultivation appears to be declining. 
The tree is large, rather vigorous, upright spreading or roundish, a good 
grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields pretty good crops annu- 
ally or nearly annually. Fruit medium, oblate conic, ribbed pale yellow or 
greenish; flesh white, moderately juicy, sweet, aromatic, good; season Sep- 
tember and October. 

MOTHER. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 10:210. 1844. 2. Thomas, Cultivator, 5:306. 
1848. fig. 3. Horticulturist, 3:581. 1848. 4. Cole, 1849 : 115. fig- 5- Hovey, 
Mag. Hort., 15:65. 1849. fig. 6. Thomas, 1849:169. fig. 7. Waring, 1851:27. 
8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:58. 1851. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 
ID, Mag. Hort., 20:241. 1854. n. Elliott, 1854:147. 12. Downing, 1857:87. 
13. Hooper, 1857:62. 14. Gregg, 1857:55. 15. Mag. Hort., 28:281. 1862. 
16. Lothrop, Mag. Hort., 32:363. 1866. 17. Warder, 1867:663. fig. 18. Fitz, 
1872:141. 19. Barry, 1883:350. 20. Hogg, 1884:7. 21. Lyon, Mich. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 22. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 23. Bunyard, Jour. 
Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356. 24. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui., 130:124. 1901. 25. 
Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui, 106 :54. 1902. 26. Rural N. Y., 61 :8>2g. 

1902. figs. 27. Budd-Hansen, 1903:132. figs. 28. Rural N. Y., 62:7, 380. 

1903. 29. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bui., 182:21. 1903. 30. Powell and Fulton, 
U. S. B. P. /. B ul., 48:50. 1903. 31. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 
248:133. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. AMERICAN MOTHER (20). Gardener's Apple (20). Mother 
Apple (20). MOTHER (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 
19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31). MOTHER OF AMERICA (23). Queene 
Anne (12, 20). 

A beautiful red apple of good size, with tender, rich, aromatic 
flesh of best dessert quality. It is less desirable for culinary uses, 
being somewhat lacking in acidity. It resembles Esopus Spitzen- 
bnrg to a marked degree but ripens earlier and is not so good a 
keeper. In ordinary storage it does not keep well and November 



144 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

is its safe commercial limit, but in cold storage it may be held till 
March or later (31). The tree is below medium size and but a 
moderate grower. In many localities it is rather tender and liable 
to scald or canker on the trunk and larger branches. On this 
account it is desirable to topwork it upon Northern Spy or some 
other hardy, vigorous stock. It does not come into bearing very 
young and commonly is a biennial cropper yielding moderate to 
good crops. It cannot be recommended for general commercial 
planting but it is desirable for the home orchard. 

Historical. Thomas described it in 1848 as " a new, handsome late autumn 
and early winter apple, of the highest quality," and stated that it originated 
at Bolton, Worcester county, Mass. (2). It is still listed by some nursery- 
men (22) but it is nowhere being extensively planted. It is but seldom found 
in cultivation in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree below medium size, moderately vigorous or a rather slow grower. 
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather open. Twigs long, curved, mod- 
erately stout; internodes long. Bark brown, mingled with olive-green, lightly 
mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels numerous, 
rather conspicuous, medium size, oval, raised. Buds rather prominent, 
medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 



FRUIT. 

Fruit below medium to above, sometimes large, pretty uniform in size and 
shape. Form- roundish or roundish conic to oblong ovate, obscurely and 
broadly ribbed. Stem long to medium, moderately slender to rather thick. 
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, 
rather narrow to moderately broad, often russeted, sometimes furrowed or 
compressed or lipped. Calyx small, closed or nearly so ; lobes medium, 
narrow, acute. Basin shallow, narrow, a little abrupt, somewhat furrowed 
and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, smooth, golden yellow nearly covered with bright deep red, 
marbled and striped with carmine. Dots rather small, inconspicuous, yellow- 
ish or pale and submerged. 

Calyx tube rather long, funnel-form with wide limb and narrow cylinder. 
Stamens marginal. 

Core medium to rather small, abaxile ; cells nearly symmetrical, open or 
partly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly ovate to roundish, 
emarginate, mucronate. Seeds rather dark, medium or below, plump, acute 
to acuminate. 

Flesh fine, tender, juicy, very mild subacid, aromatic, very good to best in 
flavor and quality. 

Season late September to January; it is in its prime in November. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 145 



MOUNTAIN SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, 1867 : 388. 2. Downing, 1869 1282. 
SYNONYMS. MOUNTAIN SWEET (i, 2). Mountaineer (i, 2). 

Fruit of medium size, fairly good appearance and moderate to good quality, 
not superior to other varieties of its season and not recommended for plant- 
ing in this state. 

Historical. Origin Pennsylvania (i). It is but little known in New York 
and its cultivation in this state is not being extended. 

TREE. 

Tree medium or below, not a strong grower, with short, stout, curved 
branches. Form spreading or roundish, rather dense. Twigs short, straight, 
moderately stout; internodes short. Bark clear brown mingled with green, 
lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, small, 
oblong, slightly raised. Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly 
pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit variable, usually medium or above. Form roundish or roundish 
oblate, pretty regular, somewhat angular; sides unequal. Stem short to 
rather long, rather slender. Cavity nearly acuminate to somewhat obtuse, 
medium in depth, rather broad, russeted and with outspreading russet rays. 
Calyx small to rather large, closed or open; lobes separated at base, medium 
to long, rather narrow, acuminate. Basin moderately shallow to shallow, 
narrow to moderately wide, wavy. 

Skin thick, rather tough, somewhat rough, clear pale yellow overlaid with 
faint pinkish blush and scattering stripes of deeper red. Dots numerous, 
inconspicuous, small, russet. Prevailing effect striped. 

Calyx tube medium in length, rather wide, conical to somewhat funnel- 
form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core medium size, abaxile; cells open; core lines meeting or slightly clasp- 
ing. Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical, emarginate. Seeds very small, 
rather wide, plump, acute, rather light brown. 

Flesh white, moderately fine, very tender, juicy, sweet, good. 

Season September to December. 

MOUSE. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1845:117. 2. Thomas, 1849:182. 3. Enimons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:82. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:147. 5. Hooper, 1857:62. 
6. Warder, 1867:727. 

SYNONYMS. Moose (i, 2, 3, 4, 5). MOUSE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). 

An old variety which originated in Ulster county, N. Y., where it was 
formerly popular (i). According to Downing the fruit is large, roundish 
conical, pale greenish-yellow with brownish blush; flesh very white, fine- 
grained, delicate, mild subacid ; good ; season October to November. 

This variety is unknown to us and we have received no reports concerning 
it from any of our correspondents. 



146 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



MUNSON. 

REFERENCES, i. Genesee Farmer, 10 1288. 1849. 2. Barry, 1851 1285. 3. 
Humrickhouse, Mag. Hort., 19:163. 1853. 4. Elliott, 1854:148. 5. Downing, 
1857:174. 6. Gregg, 1857:44. 7. Horticulturist, 17:104, 150. 1862. 8. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 9. Warder, 1867:388. fig. 10. Thomas, 1875:198. 
ii. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 
13. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53:278. 1894. *4- Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. 
Bui, 45:333. 1896. 15. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1896:71. 16. Ib., 18:89. 

1902. 17. Budd-Hansen, 1903:133. fig. 18. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205 :45. 

1903. 19. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:50. 1903. 20. Beach 
and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:133. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Meachem Sweet (5). MUNSON (17, 18, 19, 20). MUNSON 
SWEET (2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16). Munson Sweet (17, 19, 20). 
MUNSON SWEETING (4, 6). Munson Sweeting (i). NORTHERN SWEETING 
(i). Orange Sweet (5, 9)- Ray Apple (5). 

In some parts of New York this variety is better known under 
either the names Meachem Sweet or Rag Apple than it is under the 
correct name of Munson. 

The fruit commonly averages about medium size. It is attrac- 
tive in appearance for a yellow apple, being pale yellow often some- 
what blushed ; skin characteristically tough separating readily from 
the tender flesh ; season late September to December. It is a desir- 
able variety for home use but is not very satisfactory "for growing 
commercially because there is little demand for a sweet apple of 
its season except in certain local markets. The tree is a good 
grower, comes into bearing rather early and is a pretty reliable 
cropper commonly yielding good crops biennially. 

Historical Origin uncertain. Supposed to have originated in Massa- 
chusetts. It is still propagated by nurserymen (12) but it is not being 
planted in New York now as much as it was a generation ago. 

TREE. 

Tree large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form spreading or roundish, 
rather dense. Twigs short to rather long, curved, stout to moderately slender 
with large terminal buds ; internodes short. Bark dark brown, heavily 
streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips. Lenticels quite numerous, 
rather conspicuous, medium size, roundish, raised. Buds large, prominent, 
broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit below medium to rather large, averaging about medium size. Form 
roundish oblate, often somewhat elliptical, ribbed. Stem rather short, mod- 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 147 

erately thick. Cavity medium to rather large, acuminate, narrow to medium 
width, rather unsymmetrical, lightly russeted. Calyx medium to small, 
closed; lobes rather narrow, acute. Basin shallow to very shallow, narrow, 
obtuse or a little abrupt, furrowed, often unsymmetrical. 

Skin rather thick and tough separating readily from the flesh, smooth, 
greenish-yellow often somewhat blushed. 

Calyx tube funnel-shape with long cylinder. Stamens marginal to median. 

Core medium to large, axile or sometimes abaxile ; cells often unsym- 
metrical, closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping the cylinder. Carpels 
roundish to elliptical, emarginate, tufted. Seeds medium size, rather short, 
flat, obtuse, dark brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately fine-grained, tender, moderately 
juicy, sweet, good to very good. 

Season late September to December. 

NORTHERN SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Cultivator, 6:353. 1849. 2. Battey, Horticulturist, 4:316. 
1850. fig. 3. Jeffreys, Ib., 4:413. 1850. 4- Barry, 1851:285. 5- Emmons, Nat. 
Hist N. Y., 3:42. 1851. col. pi No. 50 and fig. 6. Mag. Hort., 20:241. 1854- 
7. Elliott, 1854:149. 8. Downing, 1857:177. 9. Gregg, 1857:45. 10. Hoffy, 
N. A. Pom., 1860. col pi n. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 12. Warder, 
1867:632. 13. Leroy, 1873:502. fig. 14. Thomas, 1875:508. 15. Lyon, Mich. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:316. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 17. Waugh, Vt. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 14:302. 1901. 18. Budd-Hansen, 1903:138. 

SYNONYMS. Golden Sweet (8, 10, 13). NORTHERN GOLDEN SWEET (5). 
Northern Golden Sweet (2, 7, 8, 13). Northern Golden Sweeting (10). 
NORTHERN SWEET (i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, u, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18). NORTH- 
ERN SWEETING (9). 

Fruit yellow or sometimes with a crimson cheek. Flesh whitish, fine, ten- 
der, juicy, sweet, very good; season midautumn. It is a good apple for the 
home orchard but not desirable for commercial purposes. 

Historical. Supposed to be a native of Chittenden county, Vermont. 
Brought to notice by Jonathan Battey, Keeseville, Clinton county, N. Y., about 
1849, who stated that it had then been cultivated in the vicinity of its origin 
for about fifty years (2). It has probably been grown more in the Cham- 
plain valley than in any other section of the state. It is still occasionally 
listed by nurserymen (16) but is now seldom planted. 

. OGDENSBURGH. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869:291. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

Originated with A. B. James, Ogdensburg, N. Y. According to Elliott's 
description cited by Downing (i) the fruit is medium size, whitish-yellow 
with brownish-blush ; flesh tender, very mild subacid, very good ; season 
November and December. We are unacquainted with this variety and have 
received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents. 



148 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



OHIO NONPAREIL. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 14:114. 1848. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
3:77. 1851. fig. 3. Elliott, 1854:148. fig. 4. Mag. Hort., 22:85, So6. 1856. 
5. Hooper, 1857:15. 6. Downing, C, Mag. Hort., 27:59. 1861. 7. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 8. Elliott, Mag. Hort., 32:51. 1866. 9. Warder, 
1867:447. fig. 10. Downing, 1869:29. fig. u. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869. 
12. Fitz, 1872:171. 13. Thomas, 1875:203. 14. Barry, 1883:340. 15. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 17. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:141. fig. 

SYNONYMS. BELLFLOWER OF THE WEST (5). Cattell Apple (10, of Penn- 
sylvania 6). MYERS NONPAREIL (3, 7, 8, 13). Myers Nonpareil (6, 9, 10, 
12, 14). Nonpareil (6). OHIO NONPAREIL (i, 4, 6, 9, 10, n, 12, 14, 15, 17). 
Ohio Nonpareil (5, 13). OHIO NONPAREIL (2, 16). Red Bellfiower of 
some (5). Rusty Core (6, 10). Wells (5). Western Beauty (9, erro- 
neously 10). 

A fine fall apple of good color and good quality for either dessert 
or culinary purposes. The tree is a moderate grower and appears 
to be hardy and moderately long-lived. It does not come into 
bearing very young and is not always a reliable cropper. It is 
regarded as a good variety for home use and some recommend it 
for commercial planting. Season October and November. 

Historical. Originated near Massillon, Ohio. Although this is an old 
variety having first been described in 1848 (i) we do not find that it has been 
much disseminated in New York. It is more popular in the Middle West 
and is still offered by nurserymen in that region (16). 

TREE. 

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous. Form rather spreading, not 
dense. Twigs medium length, curved, rather stout. Bark olive-green with 
some reddish-brown, thinly streaked and mottled with gray scarf-skin. 
Lenticels scattering, conspicuous, large, usually round, becoming laterally 
compressed. Buds medium to small, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large. Form roundish oblate, pften obscurely ribbed. 
Stem medium to rather short, rather thick. Cavity rather large, acute, deep, 
pretty symmetrical, mpre or less russeted, the russet sometimes outspread- 
ing over the base. Calyx: medium or above, closed or slightly open ; lobes 
medium in length, narrow, acute. Basin rather small, medium in depth, 
narrow to moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, rather symmetrical. 

Skin pale yellow to deep yellow almost entirely overspread with bright 
red, mottled and irregularly striped and splashed with carmine. Dots 
moderately numerous, small to medium, areolar with russet center or grayish. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 149 

Calyx tube moderately short, conical. Stamens basal to nearly median. 

Core small, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, not uniformly developed, 
nearly closed to somewhat open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. 
Carpels roundish, rather flat, tufted. Seeds medium size, moderately long, 
plump, acute, tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, agree- 
able subacid, aromatic, good to very good. 

Season October and November. 



OHIO PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, 1867 : 4&4- fig- 2. Downing, 1869 1292. 3. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:12. 4. Thomas, 1885:223. 5. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. 
Rpt., 1895:193. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:141. 7. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. 
Bui, 248:135. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Buchanan (i). Ernst's Apple (i). ERNST'S PIPPIN (4). 
Ernst's Pippin (2). OHIO PIPPIN (i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7). Ohio Pippin (4). 
Shannon (i, 2, 3, 6). 

Fruit of good medium size, quite attractive for a yellow apple, 
mild in flavor and of good quality. Season late September or 
October to January ; October appears to be its commercial limit in 
this latitude (7). The tree attains good size, is rather vigorous and 
healthy, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, 
being almost an annual bearer and often yielding full crops. 

Historical. This variety is supposed to have originated in Dayton, Ohio 
(i, 2). It has been disseminated pretty widely in the Middle West but it 
is scarcely known among New York fruit growers. 

TREE. 

Tree rather vigorous. Form open, somewhat roundish or spreading and 
inclined to droop. Twigs short, straight, stout; internodes short. Bark 
dark dull brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near 
tips. Lenticels scattering, medium to below, oblong, not raised. Buds 
very deeply set in the bark, medium size, flat, obtuse, appressed, slightly 
pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to medium. Form oblate conic to roundish oblate, 
rather irregular in shape being often somewhat elliptical or obscurely ribbed. 
Stem short, slender, usually not exserted. Cavity rather large, acute or 
slightly acuminate, varying sometimes to rather obtuse, deep, broad, often 
furrowed, sometimes lipped, sometimes russeted and with outspreading russet 
rays. Calyx medium to large, open; lobes reflexed, rather broad, obtuse, 
separated at the base. Basin small and shallow to rather broad, deep and 
abrupt, sometimes compressed, wrinkled. 



150 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Skin smooth, somewhat glossy, attractive bright yellow often with a faint 
orange or pinkish blush. Dots whitish, submerged, sometimes russet or 
areolar with russet point. 

Calyx tube short, rather wide above, cone-shape or approaching truncate 
funnel-form. Stamens basal or nearly so. 

Core small, usually axile ; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open ; core 
lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, approaching elliptical, but slightly 
emarginate if at all, mucronate, slightly tufted. Seeds numerous, light 
colored, rather small, very plump, obtuse. 

Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, firm, fine, tender, crisp, moderately 
juicy, mild subacid becoming mildly sweet, good. 

OKABENA. 

REFERENCES, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:132. 2. Ib., Cat., 1899:19. 3. 
Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901:97. 4. Hansen, 5. D. Sta. Bui, 76:78. 
1902. fig. 5. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui., 106:54. 1902. 6. Munson, 
Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:84. 1902. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:141. fig. 

SYNONYMS. OKABENA (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7). OKOBENA (6). 

An autumn apple not particularly attractive in appearance, nor more than 
moderately good in quality. Not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. Originated in 1871 near Worthington, Minn., from seed of 
Oldenburg said to be fertilized by Wealthy (7). Received for testing at 
this Station in 1892, from the Jewel Nursery Company which introduced this 
variety. In 1899 it was given a place on the list of the American Pomologi- 
cal Society as a variety of value in the Upper Mississippi valley (2). So far 
as we can learn it has been grown in the East only in an experimental way. 

OLDENBURG. 

REFERENCES, i. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 341. 2. Kenrick, 
1832:64. 3. Manning, 1838:52. 4. Ives, Mag. Hort., 6:125. 1840. 5. Man- 
ning, Ib., 7:44. 1841. 6. Downing, 1845:82. 7. Cole, 1849:102. 8. Thomas, 
1849:147. 9. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 16:495. 1850. fig. 10. Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 3:34. 1851. ii. Barry, 1851:283. 12. Waring, 1851:28. 13. 
Elliott, 1854:131. 14. Hooper, 1857:30. 15. Gregg, 1857:42. 16. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1862. 17. Barry, Horticulturist, 22:148. 1867. 18. Warder, 
1867:431. 19. Todd, 1871:186. fig. 20. Leroy, 1873:148. fig. 21. Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:6. 22. Ib., 6:97. 1880. 23. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1883:12. 24. Hogg, 1884:64. 25. Can. Hort. 11:221. 1888. 26. Hoskins, 
Rural N. Y., 47 '646. 1888. 27. Dunlap, ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889 123. 28. 
Can. Hort., 12:75, no. 1889. 29. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 15:26. 1890. 
30. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 31. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 
32. Am. Card., 14:519. 1893. 33- Can. Hort., 17:291. 1894. 34. Rural 
N. Y., 53:28. 1894. 35. Am. Card., 17:519. 1896. 36. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. 
Hort. Soc., 1898:354. 37. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 6:8. 1899. 
figs- 3& Craig, Cyc. of Hort., 1901:1404. 39. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 
60:248. 1901. 40. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui, 130:121. 1901. 41. Waugh, Vt. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 151 

Sta. An. Rpt., 14:302. 1901. 42. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:46. 1902. 
43. Ib., 76:79. 1902. fig. 44. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui., 106:52. 
1902. 45. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bui., 182:21. 1903. 46. Farrand, Mich. Sta. 
Bui., 205:45. 1903. 47. Budd-Hansen, 1903:141. fig. 48. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:51. 1903. 49- Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. 
Bui., 248:136. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Barovcski (20). Barowiski (20). Borovitsky (20, 37, 38). 
BOROWICKI (20). Borowitski (24). Borowitsky (43). Charlamowiski (24). 
Charlamowski d'Automne (20). Charlamowskircher Nalleoid (20). Charla- 
mowsky (43). DUCHESS (27, 29, 32, 35, 37, 38, 43). DUCHESS OF OLDEN- 
BURG (3, 4, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 28, 31, 33, 36, 44). Duchess of 
Oldenburg (23, 41, 48, 49). DUCHESS OF OLDENBURGH (i, 2, 5, 9, 10, 14, 18). 
Duchesse d'Oldenbourg (20). DUTCHESS (13). DUTCHESS OF OLDENBERG 
(15). DUTCHESS OF OLDENBURGH (6, 7, 8). Dutchess of Oldenburgh (13). 
New Brunswick (34). OLDENBURG (23, 26, 39, 45, 48, 49). Oldenburg (35, 
37). OLDENBURGH (30, 34). OLDENBURG, Duchess of (40, 42, 46, 47). 

This Russian apple is known throughout the West either by the 
name Duchess, or by the full name Duchess of Oldenburg; the 
American Pomological Society has abbreviated the full name to 
Oldenburg, but this has not been generally accepted by Western 
fruit growers. In European nurseries it is propagated under the 
names of Charlamowsky and Borowitsky. It was early imported 
into the West, coming to this country by the way of England and 
it was the extreme hardiness of this variety in the early test winters 
that kept up the hopes of prairie orchardists in time of great dis- 
couragement and led to the importations of more varieties from 
Russia (42). 

Oldenburg is one of the most valuable of the Russian apples thus 
far introduced into this country. It is of good size and attractive 
appearance. It is generally highly esteemed for home use on 
account of its excellent culinary qualities and with some fruit 
growers it has proved a very profitable variety for the commercial 
orchard. When properly grown and carefully handled it stands 
shipment pretty well and sells well for a variety of its season. In 
some few localities in Western New York it is grown in sufficient 
quantities so that it can be shipped in car lots to distant markets, 
but in very many places it is produced in greater quantities than the 
local markets can absorb and yet not in quantities large enough so 
that it can be economically shipped to distant markets. Since the 
fruit is quite perishable it does not stand heat well before shipment 



152 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

and goes down rather quickly, particularly if the weather is unfa- 
vorable. When sent to distant markets it should be shipped under 
ice. The fruit ripens in succession so that several pickings are 
required in order to secure the crop in prime marketable condition. 
It is in season during late August and September, but it may be 
used for culinary purposes before it is fully ripe. The tree is 
highly valued because of its great hardiness. It is vigorous when 
young but with age it becomes a rather moderate or slow grower. 
It is only moderately long-lived, but is a reliable cropper, yielding 
good crops biennially, often with lighter crops alternating. Gener- 
ally speaking, the trees require good cultivation, thorough fertilizing 
and careful spraying in order to secure the best commercial results. 
The fruit hangs fairly well to the tree till it is ripe. It is quite 
uniform in size and quality, with but a small percentage of loss 
from unmarketable fruit. 

Historical. This is one of the four pioneers among Russian apples in 
America, the other three being Alexander, Tetofsky and Red Astrachan (38). 
These four varieties were imported by the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society from the London, England, Horticultural Society about 1835. Olden- 
burg was brought to England from Russia about twenty years prior to that 
date. It was tested by Robert Manning, Superintendent of the Test Gar- 
den of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society at Salem who published the 
following description in 1838 (3) : "A valuable and handsome apple said to 
be of Russian origin. The size is middling, form round and rather flat; 
skin of a beautiful yellow, striped with red; flavor very pleasant and good. It 
bears well and ripens in September and October." In 1850 Hovey wrote, 
" Mr. Manning, we believe, first proved the Duchess of Oldenburg and gave 
a brief account of it in his Book of Fruits. Since then it has been con- 
siderably disseminated, and though yet far from being common is to be 
found in many fine collections of fruit" (9). Later it became disseminated 
throughout the Middle West and Northwest where it proved to be much 
superior in hardiness to Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Northern Spy 
and other varieties which have been commonly cultivated in this state. Its 
ability to withstand severe climates encouraged the importation of other 
Russian sorts some of which have proved valuable in the northern portion of 
the apple belt. Oldenburg is commonly listed by nurserymen (31) and its 
planting both in home orchards and in commercial orchards is increasing in 
this state. 

TREE. 

Tree medium in size. Form at first upright spreading but eventually 
roundish. Twigs moderately long, curved, slender ; internodes long. Bark 
dark brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 153 

scattering, small to medium, oblong, not raised. Buds medium size, plump, 
obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium, uniform in size and shape. 
Form roundish oblate to oblate, regular, symmetrical. Stem short to some- 
times medium, moderately slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, broad, 
usually partly covered with greenish-russet. Calyx medium to rather large, 
usually closed; lobes rather broad, acute. Basin moderately deep to deep, 
wide, abrupt, smooth or with small mammiform protuberances. 

Skin moderately thick, tender, smooth, pale greenish-yellow or pale yel- 
low, almost covered with irregular splashes and stripes of bright red mottled 
and shaded with crimson. Dots scattering, small, light colored. Prevailing 
effect red striped; attractive. 

Calyx- tube moderately long, rather wide, funnel-shape with broad trun- 
cate cylinder or approaching urn-shape. Stamens median. 

Core medium to rather large, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly 
open; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly ovate, slightly emarginate. Seeds 
medium to rather large, wide, obtuse to acute, moderately plump, dark brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, 
sprightly subacid, aromatic, good to very good for culinary purposes. It has 
too much acidity for a good dessert apple. 

Season late August and September. 

ORANGE. 

REFERENCES, i. M'Mahon, Am. Card. CaL, 1806:585. 2. Coxe, 1817:139. 
3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:91. 1851. 4. Horticulturist, 8:247. 1853. 
5. Mag. Hort., 19:172. 1853. 6. Hooper, 1857:67. 7. Downing, 1857:178. 
8. Warder, 1867 :728. 9. Downing, 1869 1294. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 : 
245- 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Different varieties of the! apple have been known under the name Orange. 
The Fall Orange has already been described on page 60. 

Orange has sometimes been used as a synonym for Lowell which is de- 
scribed on page 128. 

ORANGE OF NEW JERSEY (i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). Coxe (2) gives the fol- 
lowing description of this variety : " This is a fine table apple in the fall and 
early winter months; and is thought to be a good cider fruit; the size is 
small, the form oblong the colour a greenish-yellow the flesh yellow, 
rich, juicy and sprightly; the tree is of moderate size, the growth upright, 
and its fruitfulness great. It is much cultivated in several of the middle 
counties of New-Jersey as a highly estimable apple." Downing (7, 9) states 
that the tree is vigorous and moderately productive; the fruit pleasant sub- 
acid; very good; season September and October. 

ORANGE OF PENNSYLVANIA. A variety which originated at Reading, Pa., was 
brought to notice under the name Orange by the ad interim report of the Fruit 
Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in 1853 (4> 5)- The 
fruit is described as medium size, roundish, nearly orange-yellow, sprightly, 



154 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

good (4, 5, 8, 9). We have received no reports concerning this variety from 
any of our correspondents and so far as we know it is not in cultivation in 
New York. 

ORANGE PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Forsyth, 1803:54. 2. Ib., 1824:119. 3. Buel, N. Y. Bd. 
Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 4. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 : No. 587. 5. Ken- 
rick, 1832:81. 6. Lindley, 1833:80. 7. Warder, 1867:728. 8. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1869. 9. Downing, 1872 -.62 app. fig. 10. Leroy, 1873 .-457. fig. 
ii. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. I2 Hogg, 1884:116. 13. Ib., 1884:164. 
14. Thomas, 1885:519. 15. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 16. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 

SYNONYMS. Englese Orange Appel (12). ISLE OF WIGHT PIPPIN (4, 12). 
Isle of Wight Pippin (5, 6). Isle of Wight Orange (4, 5, 6, 12). MARIGOLD 
(10). Marigold (5). Marigold Creed's (10). Marigold Pippin (2). Mary- 
gold (6). ORANGE (7). ORANGE PIPPIN (i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16). 
Orange Pippin (4, 12). Pomme d' Orange (12). 

The above references are not all to the same variety and are included only 
because in many cases it is uncertain which variety the writer had in mind. 

At least two varieties have been known in this country under the name 
Orange Pippin but so far as we can learn neither of them is now considered 
of superior value by fruit growers and both are going out of cultivation. 
One, which has been called also the Isle of Wight Pippin, Isle of Wight 
Orange, Marygold and Marigold, was disseminated from the Isle of Wight 
where, as some have supposed, it was brought from Normandy (i, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
10, 12). Fruit medium size, roundish, skin yellowish, golden gray russeted 
and highly colored with orange and red on the sunny side; flesh firm, crisp, 
pleasant acid, suitable for dessert; season October to January (6, 9). This 
was entered on the list of the American Pomological Society in 1869, 
dropped in 1871 and re-entered in 1873. 

An Orange Pippin grown in some parts of New Jersey is described (8, 9, 
n, 14, 15) as a profitable summer market apple of unknown origin. Tree 
vigorous, at first upright but eventually spreading; a reliable biennial cropper. 
Fruit medium or above, pale yellow with some orange red in the sun; flesh 
white, half fine, tender, pleasant subacid; season September and October. 



ORANGE SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 1 1396. 1835. 2. Warder, 1867 1566. 3. Down- 
ing, 1869:295. 4. Thomas, 1885:519. 

SYNONYMS. Orange Russet (2). ORANGE SWEET (3, 4). ORANGE SWEET- 
ING (i, 2). 

Several varieties are described under this name by Downing (3) : one 
from Ohio, large, greenish-yellow; flesh whitish, tender, sweet, good; season 
October and November: one from Massachusetts, the fruit medium, oblate, 
greenish-yellow; the flesh yellowish-white, rather coarse, rich, sweet; season 
August and September : and one from Maine ; fruit medium, roundish ovate, 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 155 

bright yellow with blush; flesh yellowish, tender, sweet, rich; season Sep- 
tember and October. 

Warder (2) describes under the name Orange Sweeting or Russet "An 
eastern variety not much cultivated ; fruit large, very round, regular, green- 
ish-yellow, bronzy, orange russeted; flesh rather tough, fine-grained, juicy, 
good; season December." 

The name Orange Sweet has also been used as a synonym for both Mun- 
son (p. 146) and Golden Sweet (p. 81). 

OSTRAKOFR 

REFERENCES, i. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:106. fig. 2. Ib., 
la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:443. 3. Budd, la. Agr. Coll Bui, 1885:18. 4. 
Schroeder, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:71. 5. Craig, Ib., 1886-87:103. 
6. Budd, Rural N. Y., 47:692. 1888. 7. Ib., la. Agr. Coll Bull, 1890:23. 
8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :246. 9. Budd, la. Spa. Bui., 19 :54O. 1892. 10. 
Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:58. u. Can. Hort., 16:402. 1893. 
12. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:583. 1894. 13. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 
1896:75. 14. Thomas, 1897:648. 15. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902:84. 
16. Hansen, 5". D. Sta. Bui, 76:80. 1902. fig. 17. Beach and Clark, N. Y. 
Sta. Bui, 248:136. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Astravaskoe (12). OSTRAKOFF (7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17). 
OSTRAKOFF GLASS (n). Ostrakoff Glass (12). OSTREKOFF (3, 5). Ostre- 
koff's Glass (i, 2). Ostrekovskaya Steklianka (3). OSTREKOWSKAJA STEK- 

LIANKA (i, 2). OSTROKOFF (6, 8, 14). OSTROKOFF's GLASS (4). No. 4 M 

(4, 5, 6, 7, 9, ii, 13, 15, 16). No. 472 (i, 3). 

A Russian variety of good size, greenish-yellow, brisk subacid, fair to 
good quality. Its keeping qualities vary much in different seasons. As 
grown at this Station it is commonly in its prime from late September into 
November but a portion of the fruit may often be kept into the winter in 
very good condition. It is reported as a promising variety for portions of 
Northern New England and other regions where superior hardiness is a 
prime requisite. It is of no value where our common standard varieties 
succeed. 

Historical. Described by Budd in 1885 under the name Ostrakoff 's Glass 
and in 1890 under the name Ostrakoff (3, 7). It was received in 1884 for 
testing at this Station from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, N. Y., under 
the name Astravaskoe. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form spreading or roundish, open. Twigs 
short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium. Bark 
dark brown tinged with green, heavily streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent 
near tips. Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, raised, rather 
conspicuous. Buds prominent, large, long, plump, obtuse, free. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
to somewhat ovate or oblong, somewhat conical, a little angular. Stem 



156 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

characteristically long, often curved, twisted or irregularly enlarged or in- 
serted under a fleshy protuberance. Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, 
shallow to moderately deep, medium in width to narrow, partly covered with 
light greenish-russet, often lipped. Calyx closed or open, rather large, leafy; 
lobes rather broad, acute to obtuse. Basin characteristically irregular, 
medium in width and depth, abrupt, sharply ridged and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, rather tough, smooth, pale waxen-yellow sometimes 
with a faint reddish shade. Dots very numerous, small, submerged, often 
areolar. 

Calyx tube medium to large, rather wide, conical to peculiarly funnel-form, 
with broad truncate cylinder. Stamens basal to median. 

Core medium size, axile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines meeting. 
Carpels roundish to broadly ovate, emarginate. Seeds medium brown, large, 
wide, rather flat, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh yellowish-white, firm, rather fine, juicy, brisk subacid, fair to good. 

Season late fall and early winter. 



PALOUSE. 

REFERENCES, i. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1891 1390. 2. Rural N. Y., 
50:815. 1891. 3. Hexamer, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:159. 4. Williams, 
Card, and For., 5:11. 1892. 5. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 6. Craig, Can. 
Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1896:133. 7. Macoun, Ib. f 1901 :97. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Palouse is a comparatively new variety which originated in Wash- 
ington. In color, texture, flavor and aroma it is so much like 
Tompkins King that some suppose it to be a seedling of that variety. 
Its form, however, is quite different from that of Tompkins 
King, typical fruit being oblong, as described by Craig (6) and 
others (i, 2), rather than oblate or roundish oblate, as described by 
Hexamer (3) and Macoun (7). It is hardly as good a keeper as 
Tompkins King and would probably be classed as a late fall variety, 
being in season from October to early winter. It is, however, more 
productive than Tompkins King and is being much planted in com- 
mercial orchards in Washington where many regard it as one of 
the most valuable of the seedling varieties which have originated in 
that region. It appears to be worthy of testing in New York. 

Historical. Palouse originated in Whitman county, Washington, from seed 
brought from Illinois in 1879. The original tree is located five miles east of 
Colfax 1 . It was introduced about 1892 by George Ruedy, Colfax, Wash., whose 

1 Ruedy, Letter and Circular, 1904. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 157 

attention was first called to the variety in 1889 when it took first premium as 
the best seedling apple exhibited at the Whitman County Fair. It is as yet 
but little grown in the East and so far as we can learn it has as yet been 
planted in New York to but a limited extent and for trial only. 

FRUIT (2, 3). 

Fruit large. Form oblong conic, ribbed or scalloped. Stem long, slender. 
Cavity remarkably deep. Calyx closed or partly open. Basin rather shallow 
to deep, distinctly furrowed, the furrows often extending to the cavity. 

Skin bright yellow, blushed and more than half covered with crimson, 
splashed, blotched and dotted with darker red. Prevailing effect attractive 
red and yellow. 

Core large. 

Flesh yellowish, crisp, firm, tender, juicy, very aromatic, stibacid, very good. 

Season October and early winter. 

PARRY WHITE. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1872 125 app. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 1246. 
3. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:263. 1895. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. 
Sta. Bui., 248:137. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Imperial White (i). PARRY WHITE (i, 2, 3, 4). Superior 
White (i). White Apple (i). 

Fruit pale yellow or whitish, waxen, of medium size ; quite attrac- 
tive in appearance for an apple of its class. The flesh is white, 
juicy, subacid, good in quality for either dessert or culinary use. 
It follows Yellow Transparent in season, beginning to ripen late 
in August or early in September and continuing in use into or 
through October (4). The tree comes into bearing young and is 
an annual cropper, yielding good to very heavy crops. In spite of 
its remarkable productiveness it makes a pretty good growth. It is 
worthy of trial where an apple of its type is desired. 

Historical. Origin unknown. It is supposed to be a Pennsylvania apple. 
It is occasionally listed by nurserymen (2). It has not yet become known 
to any considerable extent in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree of medium size and moderately vigorous. Form at first upright 
spreading but after bearing full crops it becomes roundish and somewhat 
drooping ; dense. Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds ; 
internodes short. Bark brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked 
with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels quite numerous, 



158 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

rather conspicuous, medium size, round, not raised. Buds medium to large, 
plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit usually medium but varies according to the abundance of the crop 
from below medium to rather large; quite uniform in size and shape. Form 
nearly globular varying to somewhat oblate or slightly inclined to ovate, 
quite regular. Stem above medium to rather short, slender. Cavity slightly 
acuminate, medium to shallow, medium in width, smooth, symmetrical. 
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium in length, narrow, acute. Basin very 
shallow, moderately narrow to rather broad, obtuse, smooth or slightly 
wrinkled, symmetrical. 

Skin moderately thick, rather tough, waxen yellowish-white or greenish, 
Occasionally blushed. Dots medium size to very small, pale or brown, numer- 
ous, depressed. 

Calyx tube short, narrow, funnel-shape. Stamens marginal to median. 

Core medium to small, abaxile ; cells open ; core lines meeting or slightly 
clasping. Carpels round, emarginate. Seeds medium or above, acute or 
inclined to obtuse, light brown. 

Flesh white, quite firm, rather fine, tender, juicy, subacid, good. 

Season very late August into or through October. 

PATTEN. 

REFERENCES, i. Watrous, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1889:124. 2. Patten, C. G., 
Descriptive Circular, 1891. 3. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892 :6o. 4. Me. 
Sta. Rpt., 1892:90. 5. Macoun, Can. Hort., 22:396. 1899. 6. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1899:19. 7. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901:98. 8. Munson, 
Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:84. 1902. 9. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:81. 1902. 
fig. 10. Budd-Hansen, 1903:145. fig. n. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
56 :226. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Duchess No. 3 (2, 9, 10). PATTEN (n). Patten's Duchess 
No. 3 (n). PATTEN GREENING (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Patten Greening 
(n). PATTEN Greening (10). 

A seedling of Oldenburg which, on account of its hardiness, pro- 
ductiveness and the uniformly large size of its fruit is valuable in 
the northern portions of the apple-growing regions of the country 
(i, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10). It is grown as far north as the Red River valley 
of Minnesota and North Dakota and in other regions where the 
winters are correspondingly severe. It is attractive in color for a 
green apple, has a sprightly subacid flavor and good texture and is 
very good in quality for culinary use. The tree is a somewhat 
stronger grower than Oldenburg, with limbs strongly shouldered 
(2, 9, 10). As grown at this Station it comes into bearing mod- 
erately young and is an annual cropper, yielding moderate to full 
crops. It is worthy of trial in the colder regions of the state. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 159 

Historical Originated by C. G. Patten, Charles City, la. (2), who states 
that it is a seedling of the Oldenburg from seed grown near Portage, Wis., 
and planted by him at Charles City, la., in the fall of 1869. It was first 
illustrated and described in the catalogue of the originator in the autumn of 
1885 when stock of this variety was first offered for sale. In 1899 it was 
entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society as a valuable 
variety for the Upper Mississippi valley (6). It has as yet been but little 
disseminated in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, somewhat stout, curved, 
drooping branches. Form spreading, dense, flat. Twigs rather short, some- 
what curved, moderately stout or rather slender ; internodes medium to long. 
Bark brownish-red with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; 
slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, roundish, sometimes raised. 
Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form oblate 
or roundish oblate, sometimes inclined to conic, usually regular, pretty 
symmetrical. Stem very short to medium in length, moderately thick. 
Cavity acuminate, deep or sometimes medium in depth, rather broad or 
compressed, russeted and with outspreading russet rays. Calyx large or 
very large, closed or somewhat open. Basin deep to medium in depth, 
medium in width, often abrupt, usually smooth and symmetrical. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, clear pale greenish-yellow, some- 
times blushed and occasionally faintly striped. Dots small, numerous, pale 
and submerged or brownish. 

Calyx cube conical to funnel-shape. Stamens median to basal. 

Core below medium to small, axile or somewhat abaxile ; cells sometimes 
unsymmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish, 
irregular. Seeds dark brown, medium or above, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, a little coarse, rather tender, 
juicy, sprightly subacid, good in quality especially for culinary purposes. 

Season October to January. 

PEACH (MONTREAL). 

REFERENCES, i. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:7. 2. Raynes, Ib., 1879:26. 
3. Budd, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:524. 4. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1881:178. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1883:12. 6. Thomas, 1885:520. 7. Mon- 
treal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885:99. 8. Ib., 1886-87:92. 9. Burnet, Can. Hort., 
12:339. 1889. 10. Hamilton, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 15:26. 1890. 
ii. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 12. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 
13. Hoskins, Am. Card., 15:272. 1894. 14. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:82. 
1902. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:147. 

SYNONYMS. Canada Peach (14). Montreal Peach (3, 14). PEACH (3, 
ii, 14). PEACH APPLE of Montreal (13). PEACH OF MONTREAL (i, 4, 5, 6, 
7, 8, 9). PEACH of Montreal (2, 10, 12, 15). Pomme Peche (i). 



160 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Fruit predominantly yellow with some red; in form it somewhat re- 
sembles Porter being oval or conical. It is salable in local markets but 
being easily bruised it does not stand transportation well (2, 3, 6, 13). The 
tree is hardy, thrifty and very productive. 

According to Hoskins it is a very popular fall apple all through Northern 
New England and Eastern Canada. It has long been the leading market 
apple of its season, September, in Montreal and the surrounding territory 
on both sides of the line. Its season does not extend far into October except 
by extra care but it forms a very good successor to the Yellow Transparent 
which it resembles except for its blushed cheek (13). 

This variety is but little known in New York. It cannot be expected to 
displace Oldenburg which is of the same season, more productive (10) and 
much better known. 

Historical Some writers state that this is a variety of French origin (i) 
but Hoskins considers this doubtful. He states : " Some of its characters 
would indicate it to be a Russian apple which has reached Canada via 
France, but this is only a conjecture" (13). 



PEACH POND. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1845:91. 2. Thomas, 1849:145. fig. 3. Em- 
mons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:36. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:151. fig. 5. Hooper, 
1857 :68. 6. Warder, 1867 -.476. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871 :8. 8. 
Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 
10. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45 :335- 1896. 

SYNONYMS. PEACH POND (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). PEACH-POND SWEET (i, 2). 
PEACH POUND SWEET (10). 

A beautiful autumn sweet apple of excellent quality in season from Sep- 
tember to November. The tree is vigorous and spreading. It originated 
in Dutchess county, N. Y. (i). It was entered in the Catalogue of the 
American Pomological Society in 1871 and dropped in 1899. Although it 
has long been in cultivation it has failed to establish itself as a commercial 
variety in New York and is comparatively little grown for home use. 



FRUIT (i, 6). 

Fruit medium to small. Form slightly conic, rather flat, angular and a 
little one-sided. Stem medium to long, slender, green, sometimes knobbed. 
Cavity acute, deep, regular, brown. Calyx small, closed. Basin narrow, 
regular, wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, pale yellow lightly covered with mixed striped red and 
beautifully splashed with crimson. 

Flesh yellowish, very mellow, fine-grained, moderately juicy, rich, sweet, 
agreeable, very good or almost best. 

Season September to November. 





PEASE WALTER 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 161 



PEARSALL. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869:300. 2. Thomas, 1875:508. 
SYNONYMS. PEARSALL' s SWEET (i, 2). 

This variety is supposed to have originated in Queens county, N. Y. Ac- 
cording to Downing the fruit is a good keeper and valuable for baking. The 
tree upright spreading, quite productive. Fruit rather large, yellow, partly 
covered with light red. Flesh moderately juicy, sweet, good. Season Novem- 
ber to January (i). 

PEASE. 

REFERENCES, i. Rural N. Y., 54:776. 1895. % 2. Heiges, U. S. Pom. 
Rpt., 1895:36. 3. Rural N. Y., 56:222. 1897. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899: 
19. 5. Rural N. Y., 61:249. 1902. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:147. 7. J. W. 
Adams and Co., Springfield, Mass., Cat. 

SYNONYMS. PEASE, Walter (4, 6). WALTER PEASE (i, 2, 3, 5, 7). 

A pleasant-flavored apple of good size, attractive appearance 
and excellent dessert quality, but too mild in flavor to excel 
for culinary uses. The fruit being rather tender requires careful 
handling and on this account is better adapted for local than for 
distant markets. It is worthy of the attention of New York fruit 
growers where a dessert apple of this type is desired. The crop 
ripens unevenly. The earliest fruit comes in season the latter 
part of September or early in October, while a considerable portion 
of the later ripening fruit may remain sound till midwinter or later. 
Sometimes there is considerable loss from premature dropping of 
the fruit during September wind storms. The tree is a good 
grower, hardy, comes into bearing moderately young and is a pretty 
reliable cropper, alternating light with heavier crops. 

Historical. Originated in the seedling orchard of Walter Pease, Somers, 
Conn., in the early part of the last century (3). It was at first propagated 
by the Shakers near the place of its origin and there came to be recognized 
locally as a valuable variety. Within recent years it has been propagated 
to a considerable extent by nurserymen and is being more widely dissemi- 
nated. 

TREE. 

Tree rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form upright to 
roundish. Twigs moderately long, a little curved, stout; internodes medium 
to short. Bark clear brownish-red, heavily coated with scarf-skin; pubes- 
cent. Lenticels scattering, below medium to above medium, roundish, slightly 



162 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

raised. Buds below medium to above, broad, plump, rather obtuse, free or 
nearly so, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large or above medium, somewhat variable in size and shape. Form 
flattened at base, varying from oblate to roundish oblong and often inclined 
to conic; sides often unequal. Stem below medium to long, slender. Cavity 
obtuse to acute, moderately deep to deep, broad, sometimes lipped, often 
somewhat russeted. Calyx usually medium to large, closed or nearly so; 
lobes leafy. Basin moderately deep or sometimes shallow, rather narrow, 
abrupt, often compressed or furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, somewhat glossy, with pale green or yellowish 
ground color which in highly colored specimens is largely covered with 
bright red, striped with bright carmine and flecked with whitish scarf-skin. 
Dots numerous, often submerged, whitish or russet, sometimes areolar. 
Prevailing effect greenish-yellow more or less striped with red. 

Calyx tube small, conical. 

Core small to medium, axile; cells partly open or sometimes closed; core 
lines meeting. Carpels small, roundish, somewhat tufted. Seeds rather large, 
narrow, long, somewhat tufted, dark; often some are abortive. 

Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, 
juicy, aromatic, sprightly, mild pleasant subacid, good to very good for 
dessert. 

Season October to midwinter. 

PEASGOOD NONSUCH. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1881:100 app. 2. Hogg, 1884:170. 3. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892 -.246. 4. Can. Hort., 15 -.346. 1892. 5. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. 
Hart. Soc., 1898:356. 

SYNONYMS. PEASGOOD'S NONESUCH (i, 2, 5). PEASGOOD NONSUCH (3, 4). 

An English culinary apple, very large, green or yellowish, blushed and 
striped with red, excellent for culinary use. In season during September and 
October (i). In England it is regarded as one of the valuable varieties 
introduced in the last fifty years (-2, 5). It has been but little tested in this 
country. 

PERRY REDSTREAK. 

REFERENCES, i. Horticulturist, 24:157. 1869. 2. Downing, 1876:63 app. 
3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:230. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. PERRY REDSTREAK (3). PERRY RED STREAK (i, 2). Perry 
Red Streak (3). 

A November apple of medium size and mild flavor. It originated at Low- 
ville, N. Y., with Dr. David Perry (i). The tree is hardy, vigorous and a 
reliable cropper alternating heavy with lighter crops. The fruit is of me- 
dium sizCj yellow, shaded^ striped and splashed with light and dark red; 
flesh whitish, fine, tender, juicy, slightly aromatic, mild subacid (2). 

This variety is unknown to us and we have received no report concerning it 
from any of our correspondents. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 163 



PETER. 

REFERENCES, i. Iowa Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:180. 2. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 
7 150, 90. 1888. 3. Bailey, An. Hort,, 1892 1246. 4. Beach, N. Y. Sia. An. 
Rpt., 12:601. 1893. 5. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:31. 6. Munson, Me. 
Sta. Rpt., 1896:75- 7- Beach, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 41:52. 1896. 8. 
Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:19. 9. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:84. 1902. 
10. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:84, 95- 1902. n. Farrand, Mich. Sta. 
Bui, 205:46. 1903. 12. Budd-Hansen, 1903:149. 13. Powell and Fulton, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:52. 1903. 14. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 

248:137- 1904- 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This fruit resembles its parent Wealthy so closely that it is very difficult 
to distinguish between the two. It is similar to Wealthy in season as well 
as in the appearance and quality of the fruit. In ordinary storage its com- 
mercial season is September and October (14). In cold storage it extends 
to about January I (13). Sometimes a portion of the fruit may keep 
into or through the winter (14). Hansen states that even if really distinct 
the two varieties are now mixed to a considerable extent. As fruited at 
this Station the flesh of Peter is not so white as that of Wealthy but some- 
what milder and better in quality (4). It has been found that the seeds of 
Peter are larger, broader, less pointed and a little darker than those of 
Wealthy. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bearing young and 
yields full crops biennially. The fruit does not ripen uniformly and on this 
account there is apt to be some loss from drops unless more than one picking 
is made. 

Historical. Originated from seed of Wealthy by Peter M. Gideon, Excel- 
sior, Minn, (i), from whom this variety was received in 1888 for testing at 
this Station. 

TREE. 

Tree a fairly strong grower in the nursery ; in the orchard it makes a 
moderately vigorous growth and eventually becomes rather large with 
moderately stout, somewhat drooping branches. Form upright spreading 
to roundish, open. Twigs short, straight, slender, with large terminal buds; 
internodes medium. Bark brown tinged with red, lightly streaked with 
scarf-skin; pubescent near tips. Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, 
oval, not raised. Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

% 

Fruit medium or above, uniform in size and shape. Form oblate or round- 
ish oblate, a little inclined to conic, regular. Stem long to medium, some- 
times short, slender. Cavity acuminate, deep, medium to rather broad, com- 
pressed, lightly russeted or nearly smooth. Calyx small, closed; lobes me- 
dium in length, rather broad, acute. Basin deep to moderately deep, narrow 
to medium in width, abrupt, gently furrowed, sometimes compressed. 

Skin thin, moderately tough, nearly smooth, clear pale yellow washed and 
mottled with bright red conspicuously striped and splashed with deep car- 
mine. Highly colored specimens are nearly covered with deep red. Dots 



164 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

medium size, scattering, brown, mingled with some that are whitish and 
submerged. Prevailing effect red or striped red. 

Calyx tube small, funnel-shape. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium to below, usually axile; cells symmetrical, closed or partly 
open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish, emarginate. Seeds above me- 
dium to large, moderately wide, long, flat, moderately acute. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, sometimes stained with red, firm, me- 
dium-grained, tender, juicy, with a pleasant, mild subacid, somewhat aro- 
matic flavor, good to very good. 

Season September and October or later (14). 

PLUMB ODER. 

REFERENCES, i. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1869 (cited by 2). 2. Horticul- 
turist, 27:310. 1872. 3. Ib., 28:119. 1873. 4- Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 
5. Williams, Horticulturist, 29:16. 1874. fig- 6. Downing, 1876:65 app. 
7. Budd, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:472. 8. Barry, 1883:352. 9. Thomas, 
1885:520. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. n. Rural N. Y., 53:794. 1894. 
12. Alwood, Fa. Sta. Bui, 130:124. 1901. 13. Hansen, 5". D. Sta. Bui, 76: 
35. 1902. fig. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:151. fig. 15. Beach and Clark, N. Y. 
Sta. Bui, 248:138. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. PLUMB CIDER (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15). PLUM 
CIDER (10, n). 

This variety has been received with some favor in many parts of the 
country on account of its hardiness and productiveness. The fruit is of good 
medium size, fairly attractive in color, yellowish shaded and splashed with 
red. As grown in New York state it is inferior to standard varieties of its 
season. 

Historical Origin unknown. It was brought from Ohio in 1844 to Wis- 
consin by Mr. Plumb, where it proved to be a good grower, hardy and pro- 
ductive (5). 

FRUIT (5, 13, 14). 

Fruit above medium. Form round-ovate, slightly conic in some specimens. 
Stem stout, short. Cavity shallow, narrow. Calyx very small, closed. Basin 
very narrow and shallow, slightly plaited. 

Skin yellowish shaded with pale red and somewhat striped with brighter 
red. Dots few, fine, gray. 

Calyx tube long, very narrow, funnel-form. Stamens extremely marginal 
touching the segments, a marked characteristic. 

Core little above medium; cells open; core lines clasping. Carpels cordate. 
Seeds pale brown, short, plump, pointed. 

Flesh of a greenish cast, firm, fine, breaking, juicy, brisk subacid, good. 

Season October to January. 

POMONA. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869:135. 2. Leroy, 1873:248. fig. 3. Hogg, 
1884:55. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 5. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13: 
579. 1894. 6. Ib., Card, and For., 8:428. 1895. 7. Ib., Can. Hort., 20: 





POMONA (Reduced Size) 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 165 

183. 1897. 8. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356. 9. Beach and 
Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:139. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Cox's POMONA (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). Cox's Pomona (9). 
Dean's Codlin (2). POMONA (9). 

Fruit frequently large and when highly colored rather attractive, 
being mottled and striped with crimson over a clear pale yellow 
ground color. The fruit is not very uniform in size, often unsym- 
metrical, tender, easily bruised and not a very good keeper. In 
ordinary storage its commercial limit is October (9). The tree is 
a good grower, comes into bearing young and is an annual cropper, 
or nearly so, but only moderately productive. It is not recom- 
mended for commercial planting in New York. 

Historical. Originated by Mr. Cox, Colnbrook Lawn near Slough, Bucks, 
England, who also originated Cox Orange (3). 

TREE. 

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous with branches moderately stout, 
spreading and often drooping. Form roundish. Twigs straight, stocky, long; 
internodes medium. Bark rather bright reddish-brown mingled with olive- 
green, thinly overlaid with narrow streaks of gray scarf-skin. Lenticels 
rather numerous, conspicuous, medium to sometimes large, roundish or 
sometimes elongated. Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, appressed, some- 
what pubescent. Leaves rather large, broad, dark green; base of petioles 
red. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to very large, fairly uniform in size but not in shape. 
Form oblate conic, very irregular, ribbed; sides usually unequal. Stem 
usually short, moderately thick. Cavity large, acuminate to acute, deep, broad, 
rather symmetrical or sometimes compressed, irregularly russeted. Calyx 
medium size, open or nearly closed; lobes separated at base, short, rather 
broad, obtuse to acute, reflexed. Basin deep, medium in width to rather 
wide, abrupt, smooth or ridged, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin thin, rather tender, waxy, smooth, greenish-yellow or pale yellow 
partly blushed with crimson, and mottled and narrowly striped with car- 
mine. Dots scattering, small, inconspicuous, usually whitish and submerged, 
sometimes gray or russet. 

Calyx tube wide, conical, sometimes extending to the core. Stamens me- 
dian to nearly marginal. 

Core medium to small, somewhat abaxile ; cells open or closed, symmetri- 
cal ; core lines clasping. Carpels ovate to broadly roundish or elliptical, 
emarginate. Seeds medium to small, wide, short, very plump, flat, obtuse, 
dark brown. 

Flesh whitish, not very firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, 
sprightly, good to very good for culinary use. 

Season September and October. 



i66 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

PORTER. 

REFERENCES, i. Kenrick, 1832:27. 2. Mag. Hort., 1:363., 1835. 3- Man- 
ning, 1838:51. 4 Ib., Mag. Hort., 7:48. 1841. 5. Downing, 1845:92. fig. 
6. Floy-Lindley, 1846:411 app. 7. Horticulturist, 1:196, 256. 1846. 8. 
Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:116. 1848. fig. 9. Cole, 184^:107. fig. 10. Thomas, 
1849:157. fig. ii. Waring, 1851:28. 12. Barry, 1851:285. 13. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:37. 1851. col pi No. 27 and fig. 14. Hovey, 1:43. 
1851. col. pi and fig. 15. Horticulturist, 7:217. 1852. 16. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1852. 17. Elliott, 1854:98. 18. Hooper, 1857:71. 19. Gregg, 1857:47. 
fig. 20. Warder, 1867:673. fig. 21. Fitz, 1872:153, 162. 22. Leroy, 1873: 
580. fig. 23. Downing, 1881:11, 12 index, app. 24. Rural N. Y., 47:713. 
1888. 25. Wickson, 1889:243. 26. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 
27. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 28. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 
45:336. 1896. 29. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:303. 1901. 30. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:152. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Jennings (23). PORTER (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 
13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30). Yellow Sum- 
mer Pearmain (23). 

This fruit is of very fine dessert quality. It is also highly 
esteemed for canning and other culinary uses, because when it is 
cooked it is not only excellent in quality but it retains its form 
remarkably well. The fruit is yellow, faintly marked with red, 
decidedly attractive for an apple of its class. It does not stand 
shipping very well because the skin is rather tender and readily 
shows marks of handling. Since it is quite variable in its season 
of ripening there is apt to be considerable loss from dropping unless 
more than one picking is made. It varies in size from large to 
small, with a considerable percentage of the crop undersized or 
otherwise unmarketable. The tree is vigorous, compact, hardy, 
comes into bearing early and is a pretty reliable biennial cropper. 
Fifty years ago it was the principal September apple in the Boston 
market (i, 3, 5, 9, 18, 19), and in spite of the fact that it is not 
red it continues to sell well in that market (29). It is also in good 
demand in many local markets. It is desirable for planting for 
home use or for some local markets, but generally it is not regarded 
as a profitable commercial variety by New York fruit growers. 

Historical Originated about 1800 with Rev. Samuel Porter, Sherburne, 
Mass, (i, 3, 5, 14), and up to about 1850 its cultivation was confined prin- 
cipally to the vicinity of its origin. It gradually became very widely known 
and has become well disseminated in many of the more important apple- 
growing regions of the country. Old trees of it are occasionally found in 
New York orchards but it is now seldom planted here. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 167 

TREE. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous. Form roundish or somewhat spreading. 
Twigs rather slender, very short- jointed, with prominent shoulders (14). 
Buds medium in size. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit small to large, usually rather large. Form oblong inclined to conic, 
rather truncate at base and with apex oblique and somewhat ribbed. Stem 
medium to rather short, moderately thick to slender, sometimes knobbed, 
curved. Cavity acute to acuminate, medium to deep, medium in width to 
rather narrow, symmetrical or compressed, sometimes lipped, usually faintly 
russeted. Calyx rather large, closed or partly open ; lobes usually separated 
at base, short, rather narrow, broadly acute. Basin moderately deep to 
shallow, rather narrow, abrupt, broadly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, smooth, rather glossy, clear bright yellow with a 
faint blush, usually rather obscurely striped with darker red marked with 
scattering red dots. Dots usually medium to very small, often submerged, 
green with whitish center, sometimes russet. 

Calyx tube rather short, wide, broadly conical. Stamens median to basal. 

Core medium to large, axile to somewhat abaxile ; cells partly open to 
wide open ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels broadly ovate 
to elliptical, mucronate. Seeds below medium to rather large, plump, 
rounded, acute. 

Flesh yellow, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, agreeably aromatic, 
sprightly, good to very good for either dessert or culinary uses. 

Season. It begins to ripen in September and continues in use till Novem- 
ber or later. 

POUND SWEET. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869:311. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This name has been applied to several varieties of large sweet apples. 
Downing mentions one which is large, roundish conic, greenish-yellow with 
slight red in sun; flesh yellowish, tender, moderately juicy, sweet; season 
September and October; and another which is large, roundish, red; flesh 
whitish, moderately juicy, aromatic, sweet (i). Others are described by 
other authors and some which are known locally by this name have perhaps 
never been described in any publication. 

The variety most commonly known in Central and Western New York 
under the name Pound Sweet is large, globular, marbled with yellow and 
green and streaked with whitish scarf-skin. It is described under its correct 
name Pumpkin Sweet on page 171- 

PRIMATE. 

REFERENCES, i. Cowles, Mag. Hort., 16:450. 1850. fig. 2. Ib., 17:506. 
2851. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 4. Mag. Hort., 20:241. 1854. 5. El- 
liott, 1854:153. fig. 6. Mag. Hort., 21:62. 1855. 7. Gregg, 1857:38. 8. 
Downing, 1857:93. fig. 9. Horticulturist, 14:471. 1859. 10. Mag. Hort., 



i68 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

27:69. 1861. ii. Horticulturist, 17:103, 150. 1862. 12. Mag. Hort., 32:17. 
1866. 13. Warder, 1867:643. fig. 14. Downing, 1869:313. 15. Fitz, 1872: 
161. 16. Thomas, 1875:196. 17. Downing, 1881:11, 12 index, app. 18. 
Barry, 1883:334. 19. Rural N. Y., 47:649. 1888. 20. Lyon, Mich. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 21. Blackwell, Rural N. Y., 50:447. 1891. 22. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892 :247. 23. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53 :248. 1894. 24. Can. 
Hort., 17:252. 1894. 2 5- Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 8:9. 1901. 
figs. 26. Budd-Hansen, 1903:153. fig. 27. Rural N. Y., 62:740. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. Belle Rose (17). Early Baldivin (17). Early Tart Harvest 
(14). Harvest (2). Highland Pippin (17). July Apple (14). NORTH 
AMERICAN BEST (9). North American Best (14). Powers (2, 14). PRI- 
MATE (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 
24, 25, 26, 27). ROUGH AND READY (i). Rough and Ready (2, 5, 7, 8, 14). 
Scott (14). Sour Harvest (9, 14). Zour Bough (9, 14). 

A dessert apple, pale yellow or whitish, often slightly blushed; 
in season in August and September. It is well known throughout 
the state, but not much grown except for home use. It is com- 
monly considered the best apple of its season for the home orchard 
because the tree is a pretty good grower and a reliable cropper, and 
the fruit ripens in succession during a period of several weeks and 
is of fine flavor and excellent quality particularly for dessert use. 
Being less attractive than a red apple it is in demand in market 
only where its fine quality is known. The fruit ripens unevenly 
and it should be picked from time to time as it matures to prevent 
loss from the dropping of the fruit. In some localities the tree has 
proved somewhat tender, not very long-lived and rather susceptible 
to the attacks of the apple canker, but, generally speaking, as grown 
throughout Central and Western New York, particularly where it 
has been topworked upon good thrifty stock, the tree is a pretty 
good grower, moderately long-lived and reliably productive. Often 
it yields very heavy crops biennially with lighter crops, or none, on 
alternate years, but in some localities it is almost an annual 
bearer. 

Historical. This variety was disseminated by traveling grafters in Cen- 
tral and Western New York as much as fifty years ago. In 1850, Charles P. 
Cowles of Syracuse in a communication to the Magazine of Horticulture 
stated: "As it is not known in this place, nor state, by the best judges, I 
safely think it is a seedling. I found a few trees in Onondaga county in 
a town of the same name which had been circulated by grafts but nothing 
further could be traced of its origin. * * * I propose to call it 'Rough 






PRIMATE 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 169 

and Ready' from the fact of its being first tested during that campaign. 

* * * Messrs. Downing, Barry and Thomas think it a new variety. 

* * * It is but little known as yet but where it is its qualities are much 
esteemed " ( i ) . The following year Mr. A. Fahnstock, a nurseryman of 
Syracuse, showed that this variety had been disseminated in Ontario and 
Monroe counties as well as in Onondaga county and that it was generally 
known by the name of Primate. Recently John T. Roberts of Syracuse has 
taken the trouble to look up the history of this variety and is convinced that the 
original seedling tree grew in the town of Camillus, Onondaga county, and 
through his efforts a bronze tablet has been erected to mark the spot. The 
tablet bears the following inscription : " On this farm Calvin D. Bingham 
about 1840 produced the marvelous Primate apple, named by Charles P. 
Cowles. God's earth is full of love to man" (27). In 1854 it was listed 
by the American Pomological Society (3) as a valuable variety. It is listed 
by various nurserymen in the region from the Atlantic to the Middle West 
but apparently is but little known either in the Southwest or the North- 
west (22). 

TREE. 

Tree below medium to rather large, usually moderately vigorous. Form 
upright spreading to roundish, rather dense. Twigs short, straight, stout 
with large terminal buds; internocles short. Bark dull brown mingled with 
green, heavily streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent and rather rough. Lenti- 
cels scattering, medium size, oblong, raised. Buds prominent, large, broad, 
plump, acute, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above, sometimes large. Form roundish conic to oblate 
conic, often distinctly ribbed. Stem short to medium, thick. Cavity acute, 
deep, broad, distinctly furrowed. Calyx medium size, closed; lobes long, 
narrow. Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, medium in width to 
rather narrow, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, moderately tender, smooth, light green, often changing to whit- 
ish, sometimes with faint yellowish tinge, often slightly blushed but not 
striped. Dots scattering, numerous, rather small, submerged or russet. 

Calyx tube rather large, rather long, broadly conical to somewhat funnel- 
shape. Stamens median. Core medium to large, nearly axile to somewhat 
abaxile with hollow cylinder in the axis ; cells symmetrical, open ; core lines 
clasping. Carpels cordate. Seeds medium to rather large, moderately wide, 
plump, acute. 

Flesh whitish, fine, crisp, very tender, juicy, subacid, aromatic, sprightly, 
very good to best. 

Season August and September. 

PROLIFIC SWEETING. 

REFERENCES, i. Webster, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881 154. 2. Gibb, la. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:439- 3- Ib., Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:46. 4. Van 
Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1888:571. fig. 5. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 47:646. 
1888. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:91. 1888. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 
8. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:254. 1895. 9. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 



170 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

1896:71. 10. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:304. 1901. n. Munson, Me. 
Sta. Rpt., 1902:84, 86, 88. 12. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:88. 1902. fig. 
13. Budd-Hansen, 1903:154. 

SYNONYMS. No. 351 (3, 4, 12). PLODOWITKA CUADKAJA (i). Plodowitka 
Cuadkaja (3). PLODOWITKA CAUDKAJA (2). PROLIFIC SWEET (10). Prolific 
Siveet (i). PROLIFIC SWEETING (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, n, 12, 13). Prolific Sweet- 
ing (2). 

A Russian variety which in size and color resembles Yellow Transparent 
but in form is roundish oblate and somewhat irregular. It has proved to 
be a valuable sweet apple for autumn use in Northern New England (5, n, 
12, 13). Worthy of trial in Northern New York when a variety of this 
class is desired. 

Historical. Imported from Russia by the United States Department of 
Agriculture in 1870. It was received for testing at this Station from Dr. 
T. H. Hoskins, Newport, Vt., in 1888 (6). It has thus far been but little 
disseminated in this state. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading to roundish, open. 
Twigs long, curved, stout; internodes short. Bark brown, tinged with green, 
lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, 
medium size, round, not raised. Buds medium size, broad, flat, obtuse, ap- 
pressed, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above. Form roundish oblate, somewhat irregular. Stem 
medium size. Cavity deep, acute to acuminate, ribbed, russeted and with 
some outspreading russet rays. Calyx closed. Basin shallow, wide, wrinkled. 

Flesh white, crisp, fine-grained, mildly sweet, good. 

Season late August, September and October. 

PUMPKIN RUSSET. 

REFERENCES, i. Kenrick, 1832 :37. 2. Mag. Hort., i :363. 1835. 3. Down- 
ing, 1845:93. 4. Thomas, 1849:146. 5. Cole, 1849:115. 6. Elliott, 1854: 
152. 7. Hooper, 1857:73. 8. Warder, 1867:566. 9. Downing, 1881:11 index, 
app. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. n. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. 
Bui., 48:53. 1903. 12. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:139. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Flint Russet (3, 6). Kingsbury Russet (9). PUMPKIN 
RUSSET (3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12). Pumpkin Russet (5). PUMPKIN SWEET 
(5). Pumpkin Sweet (3). PUMPKIN SWEETING (2). PUMPKIN SWEETING 
of New England (i). Sweet Russet (3, 4, 6). York Russet (6). 

This is a very large, round, yellowish-russet apple, sweet, rich, very good 
for baking but of little value for other purposes. The tree is a vigorous, 
rapid grower, hardy, moderately long-lived and yields fair to good crops 
biennially or in some cases almost annually. It is not a profitable commer- 
cial variety and is now seldom cultivated even for home use. 

Historical. Pumpkin Russet is an old New England variety. Kenrick 
(i) in 1832 described it under the name Pumpkin Sweeting of New Eng- 




G 



PUMPKIN RUSSET 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 171 

land. In 1849 Cole (5) described it under the name Pumpkin Sweet giving 
Pumpkin Russet as a synonym. In 1845 it was described by Downing (3) 
under the name Pumpkin Russet which is the name now generally accepted 
for it by pomologists. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen but is 
now seldom planted in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree large, vigorous or very vigorous, at first upright but eventually be- 
coming roundish or spreading, open; branches long, stout, curved. Twigs 
short, curved, stout ; internodes long. Bark dark reddish-brown tinged with 
olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels quite 
numerous, oblong, slightly raised. Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, 
pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large, fairly uniform in size and shape. Form oblate or somewhat 
inclined to conic, sometimes irregular, faintly ribbed, often compressed. 
Stem medium to short, moderately slender to thick. Cavity acute to 
acuminate, usually deep, moderately broad to rather narrow, nearly smooth, 
sometimes slightly furrowed. Calyx large, closed or slightly open; lobes 
long, narrow, acute to acuminate. Basin small to medium, rather shallow to 
moderately deep, medium in width, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin thick, rather tough, greenish or yellowish sometimes with bronze 
blush on exposed cheek, more or less covered with russet patches or netted 
veins of russet. Dots large and small, scattering, usually russet, irregular. 

Calyx tube short, wide, broadly conical to nearly urnshape. Stamens 
median to basal. 

Core above medium to below, abaxile ; cells usually open, symmetrical but 
not uniformly developed; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels broadly ovate, 
very slightly emarginate, sometimes tufted. Seeds moderately light brown, 
rather large, wide, flat, acute. 

Flesh greenish- white or yellowish, firm, rather coarse, tender, juicy, sweet, 
good. 

Season September and October or in cold storage extending to January I 
(12). 

PUMPKIN SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. N. E. Farmer, 1834 (cited by 20). 2. Downing, 1845:89. 
fig. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:48. 1851. 4. Mag. Hort., 20:241. 1854. 
5. Elliott, 1854:152. 6. Hooper, 1857:56. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 
8. Horticulturist, 17:150. 1862. 9. Warder, 1867:527. 10. Barry, 1883:339. 
ii. Thomas, 1885:216.' 12. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 13. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 14. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 15. Mil- 
ler, Rural N. Y., 53:278. 1894. 16. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:198. 
17. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:53. 1903. 18. Budd-Hansen, 
I 903:i55- fig- iQ- Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:139. 1904. 20. 
Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56 :244. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Lyman's Large Yellow (20). LYMAN'S PUMPKIN SWEET 
(2, 3, 6, 9, 10, ii ). Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet (5, 14, 17, 19, 20). Pound 



172 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Sweet (9, n, 12, 14, 17, 18, 19). PUMPKIN SWEET (i, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 
15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20). Pumpkin Sweet (10, n). Pumpkin Sweeting (20). 
Rhode Island Sweet (20). Round Sweet (20). Sweet Lyman's Pumpkin 
(20). Vermont Pumpkin Sweet (10, 20). Vermont Sweet (20). 
(5, 20). 



Fruit large to very large, marbled with light and dark green 
and streaked over the base with whitish scarf-skin ; well colored 
specimens eventually become quite yellow and sometimes are faintly 
bronzed on the exposed cheek. It is never marked with red, nor 
is it russeted except about the cavity. So far as we know all other 
varieties which have been cultivated under the name Pumpkin 
Sweet are either russeted or marked with red. 

This is the variety generally known in Central and Western New 
York as Pound Sweet, and it commonly appears under this name in 
market quotations. By many it is esteemed as one of the best 
sweet apples of its season for baking and for canning or stewing 
with quinces, but generally it is not valued for dessert because it is 
rather coarse and has a peculiar flavor. It often sells well in local 
or special markets, and there is a limited demand for it in the gen- 
eral trade. Its keeping qualities differ greatly in different locali- 
ties and in different seasons. As grown in Western New York it 
comes in season early in October. The rate of loss in ordinary 
storage is usually high during the fall, and the season closes in 
December or early January, although in some years a considerable 
portion of the fruit may remain sound till midwinter or later (19). 

The tree is a good strong grower, rather long-lived, fairly hardy 
and generally healthy, but it sometimes suffers from winter injury, 
sunscald and canker. It appears to thrive particularly well on 
well fertilized gravelly or sandy loam, with well drained subsoil. 
Under right conditions it is a pretty reliable cropper, yielding good 
crops biennially. The crop ripens somewhat unevenly and often 
there is a considerable loss from water-cored fruit and from wind- 
falls, but on the other hand there is a small percentage of loss in 
undersized or deformed apples. In order to lessen the loss from 
windfalls it is well to plant this variety in a location that is shel- 
tered from prevailing winds. 



/ * 

4 1 



r 



"' I _ 




PUMPKIN SWEET 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 173 

Historical Originated in the orchard of S. Lyman, Manchester, Conn. (9). 
It has been distributed throughout this state for more than fifty years, but 
nowhere has it been largely planted. Generally speaking it is not grown so 
extensively now as it was formerly, but in a few localities its cultivation for 
commercial purposes is increasing somewhat. 

TREE. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous, with long, moderately stout branches. 
Form upright spreading or roundish, open. Twigs medium to short, straight 
or nearly so, stout to moderately slender; internodes short to medium. 
Bark reddish olive-green varying to brownish-red, uniformly mottled with 
thin scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels scattering, rather inconspicuous, small, 
roundish, not raised. Buds medium or below, plump, acute, free, slightly 
pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large to very large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form globular 
to roundish conic, sometimes irregularly elliptical or prominently ribbed. 
Stem very short, stout, often inserted under a lip or having itself a fleshy 
protuberance. Cavity acuminate, moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow 
to moderately wide, often somewhat furrowed or lipped, sometimes russeted 
and with outspreading russet. Calyx medium to rather large, open; lobes 
often separated at the base, short, broad, acute. Basin small to medium in 
size, moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow to moderately wide, abrupt 
to somewhat obtuse, often slightly furrowed or wrinkled. 

Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, at first green but eventually clear yellow 
marbled with greenish-yellow,. Stripes of whitish scarf-skin radiate from 
the cavity. Well colored specimens occasionally show a brownish-red blush 
but never a distinct red color. Dots conspicuous, whitish, often areolar with 
russet center. 

Calyx tube rather wide, conical or elongated cone-shape or sometimes 
slightly funnel-form. Stamens median to .basal. 

Core medium to rather large, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed or somewhat 
open, not uniformly developed; core lines clasping. Carpels thin, broadly 
roundish, but slightly emarginate if at all, often tufted: Seeds medium to 
rather small, wide, plump, acute, light brown, tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, medium in texture, crispness and juiciness, 
decidedly sweet with a peculiar flavor; good for culinary use and especially 
esteemed for baking. 

Season October to January. 

MCCARTY is identical with Pumpkin Sweet in general charac- 
ters and is sold as Pumpkin Sweet, but it appears to differ enough 
from the type in certain characteristics to entitle it to recognition 
as a distinct strain. As compared with typical Pumpkin Sweet the 
fruit of McCarty averages smaller, is not so yellow and keeps 
longer. B. J. Case, Sodus, N. Y., who grows McCarty commer- 



174 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

cially, reports : " The tree does not produce any water-cored fruit 
except when the crop is light. It appears to be fully as productive 
as Pumpkin Sweet. In common storage it is not unusual to keep 
McCarty later than January. In quality it is not so good as Pump- 
kin Sweet. The origin of this type is unknown." 

(I) QUINCE (// Cole), 

REFERENCES. I. Cole, 1849:99. fig. 2. Downing, 1857:130. 3. Hovey, 
Mag. Hort., 27:71. 1861. fig. 4. Am. Pom. Sac. Rpt., 1862. 5. Warder, 
1867:645. fig. 6. Downing, 1869:319. 7. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui, 143:201. 
1897. 8. Budd-Hansen, 1903:156. fig. 9. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. 
Bui, 48 :53. 1903. 10. Ragan, Ib., 56 :246. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. COLE'S QUINCE (i, 2, 4). Cole's Quince (3, 5, 6, 10). 
QUINCE (3, 5, 6). QUINCE (Cole) (10). QUINCE Cole (7, 8, 9). Turn Off 
Lane (10). 

This is a very good variety for home use and is considered by 
some New York fruit growers fairly profitable in commercial 
orchards. The fruit is large, angular, yellow with white aromatic 
subacid flesh of very good quality ; in season in late summer and 
early autumn. Commercial limit in cold storage, November 
i (9). The tree is of good medium size, spreading, a good 
grower, very hardy, comes into bearing moderately young, and is 
a reliable cropper. It is not extensively cultivated in New York. 

Historical. Originated at Cornish, Me., from whence it was disseminated 
about fifty years ago (i). 

FRUIT. 

Fruit. Cole gave the following description of this fruit in 1849 (i) : 
" Fruit large to very large ; flattish-com'cal ; ribbed ; bright yellow, seldom a 
brown cheek, stem short, in a deep cavity; calyx large, in a deep basin; 
flesh when first ripe, firm, juicy, pleasant acid, and first-rate for cooking. 
When very mellow, remarkably tender, of a mLd, rich, high quince flavor 
and aroma. When in perfection we have never seen its superior. July to 
September." 

(II) QUINCE (of Coxe). 

REFERENCES, i. M'Mahon, Am. Card. Cal., 1806:585. 2. Coxe, 1817:138. 
fig. 3. Thacher, 1822:132. 4. Cole, 1849:115. 5. Thomas, 1849:158. 6. 
Downing, 1857:181. 7. Horticulturist, 23:146. 1868. fig. 8. Downing, 
1869:319. 9. Fitz, 1872:153. 10. Downing, 1872:10 index, app. n. Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56 =246. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Pear Apple (8, n). QUINCE (i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10). Quince 
Apple (n). QUINCE (Coxe) (n). QUINCE OF COXE (4, 7). Quince of 
Coxe (n). Seneca Favorite (10). Seneca Spice (u, ?8). 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 175 

A variety which is distinct from the Quince of Cole was 
described by Coxe in 1817. According to Downing, it is in appear- 
ance much like a large Yellow Newtown, and the young wood is of 
a different shade of color from that of the Quince of Cole, being 
dull reddish-brown instead of clear reddish-brown, with buds 
small, reddish and pointed, instead of short, abrupt and prominent. 
The following is the description of the fruit given by Coxe (2) : 
" The size of the apple is large ; the shape flat ; the skin, when fully 
ripe, is yellow; the flesh rich, yellow and juicy in appearance it 
somewhat resembles a large yellow Newtown Pippin. It came 
originally from the state of New York; ripens in November." 

This variety is unknown to us, and we have received no report 
concerning it from any of our correspondents. 

RAMSDELL SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 4:47. 1838. 2. Manning and Ives, 1844:41. 
3. Downing, 1845:137. 4. Mag. Hort., 12:475. 1846. 5. Thomas, 1849:161. 
6. Cole, 1849:118. 7. Emmons, Nat. Plist. N. Y., 3:76. 1851. 8. Elliott. 
1854:131. 9. Hooper, 1857:74. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. n. Warder, 
1867:664. fig. 12. Downing, 1869:163. 13. Fitz, 1872:121, 145. 14. Leroy, 
1873 '605. fig. 15. Barry, 1883 1352. 16. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:296. 17. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 18. Burrill and McCluer, ///. 
Sta. Bui., 45 :337> 1896. 19. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205 :46. 1903. 20. 
Budd-Hansen, 1903:159. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Avery Sweet (12, 14). Avery Szveeting (8). ENGLISH 
SWEET (12, 18). English Sweet (14, 15, 16, 20). ENGLISH SWEETING 
(4, 8). Hurlbut (14). Hurlbut Sweet (12). RAMSDALE'S SWEETING (9). 
RAMSDELL (14, 19). RAMSDELL'S RED (n). Ramsdell Red Sweet (18). 
RAMSDELL'S RED SWEETING (i). RAMSDELL SWEET (10, 15, 16, 17, 20). 
Ramsdell Sweet (3, 8, 12). RAMSDELL'S SWEETING (3, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13). 
Ramsdell' s Sweeting (8, 14). RAMSDEL'S RED PUMPKIN SWEET (2). Rams- 
del' s Red Pumpkin Sweet (3, 5, 7, 8, 12). Randall's Red Winter (12, 14). 
Red Pumpkin Sweet (3, 8, 12). Red Pumpkin Sweeting (9). Reindell's 
Large (14). 

This is an attractive red apple of good size and very good qual- 
ity, in season from midautumn to midwinter. The tree is a 
pretty good grower and an early bearer, yielding some fruit annu- 
ally or nearly annually, but in many cases it is not satisfactorily 
productive and the fruit is not very uniform in size and quality, 
so that there is a considerable loss from unmarketable fruit. Not 
recommended for commercial planting in New York. 



176 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Historical. This variety was first brought to notice by being exhibited 
before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society by the Rev. H. S. Ramsdell, 
Thompson, Conn., and was named Ramsdell's Red Sweeting in compliment 
to him (i). Downing described it in 1845 (3) under the name Ramsdell's 
Sweeting, but in the 1869 edition (12) it was described under the name 
English Sweet, the name previously recognized by Elliott (8) but upon 
what authority we have been unable to learn. In 1862 (10) it was entered 
on the catalogue of the American Pomological Society under the name 
Ramsdell Sweet which name has been retained in that catalogue up to the 
present time. It is also commonly catalogued by nurserymen under the 
name Ramsdell or Ramsdell Sweet (17). 

TREE. 

Tree medium size, vigorous or moderately vigorous. Form upright, open. 
Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium. Bark brown, 
streaked with heavy scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels scat- 
tering, small to medium, oval, raised. Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, 
free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium, sometimes nearly large, somewhat variable in size, 
fairly uniform in shape. Form oblong conic to roundish conic, often some- 
what elliptical and faintly ribbed. Stem short to medium in length, mod- 
erately slender, often red. Cavity acuminate, deep, rather broad, quite 
symmetrical, often with some stellate russet. Calyx small to medium, closed 
or slightly open ; lobes narrow, acute to acuminate. Basin rather small, 
sometimes oblique, medium to rather deep, narrow to medium in width, 
abrupt, faintly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, rather tough, smooth, yellow nearly overspread with attractive 
dark red, or entirely red with obscure splashes and stripes of carmine, over- 
spread with blue bloom. Dots many, distinct, conspicuous, small to rather 
large, pale yellow or grayish, often submerged. Prevailing effect red, at- 
tractive. 

Calyx tube rather large, long, cylindrical to narrow funnel-shape. Stamens 
median. 

Core small to medium, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical but 
not uniformly developed, closed or slightly open ; core lines clasping. Car- 
pels ovate to nearly roundish. Seeds below medium, rather narrow, plump, 
acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, fine, tender, juicy, very sweet, good to 
very good. 

Season October to February. 

RASPBERRY. 

REFERENCES, i. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:435. 2. Montreal Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1883:90. 3. la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885:11. 4. Schroeder, Montreal Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1886:77. 5. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1891:390. 6. Thomas, 1897:252. 
fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:19. 8. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:89. 
1902. fig. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:159. fig. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 177 

SYNONYMS. MALINOWSKOE (i, 2). Malinowskoe (3). No. 288 (3, 5, 8). 
RASPBERRY (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Raspberry (i, 2). /^d Cheek (6). 



A Russian apple, small, fine dark red, sprightly subacid; season July and 
August. Hansen states (8, 9) that it is exceedingly productive and a good 
substitute for Red June where that variety winter-kills. 

RED AND GREEN SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Coxe, 1817:162. 2. Thacher, 1822:129. 3. Kenrick, 1832: 
38. 4. Thomas, 1849:135. 5. Elliott, 1854:176. 6. Downing, 1857:221. 
7. Hooper, 1857:78. 8. Warder, 1867:729. 9. Downing, 1872:10 index, app. 

SYNONYMS. Large Red Sweeting (5). LARGE RED AND GREEN SWEET- 
ING (2). PRINCE'S LARGE RED AND GREEN SWEETING (i). Prince's Large 
Red and Green Szveeting (3). Prince's Red and Green Sweet (5). Red 
Bough (5). RED AND GREEN SWEET (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). RED AND GREEN SWEET- 
ING (3). Saille Sweet (9). Virginia Sweet (9). 

This is a very large green apple, striped with red, rather attractive when 
well colored. It does not rank very high in flavor or quality but is suitable 
for baking. Season August and September. The fruit does not last long 
after it becomes ripe. The tree is medium to large, moderately vigorous to 
vigorous, long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding heavy crops annually. 
Although some find it a profitable apple to grow for local market it is not 
worthy of being recommended for general planting. 

Historical. This is an old variety which was described by Coxe (i). 
It was formerly grown to a comparatively limited extent in some portions 
of New York and in adjoining states. Occasionally a tree of it is still 
found in some of the oldest orchards of the state but it is fast going out 
of cultivation. 

TREE. 

Tree large. Form upright spreading to roundish, open. Twigs short, 
straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short. Bark brown 
mingled with olive-green, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin ; pubescent. 
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oval, not raised. Buds large, rather 
prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large to very large. Form oblong conic, rather strongly ribbed; 
sides unequal. Stem short to medium, moderately slender. Cavity nearly 
acuminate, deep, broad, furrowed, sometimes lipped, sometimes thinly rus- 
seted. Calyx closed or partly open; lobes moderately long, narrow, acute. 
Basin medium in depth to rather deep, medium in width to rather narrow, 
wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, green changing to yellow, more or less blushed 
and partly overspread with pinkish-red irregularly striped and splashed with 
rather bright carmine. Dots conspicuous, numerous, large and scattering 
toward the cavity, small and very numerous toward the calyx. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-shape. 



178 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Core rather large ; cells open ; core lines clasping. Carpels nearly round- 
ish, tufted. Seeds rather small, plump, acute. 

Flesh white, fine, very tender, moderately juicy, of pleasant sweet flavor 
and fair to good quality. 

Season August and September. 

RED ASTRACHAN. 

REFERENCES, i. London Hort, Soc. Trans., 4:522 (cited by 2). 2. For- 
syth, 1824:131. 3. Pom. Mag., 1830 :No. 123, col. pi. 4. London Hort. Soc. 
Cat., 1831 :No. 31. 5. Kenrick, 1832:90. 6. Floy-Lindley, 1833:4. 7. Ken- 
rick, 1835:58. 8. Mag. Hort., 1:391. 1835. 9. Manning, 1838:50. 10. Ib. , 
Mag. Hort., 7:48. 1841. n. Downing, 1845:75. fig. 12. Horticulturist, 
1:146. 1846. 13. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:15. 1848. fig. 14. Cole, 1849:98. 
fig. 15. Goodrich, 1849:49. 16. Thomas, 1849:143. 17. Waring, 1851:29. 
18. Barry, 1851:279. 19. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:14. 1851. col. pi. 
No. 53. 20. Hovey, i :35. 1851. col. pi. and fig. 21. Mass. Hort. Soc. 
Trans., 1852:103. col. pi. 22. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 23. Horticulturist, 
7:437. 1852. 24. Elliott, 1854:103. fig. 25. Horticulturist, 10:443. 1855. 
fig. 26. Hooper, 1857:13, 77. 27. Gregg, 1857:38. fig. 28. Mag. Hort., 
30:162. 1864. 29. Ib. } 32:17, 51. 1866. 30. Warder, 1867:456. fig. 31. 
Downing, 1869:323. fig. 32. Todd, 1871:210. fig. 33. Fitz, 1872:143, 160, 
172. 34. Leroy, 1873:82. fig. 35. Hatch, Horticulturist, 29:51. 1874. 36. 
Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:8. 37. Hogg, 1884:185. 38. Wickson, 1889: 
243. 39. Lyoia, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 40. Can. Hort., 14:261. 
1891. 41. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :234, 247. 42. Am. Card., 15 :4O4. 1894. 
fig. 43. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 2:10. 1895. fig. 44. Burrill 
and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:337. 1896. 45. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui., 61:31. 
1897. 46. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898 .-354. 47. Craig, Cyc. of Am. 
Hort., 1901:1404. 48. Waugh, Ft. Sta, An. Rpt., 14:305. 1901. 49. Can. 
Hort., 25:305. 1902. figs. 50. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:90. 1902. 51. 
Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bui., 182:21. 1903. 52. Budd-Hansen, 1903:160. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Abe Lincoln (31, 32, 34, 48). AMERICAN RED (4, 46). An- 
glesea Pippin (37). ASTRACAN ROUGE (34). ASTRACHAN (23). ASTRACHAN 
RED (2, 18). Astrachan Rouge (31). Astrakhan Rouge (32). Deterding's 
Early (31, 32). Hamper's American (37). RED ASTRACAN (6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
19). RED ASTRACHAN (i, 3, 5, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 
27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 5O, 51, 52). 
Red Astrachan (34). RED ASTRAKHAN (32). Rother Astrakhan (31, 32). 
Vermilion d'Ete (31, 32, 34). Waterloo (37). 

This is a very beautiful early summer apple of good medium 
size, yellow, largely covered with light and dark red, presenting a 
striped appearance, and overspread with bluish bloom. It is gen- 
erally well known throughout the state, being valued particularly 
for home use. It is fit for culinary purposes before it becomes 
fully ripe, so that for home use it is in season from late July to 





RED ASTRACHAN 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 179 

September. When fully ripe and mellow it is desirable for dessert 
use. The tree is of medium size, a good grower, moderately long- 
lived, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, 
yielding moderate to good crops biennially or sometimes annually. 
The fruit hangs to the tree pretty well till it is fully ripe, but as 
the crop matures unevenly there is apt to be considerable loss from 
the dropping of the fruit unless several pickings are made. It is 
not very uniform in size, and a considerable amount of it is small 
01 otherwise unmarketable. It is very perishable, and on this 
account not well adapted for shipping to distant markets. It is 
very common in local markets, but often the supply so much ex- 
ceeds the demand that prices are consequently low. 

Historical. Hogg states that Red Astrachan was imported from Sweden 
into England in 1816 but Lindley (6) states that " This very beautiful 
apple was imported from Sweden, and first fruited by William Atkinson, 
Esq., of Grove End, Paddington, in 1816." It was one of the first of the 
Russian apples imported into America. It was received by the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society from the London (Eng.) Horticultural So- 
ciety about 1835 but this was not the first importation for fruit of Red 
Astrachan was included in one of the exhibitions of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society in 1835 (8). It has become generally disseminated 
throughout the apple-growing districts of the continent and is commonly 
listed from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada to the Gulf states. 

TREE. 

Tree medium to rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form up- 
right spreading to roundish, rather dense. Twigs medium to long, curved, 
stout to rather slender; internodes long. Bark clear brown, lightly streaked 
with scarf-skin, pubescent near the tips. Lenticels quite numerous, medium to 
small, oblong, slightly raised. Buds medium in size, plump, obtuse to acute, 
free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to sometimes large, not very uniform in size or shape. 
Form roundish to roundish oblate, inclined to conical, somewhat ribbed ; 
sides a little unequal. Stem medium, rather slender, bracted. Cavity acute 
to sometimes obtuse, medium to deep, moderately broad, often thinly rus- 
seted with greenish russet, usually symmetrical, sometimes lipped. Calyx 
medium to rather large, open or closed; lobes rather long, moderately broad. 
Basin shallow, narrow to medium in width, obtuse, wrinkled. 

Skin rather thin, moderately tender, smooth, pale yellow or greenish 
often nearly or quite overspread with light and dark red splashed and irreg- 
ularly striped with deep crimson or carmine and covered with rather heavy 
distinct bluish bloom. Dots numerous, small, whitish. 



180 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core small, somewhat abaxile ; cells closed or somewhat open ; core lines 
clasping or sometimes nearly meeting. Carpels broadly ovate or obovate, 
slightly tufted. Seeds small, moderately wide, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh white often strongly tinged with red, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy, 
brisk subacid, aromatic, sometimes slightly astringent, good to very good. 

Season late July to September. 

RED GRAVENSTEIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Leroy, 1873:339. fig. 2. Can. Hort., 16:362. 1893. 3. 
Lucas, Ed., ///. Handb. der Obstk., 1893:250. 

SYNONYMS. GRAVENSTEIN ROUGE (i). RED GRAVENSTEIN (2, 3). Rother 
Gravensteiner (i). 

Bud sports of the Gravenstein have 'appeared at different times which bear 
red fruit. For a statement concerning such sports the reader is referred 
to Gravenstein, page 84. - 

RED HOOK. 

This is a large, late summer or early autumn apple which is being grown 
commercially to a limited extent in the vicinity of Red Hook, Dutchess 
county, N. Y. W. S. Teator, of Upper Red Hook, who furnished us with 
the fruit from which the following description was made, states that the 
variety originated in his locality and has been known under the name of 
Red Ox or Striped Ox. As the name Striped Ox has been applied to other 
varieties he proposes the name Red Hook for this apple. The tree is large, 
low branching and an annual cropper yielding heavy crops. The fruit is 
firm, smooth, bright, attractive, quite free from the attacks of fungi and 
good for culinary use but when overripe it becomes dry and worthless. It 
stands shipment well and is one of the earliest fruits of that locality that 
can be shipped to Europe. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large to very large. Form roundish to roundish conic, somewhat 
elliptical, symmetrical, sometimes faintly ribbed. Stem short, thick to rather 
slender. Cavity acuminate, deep, broad, gently furrowed, smooth or partly 
russeted. Calyx medium to rather small, partly closed ; lobes broad, obtuse 
to acute. Basin rather small, moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, 
abrupt. 

Skin tough, attractive pale yellow, rather thinly mottled and blushed with 
lively red, and sparingly striped and splashed with bright carmine. Dots 
rather small, numerous, whitish or with russet center. 

Calyx tube elongated funnel-shape approaching conical. Stamens median. 

Core medium or below, axile or nearly so ; cells pretty symmetrical, closed ; 
core lines clasping the cylinder. Carpels broadly roundish. Seeds rather 
dark brown, medium size, irregular, obtuse. 

Flesh firm, coarse, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, good. 

Season late summer or early autumn. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 181 



RED JUNE. 

REFERENCES, i. Humrickhouse, Mag. Hort., 14 :38Q. 1848. fig. 2. Phoenix, 
Horticulturist, 4 '.472. 1850. 3. Barry, 1851 1280. 4. Horticulturist, 10 187. 
1855. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856. 6. Horticulturist, 12:473. i8S7- 7- 
Downing, 1857:127. 8. Gregg, 1857:35. 9. Hooper, 1857:23. 10. Hovey, 
Mag. Hort., 27:68. 1861. fig. n. Warder, 1867:666. fig. 12. Downing, 
1869:118. fig. 13. Ib., 1872:10 index, app. 14. Fitz, 1872:151. 15. Thomas, 
1875:190. 16. Wickson, 1889:242. 17. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890: 
296. 18. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1891. 19. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 20. 
Ib., 1892:247. 21. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bui., 47:5. 1893. 22. Hoskins, Rural 
N- Y ; 53^48. 1894. 23. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Rpt., 1894:44. 24. Massey, 
N. C. Sta. Bui., 149:316. 1898. 25. Budd-Hansen, 1903:162. fig. 26. 
Brimer, A r . C. Sta. Bui., 182:21. 1903. 27. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 205:46. 
1903. 

SYNONYMS. Blush June (12, 15, 23). Blushed June (7, 10). CAROLINA 
JUNE (4, 5, 6). Carolina Red (14). CAROLINA RED JUNE (2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
n, 12, 15, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24). Georgia June (12). Jones Early Harvest 
(13). JUNE (i). Knight's Red June (12). RED JUNE (13, 17, 18, 20, 
21, 27). Red June (7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 23). RED JUNEATING (14). RED 
JUNE, Carolina (25, 26). Susy Clark (13). Wilson's June (12). 

An attractive little apple, deep red over yellow, tender, brisk 
subacid, very good. The tree is a moderate grower, a pretty reli- 
able bearer, and commonly yields good crops. Some find it profit- 
able because it is handsome and takes well in some markets. The 
crop ripens so unevenly that it should have two or three pickings 
in order to secure the fruit in good condition. The variety is more 
popular South and West than it is in New York 

Historical. This is a southern apple which is supposed to have originated 
in North Carolina. It has long been known in cultivation and is commonly 
listed by nurserymen, but it has not been planted to any considerable extent 
in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved branches. 
Form at first upright but becoming spreading or roundish. Twigs very 
short, straight, slender ; internodes medium size. Bark dull brown, lightly 
mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, ob- 
long, not raised. Buds small, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit small or below medium, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
ovate or a little inclined to oblong, rather regular; sides usually unequal. 
Stem variable, usually long, slender. Cavity small, acuminate to acute, 
shallow to medium in depth, narrow, slightly symmetrical, sometimes com- 
pressed, russeted but slightly if at all. Calyx medium to large, leafy, closed 



182 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

or sometimes a little open; lobes long, rather narrow, acuminate. Basin 
small, shallow, narrow, rather obtuse, smooth or wavy. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, glossy, pale yellow or greenish, nearly over- 
spread with deep purplish-red approaching blackish-purple on the exposed 
cheek; some specimens are entirely red. Dots rather numerous, very small, 
inconspicuous, light. 

Calyx tube short, moderately wide, conical to funnel-form. Stamens 
median to marginal. 

Core large, axile to somewhat abaxile ; cells symmetrical, open or some- 
times closed; core lines slightly clasping or meeting. Carpels broadly ovate 
to elliptical. Seeds rather dark brown, numerous, small to medium, plump, 
acute. 

Flesh white, fine, tender, juicy, brisk subacid, good to very good. 

Season late July to early winter. 

STRIPED RED JUNE. A variety has found its way into cultiva- 
tion which appears in all respects identical with the Red June 
except that the fruit is striped. It is supposed to be either a seed- 
ling of the Red June or a sport of that variety (n, 12). 

RED TRANSPARENT. 

REFERENCES, i. Gibb, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:437. 2. Budd, la. Agr. 
Coll. Bui., 1885:13. 3. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1888:572. fig. 4. 
Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1890:18. 5. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 6. Beach, 
N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:584. 1894. 7- Troop, Ind. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:81. 1899. 

SYNONYMS. No. 333 (i, 2, 3, 4). RED TRANSPARENT (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). 
Red Transparent (i). Skvosnoi krasnoi (2). SKWOSNOI KRASNOI (i). 

A Russian variety of little value where Primate can be grown. Fruit 
medium size with pale skin nearly covered with red and overspread with 
delicate bloom. Basin irregularly wrinkled ; calyx prominent, closed ; flesh 
greenish-white, not very crisp; water-cores badly; season late July and 
early August (6). 

RED WINE. 

REFERENCES, i. Webster, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 7:54. 1881. 2. Gibb, 
Ib., 9:95. 1883. 3. Ib., la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:439. 4. Budd, la. Agr. 
Coll. Bui, 1885:14. 5. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 6. Taylor, Me. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1892:57. 7. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:92. 1902. 8. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:163. 

SYNONYMS. No. 343 (2, 4, 7). RED WINE (4, 5, 6, 7, 8). Red Wine 
(i, 2, 3). Rother Weinapfel (7). Rotherwein appel (4). Vinnoe Krasnoe 
Osennee (4). WEINAPFEL ROTHER (2). WEINAPFEL ROTHER (3). WEIN- 
APPEL ROTHER (i). 

A Russian apple of the Lowland Raspberry type (7, 8). Fruit medium, 
waxen-white almost completely covered with bright red. Flesh white, 
tender, subacid, good. Season August and September. 

So far as we know this variety has not been tested in New York. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 183 



REED* 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869:329. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A local variety which according to Downing originated with George Reed, 
Leedsville, Dutchess county, N. Y. Fruit medium, whitish shaded and 
mottled with light and dark red; flesh white, a little stained next the skin, 
pleasant subacid, good ; season November. 

We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report con- 
cerning it from any of our correspondents. 

REPKA. 

REFERENCES, i. Barry, 1883 1334. 2. Schroeder, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1886-87:79. 3. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:57. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:248. 5. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:584. 1894. 

SYNONYMS. No. 139 (2, 3). REPKA (i, 2, 3, 4, 5). Riepka (3). 

A medium sized yellow apple of good quality in season in August and 
early September ; inferior to Primate both in appearance and quality. The 
tree comes into bearing moderately early and is an annual cropper yielding 
fair to good crops. Not recommended for planting in New York. 

This is distinct from either Repka Aport, Repka Sweet or Repka Malenka. 

Historical. Origin Russia. Received in 1884 from Ellwanger and Barry, 
Rochester, N. Y., for testing at this Station. It has been but little dissemi- 
nated in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree rather small ; not a vigorous grower. Form spreading or roundish. 
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short. 
Bark brown or reddish-brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin. Lenti- 
cels scattering, medium to small, round, slightly raised. Buds large, promi- 
nent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or below. Form roundish oblate inclined to conic, regular ; 
sides unequal. Stem rather short, moderately slender. Cavity acute, medium 
in depth to deep, rather wide, heavily russeted and with outspreading russet 
rays. Calyx rather small, closed. Basin moderately deep, wide, somewhat 
abrupt, usually furrowed or wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, clear pale yellow or whitish. Dots small, 
white, pale and submerged or russet. 

Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-form. 

Core small ; cells closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish. 
Seeds medium size, wide, flat, obtuse. 

Flesh white, rather firm, fine, juicy, crisp, rather mild subacid, good. 

Season August and September. 



184 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



RIBSTON. 

REFERENCES, i. Forsyth, 1803:52. 2. Diel, 11:93. 1813. 3. Coxe, 1817: 
125. fig. 4. Forsyth, 1824:124. 5. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1828:476. 
6. Fessenden, 1828:130. 7. Pom. Mag., 3 :No. 141. 1830. col. pi. 8. London 
Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 132. 9. Ronalds, 1831 154. 10. Kenrick, 1832 152. 
ii. Floy-Lindley, 1833:59. 12. Manning, 1838:54. 13. Manning, Mag. Hort., 
7:49. 1841. 14. Russell, Ib., 10:403. 1844. 15. Downing, 1845:131. 16. 
Downing, Horticulturist, 2:416. 1847. 17. Ib., 3:421. 1848. 18. Thomas, 
1849:152. 19. Cole, 1849:126. 20. Horticulturist, 6:16, 292. 1851. 21. Em- 
mons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:75. 1851. 22. Elliott, 1854:155. 23. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1854. 24. Mag. Hort., 21 :62. 1855. 25. Hooper, 1857 :8o. 26. 
Oberdieck, ///. Handb. Obst., 1:353. 1858. 27. Mag. Hort., 26:116. 1860. 
28. Warder, 1867:612. 29. Regel, 1868:463. 30. Berghuis, 1868 :No. 3. 
col. pi. 31. Mas, LcVerger, 1868:99. 32. Leroy, 1873:750. figs. 33. Lauche, 
i:No. 25. 1882. col. pi. 34. Barry, 1883:353. 35. Hogg, 1884:194. 36. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 37. Hick, Can. Hort., 15:157. 1892. 38. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 39. Bredsted, 1893:137. 40. Gaudier, 1894: 
No. 19. col. pi 41. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:355. 42. Can. 
Hort., 22:510. 1899. 43. Eneroth- Smirnoff, 1901:224. 44. Waugh, Rural 
N. Y., 61:285, 286. 1902. fig. 45. Budd-Hansen, 1903:165. fig. 46. Beach 
and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:141. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Beautiful Pippin (25). Englische Granat-Reinette (40). 
Essex Pippin (40). Formosa (25). Formosa Pippin (7, 10, 15, 22, 32, 40). 
Glory of York (10, 15, 22, 25, 32, 35, 40, of some 7). Granat-Reinette (40). 
Nonpareille (40). Pepin Ribston (40). Reinette Grenade Anglaise (40). 
Reinette de Traver (32). RIBSTON (2, 8, 9, n, 20, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 
33, 36, 37, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45). RIBSTON PIPPIN (i, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 13, 14, 15, 
16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 25, 28, 32, 34, 35, 38, 41, 44). Ribston Pippin (45, 46). 
RIBSTON PEPPING (40). Ribston s Pepping (40). Ribstone (32). RIBSTONE 
PIPPIN (6, 12). RIDGE (46 by error). Rockhill's Russet (32). Travers 
(15, 22, 25, 32). Travers Apple (7, 10, 40). Travers Peppin (40). Travers 
Pippin (35). Travers Reinette (40). 

Ribston evidently belongs in the same group as Hubbardston. 
It is much esteemed for its rich flavor and fine quality and it is 
desirable either for dessert or culinary uses. The fruit is pretty 
smooth and uniform but often it averages below medium size 
and is ordinary in appearance. Heat ripens it quickly and it is 
not considered a very good keeper. In cold storage, if properly 
handled before storing, it is possibly equal to Tompkins King 
or Hubbardston as a keeper (46). Its season in Southern New 
York extends from late September to November or December, 
and in the northern and more elevated regions from late fall to 
early or mid-winter and sometimes a portion of the fruit may be kept 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 185 

till spring in ordinary storage. The tree is pretty hardy, vigorous, 
healthy and long-lived. It comes into bearing rather young 
and usually bears some fruit every year. Occasionally the 
crops are heavy but more often they vary from moderate to 
rather light. Generally speaking, it is hardly satisfactory as a 
cropper and Hubbardston is much to be preferred for planting 
in commercial orchards in New York. 

Historical. Ribston originated more than two hundred years ago in York- 
shire, England (i, 7). In that country it has long been considered the 
standard of excellence among dessert apples. It has long been known in 
cultivation in America but has not gained the standing here that it holds in 
England. It is not grown to any considerable extent in New York but suc- 
ceeds better farther north, as in portions of Northern New England and of 
Canada, where it is of some commercial importance (16, 20, 24, 44). 

TREE. 

Tree medium in size or sometimes rather large, moderately vigorous to 
vigorous with rather stout, stocky branches. Form rather upright and 
spreading or roundish, not very regular. Twigs medium to rather long, 
rather slender to moderately stout ; internodes medium to long. Bark 
bright dark reddish-brown and olive-green, somewhat mottled with grayish 
scarf-skin. Lenticels conspicuous, scattering, small to medium, elongated 
or roundish. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, nearly free, very 
pubescent. Foliage rather dense; leaves broad. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in shape and size. Form roundish, 
rather broad and flattened at the base, narrowing somewhat toward the 
basin, occasionally a little inclined to roundish oblong, often broadly and 
obscurely ribbed. Stem pubescent, medium to short, occasionally moderately 
slender, more often rather thick, sometimes irregularly swollen or inserted 
under a lip. Cavity rather large, acute, moderately shallow to rather deep, 
wide to moderately narrow, sometimes furrowed or compressed, occasionally 
smooth and green but often faintly russeted and with some outspreading 
russet. Calyx variable, small to rather large, closed or partly open; lobes 
sometimes separated at the base, erect or converging, tips usually somewhat 
reflexed. Basin small to medium, shallow to moderately deep, moderately 
narrow, more or less abrupt or occasionally obtuse, often slightly furrowed 
and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth or slightly roughened with russet, deep yellow or greenish- 
yellow more or less overspread with rather dull red which in highly colored 
specimens deepens to a distinct red with some obscure carmine stripes and 
splashes. Dots scattering, conspicuous toward the base, more numerous 
and smaller toward the basin, pale, sometimes whitish, often areolar with 
russet center. Prevailing effect sometimes rather attractive but more often 
the colors are rather dull. 



1 86 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Calyx tube rather wide, cone-shape or sometimes funnel-form. Stamens 
basal. 

Core below medium to small, axile or with a narrow hollow cylinder at 
the axis; cells pretty regular, closed; core lines clasping to nearly meet- 
ing. Carpels roundish to nearly elliptical, emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds 
variable, some abortive, usually but few are plump, light and dark brown, 
rather large, moderately narrow to wide, medium to long, obtuse or some- 
times approaching acute, sometimes slightly tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, very crisp, medium in texture, juicy, 
pleasantly aromatic, rich, sprightly subacid, very good. 

Season late September to December or later. 



RICHARD GRAFT. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 18:492. 1852. 2. Downing, 1857:101. fig. 
3. Warder, 1867:457. fig. 4. Thomas, 1875:204. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1877:14. 6. Barry, 1883:340. 7. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1888. 8. Hendricks, 
Rural N. Y., 47759, 811. 1888. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 10. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:166. 

SYNONYMS. Derrick and Ann (8). Derrick's Graft (2, 4). Red Spitzen- 
kerg (3). Red Spitzenburgh (2, 4, 6). RICHARD (i). RICHARD GRAFT 
(2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Strawberry (2, 3). Wine (2, 3). 

This is a very fine fall apple of superior dessert quality. It 
begins to ripen during late August or early September; the 
crop ripens in succession during a period of several weeks, and 
some portion of the fruit may be kept till late autumn. Several 
pickings are required in order to secure the fruit in prime con- 
dition. The tree is upright, of medium size, moderately vigorous, 
long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding good crops biennially. 
It is an excellent variety for home use and is being grown to a 
limited extent in commercial orchards with profit. 

Historical. This variety was originated at Greenport, Columbia county, 
N. Y., by Richard Delamatter. It was introduced about 1860 by E. G. 
Studley, a nurseryman of Claverack, Columbia county, N. Y. Its cultiva- 
tion is being extended somewhat in Columbia county, but as yet it is but little 
known outside of the Hudson valley. 

TREE. 

Tree of medium size, moderately vigorous. Form upright or roundish, 
open. Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout ; internodes medium. 
Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels 
quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised. Buds medium size, broad, 
acute to obtuse, free, pubescent. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 187 

FRUIT (2, 8). 

Fruit medium size. Form roundish oblate. Stem of medium length, 
slender. Cavity large. Calyx small, closed. Basin medium size. 
Skin yellow, nearly covered with stripes and splashes of deep red, 
Flesh yellowish, very tender, juicy, aromatic, subacid, very good. 
Season September. 

ROLFE. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:167. 2. Warder, 1867:725. 3. Thomas, 
1875:505. 4. Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1876:149. 5. Ib., 1885:135, 138. 6. Ib., 
1888:120. fig. 7. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 8. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:248. 9. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 10. Ib. } 1896:71, 81. 
ii. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat.., 1897:14. 12. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902:90, 92. 
13. Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1902:49, 50. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:166. 

SYNONYMS. MACOMBER (i, 2, 3, 7). Macomber (4, 9, 14;. ROLFE (4, 5, 
6, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14). 

Fruit medium to large, of good quality and rather attractive for a yel- 
lowish apple. It is in season from late September to December or January. 
The tree is very hardy, vigorous and a reliable cropper. At the present 
time it is probably grown more extensively in Maine than in any other section 
of the country. It is there regarded highly wherever it is known and is 
gaining in popularity among fruit growers (i, 6, 10, 12). It is worthy of 
testing in those portions of the state where superior hardiness in a variety 
is a matter of prime importance. 

Historical. Originated in the town of Guilford, Maine, about 1820. Said 
to be a seedling of the Blue Pearmain. It has, as yet, been disseminated 
but sparingly in this state and is but little known among New York fruit 
growers. 

TREE. 

Tree rather large, vigorous. Form roundish to spreading and drooping, 
rather dense ; laterals slender, willowy. Twigs rather long, irregularly 
crooked, slender to moderately stout; internodes long to below medium. 
Bark brown to reddish-brown with an occasional tinge of olive-green, over- 
laid with scarf-skin, pubescent near tips. Lenticels moderately numerous, 
of a dull color but rather conspicuous, medium or above, roundish, not 
raised. Buds very deeply set in bark, medium in size, broad, flat, obtuse, 
appressed, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to sometimes large, pretty uniform in shape and size. Form 
roundish to roundish oblate, regular or somewhat angular, symmetrical. 
Stem short to medium and rather slender. Cavity acute to slightly acuminate, 
moderately deep, rather wide, sometimes slightly furrowed or compressed. 
Calyx small to above medium, closed; lobes short to moderately long, rather 
wide, acute. Basin below medium to rather large, pretty regular, shallow 
to moderately deep, narrow to rather wide, a little abrupt, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, rather tough, glossy, clear pale yellow, sometimes 
faintly blushed or in well colored specimens distinctly shaded and striped 
with lively red. Dots numerous, inconspicuous, small. Prevailing effect 
yellow or yellow and red. 



1 88 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Calyx tube rather narrow, short, funnel-shape. Stamens median. 

Core variable, below medium to large, abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, 
wide open; core lines clasping. Carpels often markedly concave, broadly 
ovate, emarginate, tufted. Seeds above medium, rather long and narrow, 
plump, acute or approaching acuminate, light brown. 

Flesh whitish with slight tinge of yellow, moderately fine-grained, crisp, 
tender, juicy, briskly subacid, good. 

Season late September to December or January. 

ROMAN STEM. 

REFERENCES, i. Coxe, 1817:132. % 2. Thacher, 1822:135. 3. London 
Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831:33. 4. Downing, 1845:131. 5. Kirtland, Horticulturist, 
2:545. 1848. 6. Thomas, 1849:185. 7. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 
8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:86. 1851. 9. Elliott, 1854:155. 10. Horti- 
culturist, 10:87. 1855. ii. Hooper, 1857:81. 12. Mag. Hort., 24:110. 1858. 
13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 14. Warder, 1867:579. fig. 15. Barry, 1883: 
354. 16. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 17. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:248. 18. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:94. 1902. 19. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:166. 20. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:142. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. French Pippin of some (9). ROMAN STEM (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20). 

Fruit about medium size, whitish-yellow, often somewhat blushed. The 
flesh is juicy, aromatic, subacid and very good in quality, particularly for 
dessert use. It is in season from midautumn to midwinter. " A good fruit 
but in a great measure superseded by other sorts" (15). The tree is mod- 
erately vigorous, spreading, irregular, very hardy and very productive. In 
the trying climate of the upper Mississippi valley it has proved hardier than 
most of the old varieties from the East and has succeeded well where the 
varieties of the grade of hardiness of Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening 
have failed. It is not well suited for commercial purposes because it is 
yellow, lacks good size and is not a late keeper. 

Historical. Coxe published the following description of Roman Stem in 
1817: " This apple was first propagated in the neighbourhood of Burling- 
ton, New-Jersey, where the original tree is now standing. It is an excellent 
early winter fruit, much admired for its tender, mild, juicy and agreeable 
properties; the size is small, the form round, the stalk of singular appear- 
ance, from a fleshy protuberance of the neighboring part, resembling an 
aquiline nose, whence the apple derives its name the skin is rough, the 
color yellow, with black clouds and spots the tree is of handsome and 
vigorous growth, with long shoots, and great f ruitfulness ; it is in every 
respect deserving of extensive cultivation." 

Roman Stem has been pretty widely disseminated and considerably culti- 
vated in various parts of the Southern, Central and Western states but it 
is now generally superseded by other kinds. It is but little grown in New 
York. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 189 



ROMNA. 

REFERENCES, i. Budd, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883 73. 2. Ib., la. Agr. Coll. 
Bui, 1883:29. 3. Ib., 1885:20, 23, 29. 4. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887: 
50. 5. Lyon, U. S. Pom. Bui., 2:45. 1888. 6. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 
1890 -.24. 7. Ib., 1892 7. 8. Ib., la. Sta. Bui, 18 -.520. 1892. 9. Ib., 19 : 
541. 1892. 10. Troop, Ind. Sta. Bui, 53:124. 1894. n. Budd, la. Sta. 
BuL, 31 :333. 1895. 12. Beach, Paddock and Close, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 
15 -.275. 1896. 13. Thomas, 1897 :295. ng. 14. Waugh, Vt. Sta. BuL, 
61 131. 1897. fig. 15. Budd, la. Sta. BuL, 41 :6g, 70, 80. 1899. 16. Troop, 
Ind. Sta. Rpt., 1899:81. 17. Hansen, 5. D. Sta. BuL, 76:94. 1902. fig. 
18. Budd-Hansen, 1903:168. 19. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. BuL, 248:142. 
1904. 

SYNONYMS. No. n M (i, 2, 6, 7, 9). ATo. 599 Dept. (i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
17, 18). Omensk (4). ROMENSKOE (2, 4, 5, 8). Romenskoe (i, 3, 17, 18). 
ROMNA (i, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, "16, 17, 18, 19). Romnenskoe 
(3, 4, 5). 

A Russian variety received from Dr. T. H. Hoskins, Newport, Vermont, 
in 1888 for testing at this Station. It was described in 1896 (12) as being 
in season that year during the last of August and the first of September. 
This statement was erroneous because it was incomplete. While the fruit 
began to come in season during the last of August and the first of September 
some portion of it was kept in ordinary storage till midwinter. In a subse- 
quent report (19) it was correctly stated that as fruited at this Station the 
commercial limit of this variety is early October and its season in ordinary 
storage extends from September to January. It is properly classed as a 
fall and early winter apple here. The tree is vigorous, hardy, comes into 
bearing rather young and yields good crops biennially. It does not appear 
to be worthy of the attention of fruit growers in New York except 
possibly where superior hardiness is a prime requisite. The fruit corre- 
sponds very closely with the illustrated description given by Troop (10, 16) 
and Waugh (14) but it varies considerably from the descriptions of Budd and 
Hansen (3, 6, 9, u, 15, 17, 18) particularly in that it is usually oblate conic 
and is in season during the autumn and early winter instead of late winter 
and spring. 

The following is one of Budd's descriptions of Romna (9, n). "This 
succeeds best on dry soil where its roots run very deep. Fruit medium in 
size, conical, smooth, handsomely colored. Flesh white, firm, quite acid 
and best for cooking, but when matured it is much better for dessert use 
than Willow or Missouri Pippin or other coarse sorts found in our markets. 
Season, midwinter here, and late winter north of 43d parallel." 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous to vigorous ; branches short, stout, curved, 
crooked and drooping. Form spreading, drooping, flat. Twigs short to 
medium, straight, moderately slender to stout, with large terminal buds ; 
internodes medium to long. Bark brown, somewhat tinged with red, streaked 
with grayish scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels scattering, 



190 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



small to medium, roundish or oval, slightly raised. Buds moderately small 
to very large and prominent, broad, very plump, acute, free or nearly so, 
scarcely pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or sometimes rather large, not very uniform in shape or 
size. Form usually oblate conic, irregularly elliptical or broadly and ob- 
scurely angular, often unsymmetrical with sides unequal. Stem medium 
length to short and stout, pubescent. Cavity medium to rather large, acute 
or sometimes nearly obtuse, medium in depth to rather deep, rather wide 
to narrow, somewhat furrowed, occasionally lipped, russeted and often with 
conspicuous outspreading russet. Calyx above medium to large, open or 
partly closed; lobes often separated at the base, medium in length, rather 
broad, acute. Basin medium to large, often oblique, moderately narrow to 
wide, sometimes compressed, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth or partly roughened with flecks of russet ; color 
greenish becoming yellow more or less blushed and overspread with thin 
bloom. Well colored specimens are covered to a considerable extent with 
pinkish-red, blushed and striped with bright carmine. Dots small, numerous, 
pale yellow or grayish, sometimes rather conspicuous. 

Calyx tube rather long, wide, funnel-shape. Stamens median. 

Core medium to small, axile or nearly so ; cells closed ; core lines meeting 
or slightly clasping. Carpels roundish ovate, somewhat emarginate, slightly 
tufted. Seeds medium to small, rather short, narrow, plump, obtuse to 
acute, rather dark brown. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, juicy, briskly subacid, slightly 
astringent, fair to good. 

Season September to January (19). 

RONK. 

REFERENCES, i. Rural N. Y., 48:279. 1889. fig. .2. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui, 
143:201. 1897. 3. Farrand, Ib., 205:46. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. 
Sta. Bui, 248:142. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit of the Vandevere type, medium or above, rather dull red, pleasant 
subacid, good ; season October to late winter. Commercial limit in ordinary 
storage January (4). The tree comes into bearing rather young and is 
moderately productive. It has not been sufficiently tested to determine its 
value for th's state. 

Historical. Originated about 1860 with Mr. Ronk, Boone county, Indiana. 
It is supposed to be a seedling of Vandevere which it much resembles (i). 

ROSE RED. 

REFERENCES, i. Rural N. Y., 1871 (cited by 5). 2. Downing, 1872:30 app. 
fig. 3. Thomas, 1875:511. 4. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 5. 
Ragan, U. S. P. B. I. Bui., 56 :267. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Autumn Rose (4). ROSE RED (i, 2, 3, 4, 5). 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 191 

A variety of unknown origin. It is supposed to have originated in Egypt, 
Monroe county, N. Y. According to Downing (2) the tree is thrifty, a 
reliable cropper and very productive; the fruit medium, roundish oblate, 
whitish, striped and splashed with light and dark red; flesh yellowish, very 
tender, lively stibacid, very good; in season during late September, October 
and November. 

We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report con- 
cerning it from any of our correspondents. 

SAFSTAHOLMS. 

REFERENCES, i. Regel, 1868:473. 2. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1886-87 :8i. 3. Eneroth- Smirnoff, 1901 146. 4. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 
76 196. 1902. 

SYNONYMS. SAFSTAHOLM (2, 4). SAFSTAHOLMSAPLE (i). SAFSTAHOLMS- 
APPLE (3). 

This is an apple of fairly good red color, not particularly bright yet not 
unattractive. The flesh lacks piquancy and is not very juicy but because 
of its distinct aroma and rich subacid flavor it is classed among the good 
dessert apples. It is hardly acid enough for culinary use. The tree is a 
pretty good grower, comes into bearing young and so far as tested at this 
Station promises to be productive. It is doubtful whether it has sufficient 
value for the New York fruit grower to make it worthy of trial in this state. 

Historical. Originated in Sweden about 1835. It was received for testing 
at this Station from the United States Pomologist in 1901. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with rather short, slender branches. Form 
upright spreading or roundish, open. Twigs short, rather slender to mod- 
erately stout, straight or nearly so; internodes short to medium. Bark 
rather dull brown tinged with red, mottled with heavy scarf-skin, pubescent. 
Lenticels very scattering, small to medium, roundish, not raised. Buds often 
rather deeply set in the bark, medium size or below, plump, obtuse to some- 
what acute, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in shape and size. Form oblong to 
oblong conic, somewhat elliptical, often indistinctly ribbed; sides often un- 
equal. Stem short to medium, moderately slender to rather thick. Cavity 
large, acute to acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, wide, sometimes 
lipped, often russeted. Calyx medium or below, usually partly open ; lobes 
moderately narrow, acute. Basin small to medium, obtuse to rather abrupt, 
shallow to moderately deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, gently fur- 
rowed. 

Skin thin, smooth or sometimes slightly rough toward the apex, pale 
yellow mottled and blushed with red, becoming rather dull red over a 
considerable portion of the fruit, mottled and splashed with carmine and 
sometimes marked with flecks and irregular lines of russet. Dots rather 
conspicuous, often large, pale gray or with russet center. Prevailing color 
red. 



192 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Calyx: tube cone-shape. Stamens basal. 

Core medium to large, abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, usually some- 
what open ; core lines meeting. Carpels roundish to broadly ovate, mucronate, 
sometimes emarginate, tufted. Seeds numerous, above medium to rather 
large, wide, usually obtuse, plump. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, a little coarse, moderately juicy, peculiarly aromatic, 
mildly subacid, rich, good for dessert, rather mild for culinary use. 

Season late October or November to midwinter ; often some portion of 
the fruit may be kept in ordinary storage to March. 

SAILEE RUSSET. 

REFERENCE, i. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:307. 1901. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A local variety grown in the vicinity of Lake Champlain. The following 
account of it is given by Waugh (i) : 

" Sailee was a Frenchman who came over from France about a hundred 
years ago and who had a farm on Cumberland Head, Clinton county, N. Y., 
just across from Grand Isle. He had a large orchard and grew many 
varieties of apples, some of which he had brought from France, others of 
which came from other sources, and some of which he originated himself. 
From his having given his own name to this variety it is supposed to have 
originated in his own grounds. It was early distributed to Grand Isle, and 
may be found in several of the older and more complete collections. It 
is a good variety, but not superior to Roxbury. 

" Fruit oblate, slightly conic, size small to medium, cavity very deep and 
broad, stem medium long, slender, basin deep, corrugated, calyx small, 
closed, color dull green with occasional blush and considerable russet, dots 
russet, skin tough, flesh white, core small, flavor subacid, quality good, 
season early winter." 

SAILLY AUTUMN. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:187. 2. Thomas, 1875:511. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A local variety which originated at Plattsburg, N. Y. Fruit medium, 
roundish conic, greenish-yellow frequently with a deep red cheek. Stalk 
short; cavity medium; calyx small, closed; basin small, narrow; flesh very 
tender, rich, aromatic, subacid, good. September (i, 2). 

We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report con- 
cerning it from any of our correspondents. 

ST. LAWRENCE. 

REFERENCES, i. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 : No. 1187. 2. Kenrick, 
1832:28. 3. Mag. Hort., 1:149. i835- 4- Hovey, Ib., 13 :539- 1847. fig. 
5. Mag. Hort., 14:531, 539- 1848. 6. Thomas, Cultivator, 5:246. 1848. 7. 
Cole, 1849:104. 8. Thomas, 1849:152. 9. Barry, 1851:286. 10. Waring, 
1851:30. ii. Elliott, 1854:158. 12. Downing, 1857:193. 13. Hooper, 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 193 

1857 :QO. 14. Gregg, 1857 147. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 16. Warder, 
1867:731. 17. Downing, 1872:10 index, app. 18. Leroy, 1873:799. fig. 19. 
Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:11. 20. Ib., 15:19, 27. 1890. 21. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 22. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57. 
23. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:249. 24. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 
6:9. 1899. figs. 25. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:307. 1901. 26. Hansen, 
5. D. Sta. Bui, 76:96. 1902. 27. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:46. 1903. 
28. Budd-Hansen, 1903:171. fig. 29. Can. Hort., 27:51. 1904. fig. 30. 
Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:143. 1904. 31. Scriver, Can. Hort., 
28:277. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. Corse's St. Lawrence (8). Montreal (4, n, 18). SAINT- 
LAURENT (18). ST. LAWRENCE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 
17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31). Saint-Lawrence (18). 
York and Lancaster (17). 

When well grown, St. Lawrence is a large, handsome apple. 
It is better for dessert than for culinary use but does not excel 
standard varieties of its season for either purpose. While it 
does very well in some portions of Western New York, gen- 
erally speaking, it reaches a higher degree of perfection in favor- 
able locations in the St. Lawrence valley and in the Lake Cham- 
plain region than in other portions of the state. The crop 
ripens somewhat unevenly and should have . more than one 
picking in order to secure the fruit in prime condition and pre- 
vent great loss from dropping. It does not stand heat well 
before going into storage and goes down quickly. The fruit 
may not remain on the tree till it is well colored, and unless it is 
well colored it fades in the barrel so much as to render it almost 
valueless for market. It varies greatly in keeping qualities in 
different seasons but usually October is its commercial limit in 
ordinary storage. In cold storage it may be. held until Decem- 
ber (30). The tree is a moderately strong grower, hardy, gen- 
erally pretty healthy, moderately long-lived and a reliable 
cropper yielding good to rather heavy crops biennially. It is 
not a very good grower in the nursery. Some growers hold 
that it is desirable to topwork it upon some more vigorous stock 
as Northern Spy. Although many fruit growers regard it as 
a fairly profitable commercial apple it cannot be recommended 
for general cultivation. 



196 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Calyx tube very long, moderately wide, conical to cylindrical. Stamens 
median to marginal. 

Core medium to small, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly open ; 
core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish or somewhat ovate, deeply 
emarginate. Seeds large, wide, plump, acute to obtuse, dull dark brown. 

Flesh white or with greenish tinge, rather fine, tender, juicy, brisk subacid, 
fair to good. 

Season September to early winter. 

SAXTON. 

REFERENCES, i. Prairie Farmer, 1860 (cited by 9). 2. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1871:8. 3. Downing, 1872:11 app. 4. Thomas, 1875:511. 5. Gibb, 
Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-7 :Q4. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :239. 7. Ib., 
1892:249. 8. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui., 45:321. 1896. 9. Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:107. 1905. 10. Ib., 56:275. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. FALL STRIPE (3, 7, S, 9). Fall Stripe (4, 5, 10). SAXTON 
(i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 10). Saxton (3, 7, 9). 

An old New England variety (3). Fruit yellow, shaded and splashed with 
light and dark red ; flesh a little coarse, subacid, good to very good ; season 
September. It was put upon the list of the American Pomological Society 
in 1871 (2) and dropped from that list in 1897. It is still listed by some 
nurserymen (6) but so far as we can learn it is practically unknown 
among New York fruit growers. 

SCARLET PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Jones, Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn. An. Rpt., 27:13. 1895. 2. Craig, 
Can. Hort., 19:381. 1896. fig. 3. Ib., 19:117. 1896. fig. 4. Ib., Amer. 
Gard., 20:27. 1899. figs. 5. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui., 83:91. 1900. 6. Macoun, 
Can. Dept. Agr. Bui., 37:41. 1901. 7. Abbott, Can. Hort., 24:18, 123. 1901. 
8. Budd-Hansen, 1903:172. 

SYNONYMS. CRIMSON BEAUTY (3). Crimson Pippin (2). Crimson Scarlet 
Pippin (2). Leeds Beauty (4, 5, 6, 8). SCARLET PIPPIN (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). 

An apple of the Fameuse group which quite closely resembles 
Mclntosh (2), but is firmer in flesh and slightly more acid. 
"A very attractive looking apple said to sell better than 
Fameuse, which it does not equal in quality. Tree a strong, upright 
grower and said to be a heavy bearer" (6). Season about 
the same as Wealthy or earlier (i). It appears to be worthy 
of testing in New York especially in those regions of the state 
where Fameuse and Mclntosh succeed best. 

Historical. Originated about 1860 at Lynn, Leeds county, Ontario, near 
Brockville, where it has been locally grown for some years (4, 7). Mr. 
Harold Jones, Maitland, Ont., Experimenter for Ontario for apples in the 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 197 

St. Lawrence river district, has had most to do with bringing this variety 
to notice as an autumn dessert fruit of value (6), but the report that the 
variety originated with him is incorrect (7)- 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous. Form upright. Twigs long, straight, stout; internodes 
short. Bark dark brown or reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, 
pubescent near tips. Lenticels numerous, very conspicuous, medium size, 
oval, slightly raised. Buds medium size, flat, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 

FRUIT (4, 6). 

Fruit medium size. Form roundish inclined to oblate, regular. Stem 
short, stout to slender. Cavity acute, shallow to deep, moderately wide to 
wide, sometimes lipped. Calyx closed or open. Basin narrow, shallow, 
slightly wrinkled or almost wanting. 

Core small. 

Flesh white, firm, crisp, tender, melting, juicy, mild subacid with a pleasant 
but not high flavor, very good. 

Season fall and early winter. 

SCHUYLER SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Thomas, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871 149. 2. Rural N. Y., 
1871:108. 3. Downing, 1872:31 app. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This variety is unknown to us. We have received no report concerning it 
from any of our correspondents. Thomas gave the following description 
of it in 1871 (i) : "A large, showy apple, ripening in October, originated 
on the lands of Rensselaer Schuyler, Seneca Falls, N. Y. Tree in vigor and 
form resembles the Baldwin, and is productive. 

" Fruit large, roundish, inclining to roundish oblate ; pale yellow with a 
few scattering brown dots ; stalk slender, inserted in a large deep cavity ; 
calyx closed; basin large, deep, slightly corrugated; flesh whitish, half 
fine, tender, moderately juicy, pleasant, sweet; quality good to very good; 
core small." 

SCOLLOP GILLIFLOWER. 

REFERENCES, i. Kenrick, 1835:73. 2. Elliott, 1854:156. fig. 3. Watts, 
Horticulturist, 10:98. 1855. 4. Hooper, 1857:83. 5. Warder, 1867:543. 6. 
Downing, 1869 :348. 7. Downing, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875 :68. 8. Thomas, 
1875:511. 9. Downing, 1876:69, 70, app. 

SYNONYMS. Cornish GillMower (3). Five-Quartered Gillifiower (7.. 9). 
Jellyflowcr (7, 9). Red Gillifiower (3, 5, of some 7 and 9). Ribbed Gilli- 
flower (7, 9). SCALLOPED GILLYFLOWER (i). SCALLOPED GILLIFLOWER (5). 
SCOLLOP GILLIFLOWER (2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9). SCOLLOPED GILLIFLOWER (3). 
Scolloped Gillifiower (6). 

An old variety of unknown origin which was formerly grown to some 
extent in this state but is now practically obsolete. It has sometimes been 



198 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

confounded with the Red Gilliflower of Elliott (2) and sometimes with 
Striped Gilliflower (9). It has been much esteemed in some portions of 
Ohio (2). Downing describes it as a moderate or poor grower with young 
shoots much darker colored than those of Striped Gilliflower, the tree more 
spreading and unproductive and the fruit more ribbed, much darker, rather 
dull red with broader stripes and splashes, with flesh more yellow, mildly 
subacid, aromatic, richer in quality and a month or more later in ripening 
that: Striped Gilliflower (9). 

Elliott (2) describes the fruit as " medium to large, roundish conical, 
flattened at base, tapering toward the eye, sometimes angular, always much 
ribbed or scolloped ; light yellow, striped and splashed with shades of light 
and dark red; stem short, slender; cavity deep, russeted, irregular; calyx 
with long segments; basin abrupt, deep, ribbed; core large, hollow; seeds 
ovate, rounded; flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, tender, juicy, slight tinge of 
sweet. November to February." 

SCOTT BEST. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869 1349. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report con- 
cerning it from any of our correspondents. According to Downing it 
originated on the farm of Luther Scott, Hinsdale, Cattaraugus county, N. Y. 
The tree is moderately vigorous, spreading; the fruit medium to large, yel- 
lowish, shaded and mottled with light red, striped and splashed with crimson ; 
flesh whitish, fine, tender, subacid, good to very good. Season November 
and December (i). 

SENECA FAVORITE. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 19:165. 1853. 2. Warder, 1867:731. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A large, attractive, pale yellow apple. It resembles Swaar, but 
is earlier and larger, and its texture is more crisp. 1 It is excellent 
for dessert as well as for culinary uses. The crop begins to ripen 
in early autumn, and continues ripening in succession through a 
period of several weeks. The later fruit may be kept into early 
winter or midwinter. The tree is of medium size, vigorous, round- 
headed. It is a desirable variety for the home orchard. 

Historical. N. S. Page states 2 that the original tree of Seneca Favorite 
grew upon his father's farm, five miles southwest of Geneva, and was an 
old tree forty-five years ago. It has been grown to a limited extent as an 
apple for the home orchard in various localities in Ontario county, particu- 

1 Wilson, C. S., Hist, of the Apple in N. Y. State, unpublished thesis Cornell Univ. 
1905. 

2 Letter, 1905. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 199 

larly in the town of Seneca. Downing gives Seneca Favorite as a synonym 
for Quince 1 but the true Seneca Favorite is surely not identical with Quince. 
It is now seldom propagated. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large to medium, usually large. Form variable, roundish conic 
to oblong conic, nearly regular but somewhat ribbed and elliptical; axis 
sometimes oblique ; sides usually unequal. Stem long to medium, moderately 
slender. Cavity acute, deep, broad, quite strongly furrowed and compressed, 
usually somewhat russeted. Calyx small to above medium, closed or some- 
what open; lobes broad, acute to acuminate. Basin very small, shallow or 
very shallow, narrow, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth or slightly roughened by russet dots, at 
first green but becoming attractive pale yellow often with faint blush which 
sometimes deepens to a moderately bright rather pinkish-red, not striped. 
Dots numerous, irregular, large and small, varying from prominent russet 
to obscure and submerged, often reddish on blushed cheek. 

Calyx tube funnel-form usually with long, narrow cylinder but sometimes 
short. Stamens median to basal. 

Core rather large, somewhat abaxile ; cells symmetrical, closed or some- 
what open; core lines clasping. Carpels elliptical, emarginate, smooth. Seeds 
numerous, medium to above, dark brown, plump, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, agree- 
ably subacid, sprightly, very good. 

Season fall and early winter to midwinter. 

SHARP. 

REFERENCES, i. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., n :6o2. 1893. 2. Ib., Card, 
and For., 8:428. 1895. 3. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:311. 
1896. 4. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48 :56. 1903. 5. Beach and 
Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:144. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This at its best is an excellent dessert fruit of very attractive 
appearance and very good quality. It is less suitable for most 
culinary uses because it is mildly subacid or nearly sweet, and it 
is not a good market variety because very often it is below medium 
size and not highly colored. It resembles Maiden Blush somewhat 
in shape and color. In this region it comes in season early in 
October or late in September. In ordinary storage it commonly 
reaches its commercial limit in November, but sometimes a portion 
of the fruit keeps till March. The tree is not a strong grower, 
but it comes into bearing young and yields full crops biennially. 

1 Downing, 1872 :io index, app. 



2oo THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

It is distinct from both Sharp Greening and Sharp Russet. 
Buckman believes that it is the same as the Butler or Butler Sweet 
of Pennsylvania. 1 

Historical. Received from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Illinois, in 
1889 for testing at this Station. Mr. Buckman obtained his stock from the 
Illinois Experiment Station. That Station secured the variety from A. N. 
Lawver, who received it from Halliday and Son, Baltimore, Maryland. 

TREE. 

Tree below medium size, a slow grower with short, moderately stout 
branches. Form upright spreading or roundish, open. Twigs short to below 
medium, stout to rather slender, straight; internodes medium. Bark dull 
brown or brownish-red with some olive-green, streaked with thin scarf-skin ; 
slightly pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, medium to small, oblong, 
slightly raised. Buds medium size or below medium, prominent, plump, 
obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit often below medium, sometimes above medium, uniform in shape 
and size. Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, sometimes approaching 
oblong conic, regular or very faintly ribbed, symmetrical. Stem often very 
short and not exserted. Cavity usually rather large, acute to acuminate, 
moderately deep to deep, moderately wide to wide, sometimes very slightly 
furrowed and often russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open ; 
lobes long. Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, moderately wide, abrupt, 
smooth or sometimes slightly ridged or wrinkled. 

Skin attractive pale yellow partly covered with a bright blush. Dots 
minute, pale or brown. 

Calyx tube funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core medium in size, somewhat abaxile ; cells open or closed ; core lines 
clasping. Carpels broadly roundish or somewhat elliptical, emarginate. Seeds 
medium or above, moderately long, rather flat, obtuse, dark. 

Flesh whitish, moderately firm, fine-grained, tender, crisp, juicy, mild 
subacid, nearly sweet, very good. 

Season late September into October. 

SHERMAN. 

REFERENCES, i. Rural N. Y., 1870 (cited by 3). 2. Downing, 1872:31 app. 
3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 56:281. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. SHERMAN (3). SHERMAN'S FAVORITE (2). Sherman's Favorite 
(3). SHERMAN'S SWEET (i). Sherman's Sweet (2, 3). 

A yellow sweet apple of good medium size and mild, rather rich flavor; 
in season from November to January (2). Downing states that it origi- 
nated on the farm of E. C. Sherman, Wyoming, N. Y. We have received 
no report concerning this variety and find no account of its having been 
grown outside of the place of its origin. 

1 Letter, 1895. 






SHIAWASSEE 



2O2 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

slightly open ; lobes rather short, moderately narrow. Basin rather shallow 
to moderately deep, rather wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, somewhat fur- 
rowed and wrinkled, often compressed. 

Skin rather pale yellow, usually entirely overspread with attractive red, 
irregularly splashed and striped with carmine. Dots small to medium, 
grayish. 

Calyx tube medium size, moderately wide, conical to short funnel-shape. 
Stamens median to nearly basal. 

Core below medium size, widely abaxile ; cells symmetrical, usually open ; 
core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels cordate to broadly ovate. 
Seeds rather dark brown, medium size, rather narrow, plump, acute. 

Flesh white, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, aromatic, rather 
sprightly, good to very good. 

Season October to January. 

SINE-QUA-NON. 

REFERENCES, i. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 1220. 2. Downing, 
1845:76. 3. Thomas, 1849:143. 4. Cole, 1849:103. 5. Waring, 1851:30. 
6. Barry, 1851:281. 7. Elliott, 1854:157. 8. Hooper, 1857:84. 9. Gregg, 
i857:39- 10. Horticulturist, 14:425. 1859. n. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 
12. Warder, 1867:732. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

An August apple of good dessert quality, now seldom found in cultiva- 
tion. It originated on Long Island and was brought to notice by Win. 
Prince (2). It was entered on the catalogue of the American Pomological 
Society in 1862 (n) and dropped from that list in 1871. The tree is a 
rather slow, crooked grower, in some cases an indifferent bearer (7), in 
others productive (4, 13). Fruit medium size, roundish ovate, pale greenish- 
yellow; flesh greenish-white, tender, juicy, mild subacid, sprightly, good; 
season late August. 

SLINGERLAND. 

REFERENCES, i. N. Y. Sta. Agr. Soc. Rpt., 1849 : 594- 2 - Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 3:42. 1851. col. pi. No. 32. 3. Downing, 1857:189. 4. Warder, 
1867:732. 5. Thomas, 1875:512. 6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 

SYNONYMS. SLINGERLAND (6). SLINGERLAND'S FALL PIPPIN (2). SLINGER- 
LAND PIPPIN (i, 3, 4, 5). 

An excellent flavored apple of the Green Newtown type in season during 
late fall and early winter. It is not as good a keeper as Green Newtown. 
Raised from seed of the Newtown about 1830 by a Mr. Slingerland of New 
Scotland, Albany county, N. Y. (i, 2). 

FRUIT (i, 2, 3). 

Fruit medium to large. Form roundish, often oblique. Stem exserted 
but short. Skin yellow splashed with reddish-orange over the base. Dots 
minute. Calyx small to medium, partly closed. Core small. Flesh whitish 
tinged with yellow, firm, tender, juicy, brisk, rather rich subacid, good to 
very good. Season December to February or later. 





SOPS OF WINE 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 203 

SOMERSET (N. Y.). 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869 1356. 2. Downing, Tilt. Jour. Hort., 7 1303. 
1870. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877:14. 4. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1881:318. 5. Hoag, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:28. 6. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui, 
129:40, 43. 1896. 7. Mich. Sta. Bui, 152:222, 226. 1898. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

An early apple of high sprightly flavor. A fine family fruit. The tree 
is an unusually early bearer, upright spreading, vigorous and productive. 
Season late August to October (4, 6, 7). 

There is a distinct variety of Maine origin which is also called Somerset. 

Historical. Brought to notice by C. L. Hoag, Lockport, N. Y. Origin un- 
known but supposed to be Somerset, Niagara county, N. Y. (2). This 
variety appears to have been but sparingly disseminated. 

FRUIT (2, 5). 

Fruit below medium. Form like Black Gilliflower, roundish conical. Skin 
deep golden-yellow to whitish-yellow with sometimes a few nettings of 
russet and sparsely sprinkled with brown dots. Flesh quite white, tender, 
juicy, with a rich aromatic flavor; quality very good or best. 

SOPS OF WINE. 

REFERENCES, i. Ray, 1688 :No. 21. 2. Knoop, 8:45. 1758. 3. Kenrick, 
1832:28. 4. Ib., 1835:98. 5. Floy-Lindley, 1833:25. 6. Downing, 1845:77. 
7. Cole, 1849:103. 8. Thomas, 1849:141. 9. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
3:11, 33. 1851. 10. Barry, 1851:282. n. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 18:545. 1852. 
fig. 12. Elliott, 1854:157. 13. Gregg, 1857:39. 14. Hooper, 1857:85. 15. 
Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 16. Warder, 1867:615. fig. 17. Downing, 1869: 
356. 18. Horticulturist, 27:309. 1872. fig. 19. Fitz, 1872:121, 174. 20. 
Downing, 1872:10 index, app. 21. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:22. 
22. Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 23. Ib., 1881:12 index, app. 24. Hogg, 
1884:215. 25. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 47:662. 1888. figs. 26. Lyon, Mich. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 27. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:249. 28. Hoskins, 
Rural N. Y., 53 :248. 1894. 29. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45 ^25. 
1896. 30. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:309. 1901. 31. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:177. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Bell's Early? (17). Bell's Favorite (20). Bcnnington (17, 
18). Dodge's Early Red (17). Early Washington (22). Hominy (17, 19). 
Horning (29). Pie Apple (10). Red Shropsavinef (17). RODE WYN 
APPEL (2). Rode Wyn Appel (5, 6, 9). SAPSON (3). Sapson (6, 9, n, 12, 
18). Sapsonvine (3). Shropshirevine (23). SOPS IN WINE (i, 24). Sops 
in Wine (5, 6, 9, n, 12, 18). SOPS OF WINE (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 
15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31). Sops of Wine (24). 
Strawberry (30). Warden's Pie Apple (17, 18). Washington (17, 18). 

A dark crimson apple ; flesh fine, stained with red ; in season in 
August and September. The tree is a good grower, comes into 
bearing rather young and is a biennial or nearly annual cropper. 
Of little value except as a dessert apple for family use. 



204 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Historical. "A very ancient English culinary and cider apple" (24). It 
is frequently listed by nurserymen but is now seldom planted in New York 
being superseded by other better varieties. 

TREE. 

Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form upright or 
inclined to roundish, rather dense. Twigs short to rather long, curved, 
moderately stout ; internodes short. Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with 
scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lenticels very scattering, small, oblong, not 
raised. Buds medium size, broad, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to sometimes large, uniform in shape but not in size. Form 
roundish to roundish conic, slightly ribbed ; sides unequal. Stem short to 
rather long, moderately slender. Cavity acute, moderately deep, medium or 
sometimes narrow, sometimes slightly furrowed, sometimes with thin, radiat- 
ing russet rays. Calyx medium to rather small, closed or slightly open ; lobes 
rather short. Basin shallow, narrow, furrowed, somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, moderately tender, slightly roughened, greenish- 
yellow almost . entirely overspread with purplish-red, mottled, irregularly 
splashed and sometimes indistinctly striped with dark carmine, overspread 
with thin white bloom. Dots small, few, light russet or yellow. 

Calyx' tube short, wide, cone-shape. Stamens marginal to median. 

Core medium size, somewhat abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical but not 
uniformly developed, open to nearly closed ; core lines meeting. Carpels 
broad ovate, rather concave, mucronate, tufted. Seeds rather large or me- 
dium size, moderately wide, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish often stained with pink, soft, fine, juicy, aromatic, mild, 
pleasant, subacid, good. 

Season August to October. 

SOUR BOUGH. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869:357. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This-, is an old Westchester county variety which, according to 
Dow-ning, is of medium size, roundish conic, yellow with whitish, 
brisk subacid flesh, good for cooking. Season, September. " Often 
knotty and unprofitable" (i). 

The name Sour Bough has also been applied sometimes to the 
Champlain; see page 30; and also to the Tart Bough; see 
page 220. 

SPECTATOR. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869:357. 
SYNONYMS. None. 





SOUR BOUGH 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 205 

Originated with J. W. Bailey, Plattsburg, N. Y. According to Down- 
ing (i) this is an apple of medium size, ribbed, yellow, shaded with red 
in the sun ; flesh white, subacid, hardly good ; season September. The 
variety is unknown to us. 

STARKEY. 

REFERENCES, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:65. 2. Downing, 1876:69 app. 
3. Thomas, 1885:524. 4. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 5. Am. Pom 
Soc. Cat., 1897:14. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:179. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit of good size, fair, well colored, largely striped and splashed 
with red, pleasant subacid, excellent for dessert or culinary use. 
Season, October to midwinter. In Maine, where it originated, it 
is said to be popular in market. It has not been sufficiently tested 
to determine its value for this state, but it appears to be worthy of 
testing. Tree a hardy and vigorous grower in the nursery, becom- 
ing rather large and spreading in the orchard; comes into bearing 
rather young and is a good biennial cropper. 

Historical. Originated on the farm of Moses Starkey, North Vassalboro, 
Kennebec county, Me. 

TREE. 

Tree medium to rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous v with long, 
moderately stout, curved branches. Form spreading or roundish, open. 
Tzvigs medium to long, stout, geniculate, often irregularly crooked; inter- 
nodes long to below medium. Bark brownish-red mingled sometimes with 
olive-green, irregularly mottled with scarf-skin ; pubescent near tips. Len- 
ticels scattering, inconspicuous, medium size or below, round, raised. Buds 
medium to large, prominent, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to rather large. Form oblate or oblate conical, regular or 
faintly ribbed, symmetrical. Stem medium length. Cavity medium size, 
rather shallow, partly covered with greenish russet. Calyx large, closed 
or nearly so. Basin medium size, shallow, somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin pale yellow, washed or deeply blushed with lively red, splashed and 
striped with carmine. Dots pale gray or russet. Prevailing effect red. 

Calyx' tube conical or somewhat funnel-form. 

Core rather small. 

Flesh whitish, firm, rather fine, juicy, crisp, pleasant, lively subacid, be- 
coming mild subacid, very good. 

Season October to January. 



206 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

STARR. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, Tilt. Jour. Hort., 6:347. 1869. fig. 2. Down- 
ing, 1869:360. 3. Thomas, 1875:512. 4. Hexamer, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1895 70. 5. Rural N. Y., 54 :s8;. 1895. 6. Parry, Wm., Parry, N. J., Cat., 
1896. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit large, very attractive for a green or yellowish apple, and 
very good in quality, especially for dessert use. Season, August 
and September. The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into 
bearing young and as tested at this Station gives promise of being 
an annual bearer. Starr appears to be worthy of testing where a 
fruit of this type is desired. 

Historical. The original tree was found on the grounds of Judge J. M. 
White, Woodbury, N. J., which property afterward came into the possession 
of Mrs. Starr. The propagation of the variety was begun by Wm. Parry 
in 1865 under the name of Starr (6). So far as we can learn it has been 
but little planted in New York. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved branches. 
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather dense. Twigs long, curved, 
stout with large terminal buds ; internodes long. Bark brownish-red, 
tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near 
tips. Lcnticcls quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised. Buds 
prominent, large, long, broad, plump, acute, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large to large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form dis- 
tinctly oblate to roundish oblate, regular or faintly ribbed. Stem short to 
medium, moderately thick, sometimes swollen. Cavity acute, varying from 
a little obtuse to somewhat acuminate, shallow to medium, broad, smooth 
or gently furrowed. Calyx medium size, closed, lobes long to medium, 
rather narrow, acuminate. Basin medium in depth, narrow, abrupt, some- 
what furrowed. 

Skin rather thick, tough, nearly smooth, green becoming yellowish-green, 
sometimes with indications of a faint blush. Dots numerous, small and 
large, pale or russet. 

Calyx tube long, very wide to moderately wide, conical to cylindrical and 
large, extending to the core. Stamens nearly marginal. 

Core medium to rather large, abaxile to nearly axile ; cells closed or 
slightly open; core lines clasping. Carpels obovate, sometimes tufted. Seeds 
dark brown, medium to large, rather wide, plump, acute to nearly acuminate. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately fine, very tender, crisp, very juicy, 
sprightly subacid, aromatic, very good. 

Season August and September. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 207 



STILLMAN EARLY. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:193. 2. Thomas, 1875:512. 3. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 
SYNONYMS. STILLMAN (3) . STILLMAN'S EARLY (i, 2). 

This variety originated in Clinton, Oneida county, N. Y. Downing (i) 
states that the tree is a moderate grower and productive ; the fruit small, yel- 
low, sometimes slightly blushed ; flesh pleasant subacid, good ; season late July 
and early August. We are unacquainted with this variety and have re- 
ceived no report concerning it from any of our correspondents. 



STRAWBERRY. 

This name has been applied to a great many different varieties 
of the apple. Those mentioned in this volume are listed below : 

Autumn Strawberry, see Late Strawberry. Chenango Straw- 
berry, see Chenango. Early Strawberry. Fall Strawberry, see 
Late Strawberry. Late Strawberry. St. Johns Strawberry, see 
Early Strawberry. Strawberry, see Chenango, Early Strawberry, 
Late Strawberry and Richard Graft. Washington Strawberry. 

STRIPED GILLIFLOWER. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, 1867 :6g6. fig. 2. Downing, 1876 :6g app. 3. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:250. 4. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui., 45:342. 
1896. 5. Thomas, 1897:654. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:181. 

SYNONYMS. Red Gilliflower (2). Scollop Gillinower, incorrectly (2). 
Striped Bellflower (2). STRIPED GILLIFLOWER (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). 

This variety appears to be practically obsolete in New York. The tree is 
a vigorous grower and generally productive (2). 

FRUIT (i, 2, 6). 

Fruit large to very large. Form variable roundish conic to oblong conic, 
often furrowed, angular, but less ribbed than Scollop Gilliflower. Stem 
short, curved. Cavity acute, deep, wide, furrowed, brown or russeted. 
Calyx large, closed or partly open; lobes erect. Basin shallow, abrupt. 

Skin yellowish-white or greenish, partly covered with dull red, striped 
and splashed with carmine. Dots few, indistinct, gray or white. 

Calyx tube cone-shape. Stamens median. 

Core sessile, abaxile, large; cells wide open; core lines meeting or slightly 
clasping. Carpels tufted. Seeds few, small, roundish, plump, obtuse, black. 

Flesh yellowish-white, breaking, juicy, briskly subacid, fair to good. 

Season September. 



2o8 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



STROAT. 

REFERENCES, i. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826 :476. 2. London Hort. 
Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 1256. 3. Kenrick, 1832 139. 4. Downing, 1845 197. 5. 
Horticulturist, 2:545. 1848. 6. Thomas, 1849:158. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 3:38. 1851. 8. Elliott, 1854:158. 9. Hooper, 1857:87. 

SYNONYMS. STRAAT (2, 3). Straat (4, 8, 9). STROAT (i, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). 

Stroat was formerly much esteemed among the descendants of the Dutch 
settlers on the North river (4). The fruit is described as above medium, 
roundish inclined to conic, yellowish-green; flesh yellow, very tender, rich, 
brisk subacid, good to very good; season September to November or De- 
cember (4, 6, 8). 

We have not seen this fruit nor has it been mentioned by any of our cor- 
respondents. 

STRODE BIRMINGHAM. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:193. 2. Warder, 1867:733. 3. Pa. Sta. 
Hort. Assn. Rpt., 1886:50. 4. Powell and Fulton, U. S. P. B. I. Bui, 48:57. 
1903. 5. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:145. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Dumpling (3). STRODE (4, 5). Strode' s (i). STROBE'S 
BIRMINGHAM (i, 2, 3). Strode' s Birmingham (4, 5). 

A medium-sized yellow apple of mild subacid flavor and good quality. 
Commercial limit September. For home use it is in season in September 
and October and a few specimens may be kept till January (5). It is 
reported as a desirable variety for market and general purposes in Pennsyl- 
vania (3). The tree comes into bearing rather young and is productive 
yielding moderate to good crops nearly annually. As compared with stand- 
ard varieties of its season it does not appear to be worthy of the atten- 
tion of New York fruit growers. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit of medium size ; uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic 
or inclined to oblong, regular or faintly ribbed; sides unequal. Stem long, 
slender. Cavity acute to almost acuminate, usually rather deep, medium in 
width, symmetrical, russeted. Calyx medium to small, closed or partly 
open; lobes medium in length and width, acute, reflexed. Basin shallow, 
narrow to medium in width, obtuse, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, clear yellow or greenish, often with faint blush 
and marked with russet flecks. Dots scattering, very minute, submerged, 
inconspicuous, red or russet. 

Calyx tube short, wide, urn-shape to broadly conical. Stamens nearly 
basal. 

Core medium to small, axile ; cells almost closed ; core lines meeting. 
Carpels broadly ovate to oblong narrowing toward either end, deeply emar- 
ginate. Seeds dark dull brown, medium to large, wide, plump, broadly 
acute, tufted. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 209 

Flesh yellowish, rather firm, fine, rather crisp, tender, juicy, brisk subacid 
becoming mild and pleasant when fully mature, good to very good. 
Season September to early winter. 

STUMP. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1881:110 app. fig. 2. Barry, 1883:341. 3. 
Thomas, 1885:525. 4. Pa. Sta. Hort. Assn. Rpt., 1885:25. 5. Can. Hort., 
ii :8. 1888. 6. Rural N. Y., 47:692. 1888. figs. 7- Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:250. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:255. 1895. 9. Beach, Card, and For., 
8:428. 1895. 10. Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:55. 1902. n. Beach and Clark, N. Y. 
Sta. Bui, 248:145, 1904. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This very beautiful apple resembles Chenango in form, size and 
general appearance. In Western New York it is by some con- 
sidered a good variety for commercial planting, but others find diffi- 
culty in marketing it with profit, since it is esteemed chiefly for 
dessert purposes and ripens at a season when there is compara- 
tively little demand for apples, and shows bruises so readily that 
it. is not well adapted for barrelling. It may be marketed in local 
markets or shipped in small packages. The crop ripens unevenly, 
and on this account should have more than one picking in order to 
secure the fruit in prime condition. It begins to ripen in late 
August or early September. Its commercial limit is September or 
early October, but its season for home use , extends to Novem- 
ber (n). The trees are upright, compact and stocky, so that they 
may stand closer together than common varieties in the orchard, 
or be used for alternating with more spreading trees. They are 
hardy, long-lived, and reliable croppers, yielding good to heavy 
crops biennially. The fruit is borne on short spurs close to the 
limbs. It is recommended for planting in the garden and commer- 
cial orchard where a variety of this type is desired. 

Historical. Originated as a chance seedling in an old stump on the 
grounds of John Prue, Chili, N. Y. (i). It appears that it has been planted 
more in Western New York than in any other section of the state. 

TREE. 

Tree a slow, stiff, upright grower in the nursery, apt to crack at the collar, 
not popular with nurserymen ; in the orchard it becomes a moderately vig- 
orous or vigorous grower; branches long, moderately stout, curved, filled 



2io THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

with fruit spurs. Form very upright but eventually somewhat roundish. 
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout ; internodes medium. Bark 
brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenti- 
cels numerous, medium size, round, not raised. Buds medium size, broad, 
plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or below, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic 
to oblong conic, regular or faintly ribbed; sides sometimes unequal. Stem 
very short, variable in thickness. Cavity acute or approaching obtuse, usu- 
ally rather shallow, medium in width to rather broad, unsymmetrical, fre- 
quently furrowed, sometimes lipped, partly russeted. Calyx medium to 
small, slightly open or closed; lobes short, rather narrow, acute. Basin 
shallow, narrow, abrupt. 

Skin smooth, clear pale yellow largely washed and mottled with bright 
pinkish-red, becoming deep red in highly-colored specimens, rather indis- 
tinctly striped and splashed with bright carmine. Dots numerous, rather 
large, areolar with russet point or with whitish point. Prevailing effect red 
and yellow contrasting beautifully. 

Calyx tube broadly conical with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. 
Stamens basal. 

Core below medium to rather large, usually abaxile ; cells open ; core lines 
meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels elongated ovate tapering toward base 
and apex. Seeds rather dark brown, medium to small, usually very wide, 
short, very plump, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, rather fine, tender, juicy, rich, aro- 
matic, sprightly, pleasant subacid, very good. 

Season September and October. 

STYMUS. 

REFERENCES, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1867 (cited by 3). 2. Downing, 
1869 -.365. 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56 1298. 1905. 
SYNONYMS. Stymer's (3). STYMUS (i, 2, 3). 

This variety was described by Downing in 1869 as a new and really ex- 
cellent apple which originated on the farm of Jacob Stymus, Dobbs Ferry, 
N. Y. (2). Fruit medium size, yellowish, shaded, splashed and striped with 
light and dark crimson ; flesh fine, tender, pleasant subacid, very good ; season 
October and November. 

We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report con- 
cerning it from any of our correspondents. 

SUFFOLK BEAUTY. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869 1365. 
SYNONYMS. None. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 211 

Described -in 1869 by Downing (i) as a new variety from Deer Park, 
Long Island. Fruit medium, yellowish- white ; flesh subacid; season August 
and September. 

This variety' is unknown to us and we have received no report concerning 
it from any of our correspondents. 

SUMMER BELLFLOWER. 

REFERENCES, i. Horticulturist, 3:168. 1848. fig. 2. Thomas, 1849:143. 
3. Cole, 1849:104. 4. Waring, 1851:31. 5. Elliott, 1854:159. 6. Downing, 
1857:196. 7. Warder, 1867:733. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:14. 

SYNONYMS. SUMMER BELLEFLEUR (i, 8). Summer Belle-fieur (5). SUM- 
MER BELLFLOWER (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Summer Bellfiower (i). 

This fruit bears considerable resemblance in form and color to Yellow 
Bellflower. Flesh tender, subacid, good. It is in season from the middle 
of August to the middle of September. The tree is erect, of medium size, a 
good grower, hardy and a good cropper. It is not considered a satisfactory 
variety for commercial planting and so far as we can learn is gradually be- 
coming obsolete in New York. Downing described it in 1848 as a new vari- 
ety of promise and stated that it was raised by John R. Comstock of Wash- 
ington, Dutchess county, N. Y., from seed of the Esopus Spitzenburg (i, 6). 
It was entered on the list of the American Pomological Society in 1875 as 
a variety of value for Nebraska (8). It was dropped from that list in 1897. 

A distinct variety of Pennsylvania origin has also been known under the 
name Summer Bellflower (6, 7). 



SUMMER PEARMAIN. 

REFERENCES, i. M'Mahon, Amer. Card. Cal., 1806:585. 2. Coxe, 1817: 
104. fig. 3. Cobbett, 1821 :par. 300. 4. Thacher, 1822:138. 5. Buel, N. Y. 
Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 6. Fessenden, 1828:129. 7. Kenrick, 1832:25. 
8. Mag. Hort., i :398. 1835. 9- Manning, 1838 :47. 10. Ib., Mag. Hort., ^ : 
49. 1841. ii. Downing, 1845:70. 12. Horticulturist, 2:544. 1848. 13. 
Thomas, 1849:136. fig. 14. Cole, 1849:103. 15. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 
4:472. 1850. 16. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:11. 1851. fig. 17. Barry, 
1851 :279. 18. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 19. Elliott, 1854 :64. fig. 20. 
Hooper, 1857:12, 106, 108. 21. Gregg, 1857:35. 22. Warder, 1867:582. fig. 
23. Downing, 1869:78. fig. 24. Fitz, 1872:143, 160. 25. Hogg, 1884:7. 
26. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 27. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 
28. Ib., 1892:250. 29. Budd-Hansen, 1903:182. fig. 

SYNONYMS. AMERICAN PEARMAIN (19). American Pearmain (20). 
American Summer (26). AMERICAN SUMMER PEARMAIN (7, 8, n, 12, T 3, 14, 
16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27). American Summer Pearmain (19, 29). 
EARLY SUMMER PEARMAIN (2, 5, 6). Early Summer Pearmain (7, n, 14, 16, 
19, 23, 25, of Coxe 13). SUMMER PEARMAIN (i, 3, 4, 9, 10, 15, 18, 26, 28, 29). 
Summer Pearmain (14). Watkins Early (19,20), 



212 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

An amateur fruit which when perfect is beautiful and of mild, rich, excel- 
lent flavor (26). The tree being of slender, slow growth in the nursery 
is not a favorite with nurserymen and although it makes a large productive 
tree in the orchard it is not profitable as a market variety (22). It is de- 
sirable for family use because the fruit is suitable both for culinary and 
dessert purposes and the crop ripens in succession through a period of nearly 
two months. 

There is also another Summer Pearmain or English Summer Pearmain 
which ripens somewhat later. 1 

Historical. Supposed to be of American origin. It is an old variety; first 
described in 1817 by Coxe. 

FRUIT (n, 14, 22, 23). 

Fruit of medium size. Form variable, oblong or roundish inclined to conic, 
sometimes oblate. Stem medium to long. Cavity deep, acute, regular. 
Calyx large, open or closed. Basin medium size, abrupt, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, greenish-yellow, more or less covered with dull purplish-red, 
marbled, splashed and striped with brighter red. Dots minute. 

Core medium to small, roundish ; cells closed. Seeds small, pointed. 

Flesh yellowish, very fine, tender, almost melting, juicy, aromatic, crisp, 
mild subacid, best. 

Season August and September. 

SUMMER QUEEN. 

REFERENCES, i. M'Mahon, Amer. Card. Cal., 1806:584. 2. Coxe, 1817: 
102. 3. Thacher, 1822:133. 4. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476 5. 
Wilson, 1828:136. 6. Kenrick, 1832:28. 7. Manning, 1838:46. 8. Downing, 
1845:77. 9. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:489. 1848. fig. 10. Thomas, 1849:141. 

11. Cole, 1849:103. 12. Barry, 1851:282. 13. Waring, 1851:28. 14. Em- 
mons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:14. 1851. 15. Elliott, 1854:158. 16. Hooper, 
1857:88, 107. 17. Gregg, 1857:39. 18. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1860:240. 19. 
Warder, 1867:545. fig. 20. Downing, 1869:370. fig. 21. Fitz, 1872:143, 
161. 22. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpi., 1874:295. 23. Wickson, 1889:243. 24. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 25. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:250. 26. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:183. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Lancaster Queen (15, 20). Polecat (20). QUEEN (3, 13). 
Queen (6). Sharpe's Early (20). SUMMER QUEEN (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 

12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26). Summer Queen (3, 13). 
SWEET'S HARVEST (i). Sweet's Harvest (3, 4, 6). Swett's Harvest (2). 

A striped red apple of good size and excellent quality for culinary use, in 
season during late summer. In regions farther west it is a very popular 
variety for home use and is also considered by some desirable for market. 
The tree is a moderate grower with rather spreading habit and productive, 
yielding good crops almost annually. 

Historical. This is an old variety which is supposed to have originated in 
this country (4, 19, 26). It is commonly listed by nurserymen in most parts 

IRagan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 66:300. 1905. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 213 

of the country (25). So far as we have been able to learn it is not often 
grown in New York and is now seldom planted in this state. 

FRUIT (10, 12, 15, 19). 

Fruit medium to large. Form roundish conical, somewhat angular. Stem 
medium to long, slender. Cavity narrow to rather wide, regular, pretty deep. 
Calyx medium to large, open or closed. Basin shallow or none, furrowed. 

Skin yellow, striped, splashed and shaded with mixed red. Dots minute, 
yellow. 

Core medium size; cells open. Seeds numerous, acute, brown. 

Flesh whitish-yellow, sometimes with tinge of pink, firm, aromatic, juicy, 
subacid, good to very good for culinary use. 

Season August and September. 

SUMMER RAMBO. 

REFERENCES, i. Switzer, 1725 (cited by 7). 2. Duhamel, 1:28. 1768. 
3. Forsyth, 1803:49. 4. Coxe, 1817:104. fig. 5. Forsyth, 1824:123. 6. Ken- 
rick, 1832:37. 7. Floy-Lindley, 1833:12. 8. Manning, 1838:47. 9. Downing, 
1845:94. 10. Thomas, 1849:141. n. Elliott, 1854:178. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1862. 13. Warder, 1867:733. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:10. 15. 
Leroy, 1873:598. fig. 16. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:76. 17. Lyon, Mich. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 18. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:250. 19. (?) Revue 
Horticole, 66:202. 1894. 20. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:199. 21. 
Bnrrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45 :337. 1896. 

SYNONYMS. Cambour des Lorrains (15). Charmant Blanc (15). De Lor- 
raine (15). DC Rambourg (15). De Rambure (15). De Notre-Dame (15). 
FRANK RAMBOUR (i, 7). Frank Rambour (9). Grosh (16). Gros-Rambour 
d'Ete (15). Herbstbreitling (15). Lothringer Rambour d'Ete (15). Pommc 
de Notre-Dame (6). RAMBOUR (3). Rambour (15, 17). Rambour Blanc 
(15). (RAMBOUR D'AMERIQUE, 19)? RAMBOUR D'ETE (4, 8, 15). Rambour 
d'Ete (6, 9, 10, n). RAMBOUR FRANC (2, 5, 6, 9, 12). Rambour Franc (4, 7, 
10, n, 15, 21 ). Rambourg Aigre (15). Rambour Gros (7, of the English 6). 
Rambour Rayc (6, 15). Rambu (15). Rcmboure d'Ete (15). SUMMER 
RAMBO (13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21). Summer Rambo (n). SUMMER RAM- 
HOUR (10, n). Summer Rambour (4, 9). 

Fruit of the type of Grosh ; very attractive in size, form and color ; 
large, oblate, yellowish-green considerably striped and splashed with mixed 
red, good to very good. Season early autumn. Begins to ripen about a 
month earlier than Grosh. The tree is a strong grower, comes into bearing 
young and bears quite regularly yielding moderate to good crops. Although 
it has long been known in cultivation in this country it has not gained much 
recognition among New York fruit growers. The fine color and size of 
this variety combined with its comparatively good quality recommend it for 
home use or local market. It is an old variety and has been tested in many 
parts of the United States but its cultivation has never become extensive. 
These facts would indicate that it has weaknesses not apparent to the casual 
observer. Possibly it is worthy of further trial in this state. 



214 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Historical. This variety is said to have originated in France (15) It 
has long been known in this country having been described by Coxe in 1817, 
and Kenrick in 1832 (4, 6). It was listed in the catalogue of the American 
Pomological Society under the name Rambour Franc from 1862 to 1871 
(12, 14, 20). It is still listed by nurserymen (18). It is comparatively little 
known in New York state but is more often found in cultivation in Ohio 
and regions farther west. 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous. Form upright spreading to roundish, open. Twigs moder- 
ately long, curved, moderately stout ; internodes medium. Bark brown, 
tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. 
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised. Buds medium 
size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large to very large, uniform in size and shape. Form oblate to 
roundish oblate, sometimes slightly ovate, sometimes faintly ribbed, pretty 
regular; sides often unequal. Stem short to medium, rather thick. Cavity 
nearly acuminate, deep to medium in depth, rather broad, usually symmetri- 
cal, sometimes lipped, sometimes slightly russeted close to the stem. Calyx 
rather large, closed or sometimes slightly open ; lobes medium to short, rather 
narrow, acute to obtuse. Basin deep to sometimes medium, wide to medium 
in width, abrupt, smooth, symmetrical. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, attractive clear bright yellow or greenish, in 
well colored specimens largely washed and mottled with lively pinkish-red, 
conspicuously marked with many broken stripes and splashes of bright car- 
mine. Dots numerous, usually small and submerged, but some are scattering, 
large, brow r n or russet. Prevailing effect striped. 

Calyx tube medium in length, rather wide, broadly conical. Stamens 
median to marginal. 

Core rather small, axile ; cells nearly closed ; core lines meeting or slightly 
clasping. Carpels roundish to roundish ovate approaching elliptical. Seeds 
frequently abortive, rather large, wide, plump, acute, moderately dark brown. 

Flesh yellowish-green, firm, breaking, coarse, tender, very juicy, mildly 
subacid, somewhat aromatic, good. 

Season September to November. 

SUMMER REDSTREAK. 

REFERENCE, i. Downing, 1869 :37i. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

A September apple which originated in Columbia county, N. Y. According 
to Downing (i) the tree is moderately vigorous and productive. The fruit 
medium, yellowish, shaded, striped and splashed with rich red; flesh white, 
sometimes a little stained next the skin, brisk subacid, valued for cooking. 

We have neither seen this variety nor received any report concerning it. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 215 



SUMMER ROSE. 

REFERENCES, i. M'Mahon, Amer. Card. Cal, 1806:584. 2. Coxe, 1817: 
103. fig. 3- Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 4. Wilson, 1828:136. 
5. Fessenden, 1828:131. 6. Kenrick, 1832:29. 7. Manning, 1838:47. 8. 
Downing, 1845 77. 9. Horticulturist, 2 :483. 1848. 10. N. Y. Agr. Soc. 
Trans., 1848:277. fig. n. Thomas, 1849:141. 'fig. 12. Cole,. 1849:101. fig. 
13. Waring, 1851 131. 14. Barry, 1851 :282. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 
16. Elliott, 1854:107. fig. 17. Gregg, 1857:39. 18. Hooper, 1857:87. 19. 
Horticulturist, 14:425. 1859. 20. Warder, 1867:616. 21. Fitz, 1872:143, 
1 60. 22. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1875:112. 23. Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 
24. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1887 :63O. col. pi. 25. Lyon, Mich. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 26. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:250. 27. Alwood, Pa. Sta. 
Bui., 130:122. 1901. 28. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:309. 1901. 29. Far- 
rand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 205:46. 1903. 30. Budd-Hansen, 1903:183. fig. 

SYNONYMS. French Reinette (10). Harvest Apple (2, 3, 6). Lippincott 
(10, 13, 16). Lodge's Early (23). SUMMER ROSE (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 
12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 1 8, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30). Wolman's 
Harvest (16). Woolman's Early (n, 14, 17). WOOLMAN'S HARVEST (i). 
Woolman's Harvest (8, 10, 16). Woolman's Striped Harvest (n). 

A little dessert apple. Thomas rated it better in quality for the table than 
Early Harvest but less productive and too small for general value (n). The 
tree is a moderately vigorous or slow grower but is hardy, comes into bearing 
young and is productive. Suitable for culinary use in July, ripe in August. 

Historical. This is an old New Jersey apple which Coxe described as of 
singular beauty and excellent for both eating and stewing; the size is mod- 
erate, the form flat, the skin smooth, of a beautiful yellow resembling wax, 
blended with red in streaks and blotches (2). It is still occasionally listed 
by nurserymen (26) but is now seldom or never planted in New York. 

FRUIT (8, n, 16, 20, 23, 30). 

Fruit small to nearly medium. Form roundish, somewhat oblate. Stem 
rather short to medium, varying from stout to slender. Cavity shallow, 
acute, regular. Calyx small, closed or partly open. Basin regular, wide, 
abrupt, slightly furrowed. 

Skin smooth, waxen, very pale yellow, striped and splashed distinctly with 
bright red and carmine on the exposed cheek. Dots minute. 

Core medium to large ; cells closed ; core lines meeting. Seeds ovate, nu- 
merous, short, plump. 

Flesh white, fine-grained, crisp, very tender, sprightly, juicy, subacid, agree- 
able but not rich, suitable for either culinary or dessert use. 

SUMMER SPITZENBURG. 

REFERENCE. io Downing, 1872 :36 app. fig. 

SYNONYMS. French Spitzenburgh (i). SUMMER SPITZENBURGH (i). 

This is a September apple of attractive color. It is but little grown in 
New York. The tree is large, upright or roundish, a good grower, hardy, 



2i 6 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

long-lived and reliably productive yielding good crops biennially. It is not 
considered valuable for commercial planting because the fruit is apt to be 
undersized and drops badly. By some it is esteemed for home use. 

Historical. Downing states that it originated with Woolsey Ostrander, 
Plattekill, Ulster county, N. Y. (i). 

FRUIT (i). 

Fruit medium, whitish almost covered with red and overspread with thin 
bloom. Flesh moderately juicy, a little aromatic, good to very good. Season 
August and September. 

SUMMER SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 14 1388. 1848. fig. 2. Cole, 1849 197. 3. 
Hooper, 1857 -.87. 4. Downing, 1869 1372. 

SYNONYMS. SUMMER SWEET (2, 3, 4). SUMMER SWEETING (i). 

A yellow sweet apple ripe in August and September. The tree is of me- 
dium size, moderately vigorous, spreading, productive. Fruit medium size, 
roundish oblate inclined to conic; flesh whitish, tender, rich, sweet (2, 4). 

Historical. An old Connecticut apple (i, 2, 4) now but very seldom 
found in cul'Vation in New York. 

SWEET BOUGH. 

REFERENCES, i. (?) Amer. Card. Cal., 1806:584. 2. Coxe, 1817:101. fig. 
3. (?) Thacher, 1822:121. 4. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 5. Wil- 
son, 1828:136. 6. Fessenden, 1828:131. 7. Kenrick, 1832:26. 8. Floy-Lind- 
ley, 1833:84. 9. Manning, 1838:46. 10. Downing, 1845:74. n. Hovey, Mag. 
Hort., 14:486. 1848. iig. 12. Cole, 1849:99. 13. Thomas, 1849:135. 14. 
Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 15. Barry, 1851:279. 16. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1852. 17. Elliott, 1854:109. fig. 18. Hooper, 1857 :20. 19. Ib. f 
1857:107, in. 20. Gregg, 1857:35. 21. Warder, 1867:494. fig. 22. Down- 
ing, 1869:250. 23. Fitz, 1872:143. 24. Ib., 1872:161. 25. Leroy, 1873:154. 
fig. 26. Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 27. Hogg, 1884:129. 28. Wickson, 
1889:243. 29. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 30. Ib., 1892:243. 31. Ib., 1892: 
250. 32. Amer. Card., 15 :4O4. 1894. fig. 33. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1895:192. 34. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui., 143:200, 202. 1897. 35. Woolverton, 
Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 4:4. 1897. figs. 36. Beach, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1901 76. 37. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :55. 

SYNONYMS. August Sweet (22). August Sweeting (12). Autumn Bough 
(11). BOUGH (4, 5, 11, 13, 24, 25, 29, 34). Bough (7, 10, 12, 17, 22, 27). 
BOUGH APPLE (2, 6, 8, 20). BOUGH, Early Sweet (18). BOUGH, Szveet (37). 
(Bow APPLE i, 3) ? EARLY BOUGH (7, 9). Early Bough (n, 25, 27). Early 
French Reinette (4). Early Sweet Bough (10, n, 13, 17, 22). Early Sweet- 
heart (36). LARGE BOUGH (21). LARGE EARLY BOUGH (28). Large Early 
Yellow Bough (27). LARGE SWEET BOUGH (19, 30). Large Szveet Bough 
(15). LARGE YELLOW BOUGH (10, 16, 22, 23, 26, 27, 33). Large Yellow 





SWEET BOUGH 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 217 

Bough (11, 13, 15, 17, 20, 21, 25, 30, 31, 34, 35, 37). Macfc Pippin (17). 
Pound's July (26). SWEET BOUGH (12, 14, 17, 31, 32, 35, 36). Sweet Bough 
(7, 13, 20, 22, 24, 25, 27, 33, 34). Sweetbough (28). Sweet Harvest (10, n, 
17, 22, 25, 27). Yellow Bough (12). Washington (17, 25, incorrectly 22). 

This variety is a universal favorite throughout the state for the 
home orchard. Hovey ( 1 1 ) well says of it : " The Bough is one 
of cur finest summer apples, having all the good qualities which 
should recommend a fruit for general cultivation. The tree is 
moderately vigorous, making a handsome head, and bears abundant 
crops of large, very fair fruit, which begins to ripen the last of 
July, and remains in eating till the first of September. As a table 
apple, it will not rank as high as the Early Harvest; but, as a 
kitchen fruit, in its honied sweetness and tender flesh, it has no 
equal of its season. It should be found in every good collection." 

It is handled to a limited extent in local markets, but is too soft 
to stand shipping to distant markets. It cannot be ranked among 
the profitable commercial varieties. The tree comes into bearing 
rather young, and under favorable conditions is long-lived, speci- 
mens being found sixty to eighty years old which are still quite pro- 
ductive. In unfavorable locations the tree is sometimes injured by 
winter, and the branches are attacked somewhat by the apple 
canker. 

Historical. This was described by Coxe in 1817 under the name Bough 
apple (2) It is evidently of American origin. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading to roundish, dense. 
Twigs short, straight, moderately stout with large terminal buds; internodes 
short. Bark clear brown mingled with olive-green, lightly mottled with 
scarf-skin ; not pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised. 
Buds medium in size, plump, acute, free, not pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
conic or ovate to sometimes slightly oblong conic with broad and rather 
flat base, pretty regular ; sides often unequal. Stem short to medium, moder- 
ately thick, usually not exserted. Cavity acuminate, deep, rather broad, some- 
times furrowed or compressed, usually smooth. Calyx small to medium, 
closed or partly open; lobes often leafy, sometimes separated at base, long, 



218 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

narrow, acute. Basin rather small, medium to rather shallow, narrow, a 
little abrupt, smooth or slightly wrinkled. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, pale greenish-yellow often changing to 
yellowish-white, sometimes faintly blushed. Dots numerous, small, often 
light colored and submerged, sometimes russet. 

Calyx tube long, wide at top, conical to funnel-shape. Stamens median. 

Core rather large to medium, abaxile to nearly axile ; cells closed or open ; 
core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to cordate, slightly emarginate, slightly 
tufted. Seeds light brown, medium to rather small, plump, acute. 

Flesh white, moderately firm, fine, somewhat crisp, very tender, juicy, 
sweet, slightly aromatic, good to very good. 

Season August and early September. 

SWEET FALL PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:192. 2. Warder, 1867:733. 3. Thomas, 

1875:513- 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A large, greenish-yellow apple, good either for dessert or for culinary 
uses ; in season from October to January. The tree is large, spreading, 
vigorous to very vigorous, hardy and a reliable cropper yielding good crops 
annually or nearly annually. It is not a good variety for commercial plant- 
ing. Downing refers to it as being grown in Westchester county (i). It 
is also occasionally found in Western New York. We do not find it listed 
by nurserymen and it is gradually going out of cultivation. 

SWEET RUSSET. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, 1867 :528. fig. 2. Downing, 1869 1377. 3. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:250. 

SYNONYMS. Summer Russet (2). SWEET RUSSET (i, 2, 3). 

A small roundish or oblate apple, yellow, mostly covered with light russet 
tinged with red in the sun, juicy, sweet, very good; season September and 
October. Tree large, spreading and drooping, a moderately vigorous grower, 
hardy, long-lived and usually a reliable cropper yielding good crops bien- 
nially. Origin unknown. It was at one time disseminated by Parsons and 
Company, Flushing, N. Y. 

The name Sweet Russet has also been applied to the variety described as 
Pumpkin Russet on page 170. 

SWITZER. 

REFERENCES, i. Hoskins, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:50. 2. ///. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1881 155. 3. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883 191. 4. Gibb, la. Hort. 
Soc.-Rpt., 1883:436. 5. la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885:12. No. 304. 6. Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:16. 7. Can. Hort., 12:344. 1889. 8. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1889:14. 9. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1890:18. No. 304. 10. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 219 

Can. Hort., 13:216. 1890. n. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1890:418. 
col. pi. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:251. 13. Amer. Card., 13:639. 1892. 
14. Can. Hort., 16:359. 1893. 15. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53:279. 1894. 
16. Amer. Card., 16:332, 412. 1895. fig. 17. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 
14:255. 1895. 18. Can. Hort., 20:183, 4 : 2- 1897. 19. Amer. Card., 19:652. 
1898. 20. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901 :98. 21. Hansen, S. D. Sta. 
Bui, 76:103. 1902. 22. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:85. 1902. 23. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:186. fig. 24. Thomas, 1903:303. 

SYNONYMS. SUISLEPPER (3, 4). Suislepper (5). SWITZER (i, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
9, 10, u, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24). Switzer (3, 4). 

When well grown this is a very handsome fruit of medium 
size or below, nearly white with beautiful blush. It is very 
good in flavor and quality either for dessert or culinary uses. 
As fruited at this Station the tree comes into bearing rather 
early and is a fairly reliable cropper yielding pretty good crops 
biennially. As compared with standard varieties of its season 
it does not appear to merit the attention of New York fruit 
growers. 

Historical. A Russian apple imported by the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture in 1870. It was received in 1888 for testing at this Station from 
T. H. Hoskins, Newport, Vt. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved and crooked 
branches. Form spreading, rather flat, open. Twigs short, curved, stout 
with large terminal buds ; internodes medium. Bark dark brown, streaked 
with heavy scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, round, 
not raised. Buds large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, heavily pubes- 
cent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit below medium to above medium. Form roundish or oblate, regular. 
Stem medium to rather long, rather slender. Cavity acuminate, moderately 
shallow, narrow, lightly russeted with thin, greenish-russet. Calyx small, 
closed ; lobes medium in length, narrow, acute. Basin shallow or almost none, 
narrow to wide, furrowed, often wrinkled. 

Skin clear white or becoming yellowish, washed with bright pink which 
often deepens to crimson. Dots whitish, obscure. 

Calyx tube variable, elongated conical to cylindrical or funnel-form. 
Stamens median to somewhat basal. 

Core large, axile; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels 
round, deeply emarginate. Seeds large, dark brown, medium in width, long. 

Flesh white, firm, fine, juicy, mild subacid, good. 

Season late August to October. 



22O THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



SYLVESTER. 

REFERENCES, i. Horticulturist, 17:150. 1862. 2. Warder, 1867:617. fig. 

3. Downing, 1869:379. 4. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1871:154. 5. Fitz, 1872:170. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

A waxen-white fruit with crimson blush and brisk subacid flesh ; very 
good for culinary uses. Season September and October. The tree is large, 
roundish, moderately vigorous, hardy, long-lived and a reliable cropper 
yielding good crops biennially. It is not desirable for commercial planting 
because the fruit shows bruises very readily. 

Historical. Originated at Lyons, N. Y. (3). It is but little grown even 
in the locality of its origin. 

TART BOUGH. 

REFERENCES, i. Thomas, 1849:142. 2. Elliott, 1854:178. 3. Warder, 
1867:734. 4. Downing, 1869:380. 
SYNONYMS. Sour Bough of some (4). TART BOUGH (i, 2, 3, 4). 

An old variety which according to Downing (4) was originated and dis- 
seminated by Judge Buel of Albany, N. Y. Elliott (2) states that it resembles 
Early Harvest, but it ripens ten days later, has more acid and the trees 
are more rapid in growth. He regarded it as unworthy of cultivation. 

Downing recognizes another Tart Bough the fruit of which is small and 
whitish with white, tender flesh, juicy, sprightly, pleasant subacid, good. 
Season August (4). 

We do not know either of these varieties. 

TETOFSKY. 

REFERENCES, i. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 1291. 2. Manning, 
Mag. Hort., 7:50. 1841. 3. Downing, 1845:78. 4. Thomas, 1849:141. 5. 
Elliott, 1854:111. fig. 6. Hooper, 1857:93. 7. Horticulturist, 14:425. I&59- 
8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 9. Horticulturist, 21 :294. 1866. fig. 10. Warder, 
1867:657. ii. Todd, 1871:120. fig. 12. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1872:458. 
fig. 13. Horticulturist, 29:317. 1874. 14. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876: 
18. 15. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:251. 16. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879: 
22. 17. Barry, 1883:335. 18. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:27. 19. 
Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 45:593. 1886. 20. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:298. 21. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:251. 22. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:588. 
1892. 23. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1896:76. 24. Can. Hort., 19:358- 1896. 
25. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui, 61 132. 1897. 26. Troop, Ind. Sta. An. Rpt., 
12:81. 1899. 27. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:310. 1901. 28. Craig, 
Cyc. of Hort., 1901:1404. 29. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:104, 132. 1902. 
fig. 30. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902 :85. 31. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. 
Bui, 106:56. 1902. 32. Budd-Hansen, 1903:188. fig. 

SYNONYMS. TETOFFSKY (2). TETOFSKI (10, 12, 27, 29). TETOFSKY (i, 3, 

4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, ii, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31, 
32). Tetofsky (29). 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 221 

A Russian apple below medium size, yellow, striped with 
crimson, sprightly acid, suitable for culinary use in July, ripe 
in August. The tree is very hardy, very upright, deep rooted, 
comes into bearing young and yields full crops biennially or 
sometimes annually. Desirable for planting in regions where 
superior hardiness is particularly desired. It is but little earlier 
than Yellow Transparent which is superior to it in size and 
dessert qualities. There is a limited demand for the fruit in 
some local and special markets. 

Historical. Tetofsky is one of the pioneers of the Russian varieties in 
this country having been imported by the Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety from the London, England, Horticultural Society about 1835 (28). 
Manning (2) described it as early as 1841 as a new fruit of value. It has 
been widely disseminated particularly in regions where its superior hardiness 
renders it peculiarly valuable. It has never been commonly grown in New 
York state and is now seldom planted here. 

TREE. 

Tree medium size to dwarfish, moderately vigorous, deep rooted with 
moderately stout branches filled with small spurs. Form very erect, rather 
dense. Twigs short, straight, moderately stout ; internodes short. Bark 
dull brown with tinge of red, lightly coated with gray scarf-skin, slightly 
pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised. Buds small, 
plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to rather small but usually below medium ; uniform in size 
and fairly uniform in shape. Form oblate or roundish, a little inclined to 
conic, pretty regular. Stem medium in length, rather slender. Cavity obtuse, 
medium to rather deep, moderately broad, usually symmetrical, gently fur- 
rowed. Calyx rather large, closed; lobes long, moderately broad. Basin 
shallow, medium in width, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, somewhat tough, smooth, waxy, greenish-yellow, 
more or less striped and splashed with rather attractive bright red, over- 
spread with very faint bloom. Many specimens have little or no red. Dots 
inconspicuous, pale or greenish, submerged. 

Calyx tube long, wide, funnel-shape with broad cylinder varying to nearly 
urn-shape. Stamens median to nearly marginal. 

Core large, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping. 
Carpels broadly roundish, concave. Seeds medium size, short, moderately 
plump, somewhat obtuse. 

Flesh white, firm, a little coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly, slightly 
aromatic, subacid, fair to good. 

Season late July to early September. 



222 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 



THALER. 

REFERENCES, i. Webster, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881 -.54. 2. Tuttle, 
Ib., 8:135. 1881-82. 3. Ib., 1883:94. 4- Gibb, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883: 
438. 5. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885:14. 6. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1886-87:14. 7. Schroeder, Ib., 1886-87:79. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 
236. 9. Ib., 1892:251. 10. Green, Minn. Sta. Bui, 32:240. 1893. n. Jack. 
Card, and For., 7:99. 1894. 12. Hoskins, Ib., 7:138. 1894. 13. Rural 
N. Y., 54:539. 1895. 14. Troop, Ind. Sta. Rpt., 1899:81. 15. Hansen, 
S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:38. 1902. 

SYNONYMS. CHARLOTTENTHALER (2, 6, 7, 8, n, 15). Charlottenthaler (3, 
4). CHARLOTTEN THALER (13). Charlotten Thaler (10). Charlottenthaler 
Apple (i). Charlottelthaler Golba (5). No. 147 (7). SCHARLOTTENTHALER 
GOLBA (i, 3, 4). THALER (5, 9, 10, 12, 14). Yellow Transparent (n). 

A Russian variety of the Yellow Transparent type. It resembles the 
Yellow Transparent so closely that some have considered them identical but 
they are distinct (6, 12). Since Yellow Transparent is superior in health, 
vigor and productiveness Thaler is not recommended for planting. 

THOMPSON. 

REFERENCES, i. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:104. 1902. 2. Munson, Me. 
Sta. Rpt., 1902:85. 

SYNONYMS. THOMPSON (i). THOMPSON No. 24 (2). Thompson's Seed- 
ling No. 24 (i). 

TYuit of pretty good size, striped red and yellow, rather attractive. Flesh 
subacid, fair or possibly good in quality. Season late winter. The tree is a 
pretty good grower, comes into bearing rather young and bears nearly annu- 
ally yielding moderately good crops. This is a new variety which has gained 
recognition in the upper Mississippi valley on account of its hardiness in that 
region. It is also reported as promising in the Northern apple districts of 
Maine (2). It is not worthy of planting in this state where standard 
varieties of its season succeed but may be worth testing in those localities 
where a tree of superior hardiness is desired. 

Historical. Originated by J. S. B. Thompson, Grundy county, la., and first 
propagated under the name Thompson Seedling No. 24 (i). In 1892 it 
was received for testing at this Station from the Jewell Nursery Company, 
Lake City, Minn., by which the variety was introduced. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, slender, curved, droop- 
ing branches. Form spreading, open, inclined to droop. Twigs moderately 
long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium. Bark brown tinged 
with red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. 
Lenticels numerous, medium size, oval, raised, conspicuous. Buds medium 
size, broad, obtuse to acute, free, slightly pubescent. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 223 

FRUIT. 

Fruit below medium to above or rather large. Form roundish or round- 
ish oval, pretty regular but somewhat unequal. Stem medium in length, 
slender. Cavity acuminate to acute, deep, medium in width to rather nar- 
row, more or less russeted. Calyx medium size, open; lobes separated at 
base. Basin deep, narrow to rather wide, abrupt, somewhat furrowed. 

Skin pale yellow more or less overspread and mottled with pinkish-red 
striped and splashed with carmine. Dots grayish or brownish, few, small, 
inconspicuous. 

Calyx tube short, conical to funnel-form. Stamens basal to median. 

Core medium size, abaxile; cells fairly symmetrical, open; core lines 
nearly meeting. Carpels nearly cordate to elliptical. Seeds numerous, 
medium size, flat, moderately acute. 

Flesh white, moderately fine, crisp, rather tender, juicy, subacid to mild 
subacid, fair to good. 

Season October to early winter or midwinter. 

TINMOUTH. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:197. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 3. 
Downing, Horticulturist, 19:145. 1864. figs. 4. Warder, 1867:734. 5. 
Downing, 1869:383. 6. Thomas, 1875:514. 7. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1895:193. 8. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:343. 1896. 9. Waugh, 
Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:310. 1901. 

SYNONYMS. TEIGNMOUTH (3). Teignmouth (5, 6). TINMOUTH (i, 2, 4, 
5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Tinmouth Sweet (8). Vermont Pippin (3, 5). 

Tinmouth is a fall and early winter apple of good size, good quality and 
rather attractive appearance. The tree is a good grower, with an upright 
habit. It is a regular cropper and very productive. It does not seem to 
be desirable for general commercial planting in New York. 

Historical Downing remarked that this variety originated at Tinmouth, 
Vt, and was much esteemed in the region of its origin (5). Waugh calls 
it a good apple and states that it is almost unknown in Grand Isle county 
but is much more common in other parts of Vermont (9). So far as we 
have discovered it is but little known in New York. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large. Form oblate to roundish, regular or obscurely 
ribbed ; sides often distinctly unequal. Stem often bracted, short to medium, 
usually not exserted. Cavity large, acute or approaching acuminate, deep, 
broad, russeted and with outspreading russet rays. Calyx small, partly 
closed or open; lobes often small, sometimes long, acute, recurved. Basin 
rather large, deep, moderately wide, abrupt to moderately abrupt, often 
somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin tender, pale yellow or greenish, often with a bright deep blush and 
overspread with thin bloom. Dots numerous, greenish or russet, giving the 
surface a somewhat rough appearance. Prevailing effect yellow. 



224 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Calyx tube rather small, cone-shape or approaching funnel-form. Stamevs 
median. 

Core rather small, axile or nearly so ; cells closed ; core lines clasping. 
Carpels roundish to obcordate, emarginate, mucronate. Seeds rather large, 
broad, somewhat obtuse. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, moderately fine, tender, rather juicy, 
mild subacid with a peculiar flavor, sprightly, good in quality. 

Season October to early winter or midwinter. 

TITOVKA. 

REFERENCES, i. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:44. 1881-82. -fig. 2. Ib., 
8:74. 1881-82-. 3. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882:80. 4. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. 
Bui., 1883:31. 5. Gibb, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:431. 6. Mo. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1883:173. 7. Barry, 1883:335. 8. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui., 1885:8. 
9. Thomas, 1885:526. 10. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:15. 
u. Schroeder, Ib.., 1886-87:78. 12. Hoskins, Can. Hort., 13:175. 1890. 
13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:251. 14. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:58. 
15. Troop, hid. Sta. Bui, 53:124. 1894. 16. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 
13:584. 1894. I 7> Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1896:77. 18. Mass. Hatch Sta. 
Bui, 44:4. 1897. 19- Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:15. 20. Woolverton, Ont. 
Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 6:11. 1899. figs. 21. Troop, hid. Sta. Rpt., 1899:81. 
22. Eneroth- Smirnoff, 1901:470. 23. Hansen, 5*. D. Sta. Bui, 76:105. 1902. 
fig. 24. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:85. 1902. 25. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 
1 88. fig. 26. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:58. 1903. 27. Far- 
rand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205 -.46. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. No. 134 (n). No. 230 Gov. (4). TITOVCA (9). TITOVKA 
(i, 6, 7, 8, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 1 6, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27). 
TITOWKA (5). TITUS APPLE (2, 3, 4). Titus Apple (i, 5, 7). Titus Riga 
(25). 

A Russian apple, large, roundish or somewhat oblong, green- 
ish-yellow, handsomely shaded and striped with red and covered 
with light bloom. When fully mature the ground color is yel- 
low and the red is bright and dark often nearly covering the 
fruit. Quality good to very good for culinary use. Season 
August and September. The tree is a vigorous grower, conies 
into bearing rather young and is moderately productive. It is 
one of the best Russian apples of its season which we have 
tested. The crop does not ripen uniformly and more than one 
picking is required in order to secure the fruit in prime condi- 
tion for market. Titovka is perhaps worthy of testing for 
market where fruit of this type and season is desired. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 225 

This appears to be the variety which Hansen describes under 
the name Titovka Department, which name he adopts to distin- 
guish it on the one hand from a variety called Titovka with 
Titus Riga as a synonym and on the other from a variety called 
Titovka Speer (23). 

Historical Imported from Russia by the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture in 1870. It was received in 1883 from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, 
N. Y., for testing at this Station. In 1897 it was entered in the catalogue 
of the American Pomological Society as a variety of value in the pomo- 
logical district which includes the Dakotas, Montana and Wyoming (19). 
It is but little known in New York and so far as we can learn its cultiva- 
tion is not increasing in this state. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large. Form roundish or somewhat oblong, a little inclined to conic, 
nearly regular, pretty symmetrical. Stem short, usually not exserted. Cavity 
acuminate, very deep, sometimes slightly russeted. Calyx medium size, 
closed; segments small, convergent. Basin moderately shallow to deep, very 
abrupt, wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, pale green becoming yellow, shaded and striped with bright 
red and overspread with light bloom. 

Calyx tube elongated cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens median or 
below. 

Core rather large, somewhat abaxile ; cells pretty symmetrical, open ; 
core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish or somewhat obovate, emar- 
ginate. Seeds, few, rather small, plump. 

Flesh whitish, coarse, crisp, juicy, subacid, good to very good for culinary 
uses. 

Season August and September. 

TOM PUTT. 

REFERENCES, i. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 1299. 2. Hogg, 1884: 
229. 

SYNONYMS. Coalbrook (2). Marrow-bone (2). TOM PUT (i). TOM 
PUTT (2). 

A rather attractive red apple of good size, moderately coarse, subacid, fair 
to good for culinary uses. The tree is a moderately vigorous grower, 
comes into bearing rather early and yields full crops annually or nearly 
annually. As compared with standard varieties of its season it does not 
appear to be worthy of the attention of New York fruit growers. 

Historical. This is an old English variety (i, 2). In 1892 it was re- 
ceived for testing here from W. and T. Smith, Geneva, N. Y. 



226 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

TUFTS* 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 14:519. 1848. 2. Cole, 1849:107. 3. Hovey, 
Mag. Hort., 16:496. 1850. fig. 4. Hovey, 2:23. 1851. col. pi. 5. Down- 
ing, 1857:198. 6. Warder, 1867:734. 7. Thomas, 1885:527. 8. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:251. 9. Ib., 1892:251. 10. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:589, 
596. 1892. ii. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:344. 1896. 12. Powell 
and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:58. 1903. 13. Beach and Clark, N. Y. 
Sta. Bui., 248:147. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. TUFTS (3, 4, 7, 8, 10, n, 12, 13). TUFTS BALDWIN (2, 5, 6,9). 
Tufts Baldwin (7, 10, 12, of some 3 and 5). TUFTS SEEDLING (i). 

An apple of the Baldwin group, somewhat like Baldwin in form, color 
and general appearance, but more mild in flavor and less desirable for 
market or culinary uses. In ordinary storage it is in season from October 
to January with October as the commercial limit, but in cold storage it may 
be held through the winter (13). In some years nearly all of the fruit is 
discolored at the core. The crop does not ripen evenly, and there is apt 
to be considerable loss from dropping of the fruit. The tree is large, a 
pretty good grower, comes into bearing rather early and yields full crops 
biennially. Not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. This variety originated in Cambridge, Mass., about 1830. It 
was first exhibited at the annual show of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society in 1848 (4). It is now rarely listed by nurseymen (8, 9) and is 
seldom or never planted in this state. 

TREE. 

Tree large, moderately vigorous. Form very spreading, flat, open. Twigs 
moderately long, curved, slender; internodes short. Bark brown, heavily 
coated with gray scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium size, 
oblong, not raised. Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large or nearly so, quite uniform in size and shape. Form round- 
ish to roundish oblate, sometimes with a broad protuberance above the cavity 
on one side, often flattened at apex, broadly ribbed. Stem long, rather slender. 
Cavity acute to acuminate, medium in depth to deep, rather broad, often 
furrowed, usually with outspreading, irregular, greenish-russet. Calyx 
medium to rather small, usually closed. Basin rather shallow to moderately 
deep, medium in width to wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, slightly wrinkled, 
somewhat ridged. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, green or yellowish nearly covered 
with bright deep red like the Baldwin, not striped or with indistinct stripes 
of purplish carmine. Dots conspicuous, medium to rather small, gray or 
russet. 

Calyx tube medium in length, conical or funnel-shape. Stamens median 
to marginal. 

Core large, axile or nearly so; cells closed or partly open; core lines 
clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, often discolored, rather flat, emargin- 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 227 

ate. Seeds often few, not well developed, dark brown, large, long, some- 
what acute, slightly tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather 
tender, moderately juicy, rather mild subacid, fair to good. 

Season October to December or January. 

TWENTY OUNCE. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 10:210. 1844. 2. Downing, 1845:140. 3. 
Hovey, Mag. Hort., 13:70. 1847. fig. 4. Thomas, 1849:153. 5. Cole, 1849: 
120. 6. Elliott, 1854:126. 7. Hooper, 1857:94. 8. Downing, 1857:198. 

9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 10. Warder, 1867:510. fig. n. Downing, 
1869:388. 12. Fitz, 1872:168. 13. Leroy, 1873:261. fig. 14. Barry, 1883: 
356. 15. W.ickson, 1889:245. 16. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 
17. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 18. Ib., 1892:251. 19. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 
191. 20. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:59. 1903. 21. Beach 
and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:147. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Aurora (8, n, 13). Cabashaw, incorr. (21). CAYUGA RED 
STREAK (6, 10, 17). Cayuga Red Streak (3, 5, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 
21, 22). Coleman (8, n, 13). De Vin du Conn. (13). DIX-HUIT ONCES 
(2, 13). Eighteen Ounce (4, 6, 13). Eighteen Ounce Apple (2, 8, n). Gov. 
Seward's (3, 6). Lima (8, n, 13). Morgan's Favorite (8, n, 13). TWENTY 
OUNCE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, n, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21). Twenty Ounce (6, 

10, 13). Twenty Ounce Apple (2, 3, 6, 8, n, 12). Twenty Ounce Pippin 
(3, err. 4 and 6). Wine (21, of Conn. n). 

This is one of the most satisfactory of the fall varieties for 
commercial planting in New York. It is also highly esteemed 
for home use. The fruit is large, attractive, green becoming 
yellowish with broad stripes and splashes of red. It is in sea- 
son from September to early winter. It keeps well for a fall 
variety and stands shipping well. Usually it should be handled 
direct to the consumer without going into cold storage. In 
common storage the fruit goes down rapidly during October 
and November. In cold storage it may be kept till midwinter 
(21). It hangs pretty well to the tree for so large an apple, is 
pretty uniform in size and generally reliable and satisfactory in 
color and quality. The fruit is in good demand in general 
market and sells at good prices. It is especially esteemed for 
culinary uses but it is inferior to other varieties for evaporating. 
The tree is a rather vigorous grower with main branches erect 
and laterals rather willowy and more or less drooping. It 
seems to succeed particularly well in favorable locations in the 



228 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

apple belt south of Lake Ontario. It is especially subject to 
sunscald and canker on the trunk and larger limbs. For this 
reason it is desirable to topwork it upon some hardy and thrifty 
stock such as Tolman Sweet or Northern Spy. Careful atten- 
tion should be given to treating the canker. 1 The top is inclined 
to grow rather dense and requires constant attention to keep it 
properly pruned to admit the light to the foliage in all parts of 
the tree so that the fruit may color properly. The tree when 
full grown is of medium size or below medium and may be 
planted closer in the orchard than Baldwin, Rhode Island 
Greening or Northern Spy. It comes into bearing rather young 
and is almost an annual bearer yielding moderate to good or 
even heavy crops. The skin of the fruit is apt to be roughened 
by the application of spray mixtures. In spraying Twenty 
Ounce after the fruit is set, it is therefore desirable to use an 
abundance of lime in the bordeaux mixture and make the appli- 
cation uniform and thorough but not excessive. 

In different localities in New York Twenty Ounce is known 
under the various synonyms of Cayuga Redstreak, Wine Apple 
and Limbertwig. It is quite distinct from Twenty Ounce Pip- 
pin; see Volume I, page 349. 

Historical. This variety was brought to the notice of pomologists about 
sixty years ago (i, 3), when fruit of it grown in Cayuga county, N. Y., 
was exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. At that 
time its cultivation appeared to be mostly confined to Cayuga county and 
its origin was unknown. In 1857 Downing (8) reported that it originated in 
Connecticut but upon what authority we are unable to state. Twenty 
Ounce is well known in most of the apple-growing" sections of the state and 
in certain districts its cultivation for commercial purposes appears to be 
increasing. It is pretty generally listed by nurserymen (17)- 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with branches moderately long and moderately 
stout. Form upright becoming roundish, dense ; laterals willowy, slender 
and more or less drooping. Twigs short, straight, slender ; internodes 
medium. Bark reddish-brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with 
scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. Lenticcls quite numerous, medium size, round, 
not raised. Buds medium size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, pubescent 

IN. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:399-418. 1899. Ib., 22:321-386. 1903. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 229 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large. Form variable, usually roundish or roundish conic, 
sometimes broadly ribbed. Stem deep set, short to medium, moderately 
thick or rather slender. Cavity acuminate, very deep, sometimes lipped, 
sometimes russeted. Calyx below medium size to above, usually closed. 
Basin often oblique, often shallow but occasionally deep, moderately narrow 
to rather wide, rather abrupt, broadly and deeply furrowed. 

Skin thick, tough, greenish becoming rather yellow, washed, mottled and 
splashed with bright red or deepening to dark or purplish-red with carmine 
stripes. Dots grayish or russet, small to large, often raised, sometimes 
whitish and submerged. 

Calyx tube large, long, wide, conical or funnel-shape extending to the 
core. Stamens usually basal. 

Core large, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, usually closed, 
sometimes wide open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels 
elongated ovate, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds medium size, 
round to narrow, obtuse to acute, variable. 

Flesh whitish somewhat tinged with yellow, coarse, moderately tender, 
juicy, subacid, good for culinary use, second rate for dessert. 

Season late September to early winter. 

RED TYPE OF TWENTY OUNCE. 

A red Twenty Ounce which originated at Hilton, Monroe county, N. Y., 
is being propagated under the name " Collamer." See page 36. 

TYRE BEAUTY. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869:388. 2. Horticulturist, 24:52. 1869. fig. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This was brought to notice about thirty-five years ago as a new seedling 
apple of value in the locality of its origin, Tyre, Seneca county, N. Y. Fruit 
medium, pale yellow, splashed, marbled and shaded with crimson. Flesh 
tender, slightly acid, neither rich nor peculiarly sprightly. Season early 
September (2). 

We are unacquainted with this variety and so far as we know it has not 
been grown outside of the locality of its origin. 

UTTER. 

REFERENCES. I. Horticulturist, 10:528. 1855. 2. Ib., 23:10. 1868. fig. 
3. Downing, 1869:389. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 5- Montreal Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 5:35. 1879. 6. Budd, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:472. 7. Thomas, 
1885:527. 8. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:97. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:251. 10. Harris, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1892:271. n. Burrill and McCluer, 
///. Sta. Bui., 45:311, 344- 1896. 12. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901: 
98. 13. Hansen, S\ D. Sta. Bui., 76:108. 1902. fig. 14. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:193- fig- 



230 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

SYNONYMS. English Janneting (6). Fameuse (6). Seever's Red Streak 
(6). UTTER'S (i). UTTER (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 13, 14). UTTER'S LARGE 
RED (9). UTTER'S RED (5, 12). U tier's Red (13, 14). 

Fruit of good size, yellow and red, rather attractive in appearance. The 
tree is a rather upright regular grower, forming a full rounded head, 
healthy and productive (n). It is very hardy and on this account has been 
grown to some extent in regions where standard varieties do not suc- 
ceed (13, 14). 

Historical. Originated in Wisconsin where it was known as early as 
!8S5 (i). It has been much grown in that state and in other parts of the 
Middle West (13, 14) but it is little known in New York. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form usually roundish oblate varying to 
roundish, sometimes a little inclined to oblong, often somewhat broadly 
ribbed, pretty regular. Stem short to medium, moderately stout. Cavity 
acute to acuminate, deep, medium in width to wide, furrowed gently if at 
all, sometimes partly russeted. Calyx small, closed or partly open; lobes 
small, short, obtuse. Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, medium in 
width, abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, clear, rather pale yellow usually washed 
with orange-red and narrowly streaked with bright carmine. Some fruits 
show little or no red but on highly colored specimens the prevailing color is 
red. Dots not conspicuous, numerous, often submerged or whitish or occa- 
sionally with russet point. 

Calyx tube elongated funnel-form. Stamens median or below. 

Core sessile, medium size, abaxile; cells symmetrical, open or closed; 
core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish or approaching elliptical, but 
slightly emarginate if at all, smooth or slightly tufted. Seeds moderately 
numerous, medium to rather large, somewhat narrow to rather wide, obtuse 
or approaching acute, moderately light reddish-brown. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, somewhat coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, 
mild subacid, pleasantly flavored, good. 

Season October to December or later. 



VANDEVERE. 

REFERENCES, i. Am. Card. Cal, 1806:585. 2. Coxe, 1817:141. fig. 3. 
Thacher, 1822:139. 4. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 5. Floy- 
Lindley, 1833:85. 6. Downing, 1845:141. fig. 7. Thomas, 1849:173. 8. 
Cole, 1849:122. 9. Horticulturist, 10:87. 1855. 10. lb., 11:89. 1856. 
ii. Warder, 1867:735. 12. Fitz, 1872:121, 149, 153. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1873. J 4- Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 15. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:251. 16. Budd-Hansen, 1903:193. 

SYNONYMS. Oxeye (8, 12). Staalcubs (2, 4). Stalcubs (3, 6). VANDER- 
VERE (2, 6, 9, 10, n). VANDEVEER (4). VANDEVERE (i, 3, 5, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 
15, 16). 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 231 

The old variety which is commonly called Vandevere in New York is 
known to pomologists by the name Newtown Spitzenburg, under which 
name it is described in Vol. I, page 225. It originated in. Newtown, L. I. 
The true Vandevere which we are here considering is quite distinct from 
this Newtown Spitzenburg. 

When in perfection Vandevere is a beautiful and fine apple, medium in 
size, marked with light red in indistinct streaks over a yellow background; 
well colored specimens become deep red; dots numerous, green or light 
gray; flesh yellowish, crisp and tender with a rich, sprightly, mild subacid 
flavor, valued especially for culinary purposes ; in season from October to 
January. The tree is of medium size, spreading, moderately vigorous, not 
very productive (2, 6, 7). 

Historical. An old variety native of Wilmington, Del. (2, 6). It is some- 
times called the Vandevere of Delaware or the Vandevere of Pennsylvania. 
It has never been much cultivated in New York and is now seldom or never 
planted here. 

VANDEVERE PIPPIN. 

REFERENCES, i. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:471. 1849. 2. Elliott, 1854:113. 
fig. 3. Downing, 1857:199. 4. Hooper, 1857:94. 5. Warder, 1867:462. 6. 
Thomas, 1875:204. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:193. fig. 

SYNONYMS. Baltimore of some, incorrectly (2). Big Vandevere (3). 
Fall Vandervere (2). Gibbon's Smathhousef (2). Gibbon's Smokehouse? 
(2). Imperial Vandervere (2). Indiana Vandevere (3, 6). Large Vander- 
vere (5). Millcreek (2). Millcreek Vandervere (2). Pennsylvania Vande- 
vere (2). Red Vandervere (2). Smokehouse? (2). Spiced Oxeye (2). 
Staalclubs (2). Striped Ashmore? (2). Striped Vandervere (2). VANDER- 
VERE (2). Vandervere (5). VANDERVERE PIPPIN (i, 5). Vandervere Pippin 
(2). VANDEVERE PIPPIN (3, 6, 7). Vandevere Pippin (4). VANDEVERE 
YELLOW (4). Watson's Vandervere (2, 5). Watson's Vandevere (3, 6). 
Windower (i). Yellow Vandervere (2, 5). 

A large, coarse apple, yellow, more or less covered with marbled red and 
scarlet stripes; flesh of rather sharp acid flavor, excellent for culinary use 
but not esteemed for dessert (5) ; in season from September or October to 
early winter. The tree is vigorous, large, spreading, a reliable cropper and 
productive. The twigs and leaves much resemble those of Vandevere (5). 
It appears that it is no longer listed by nurserymen. 

Historical. Origin unknown (3, 5, 7). It has been grown to some extent 
in the West but has never been much cultivated in New York. 

VICTORIA. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1881:111 app. fig. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 
251. 3. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:59. 1903. 4. Beach and 
Clark, N. Y. Sta. But., 248:148. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. VICTORIA (3, 4). VICTORIA SWEET (i). Victoria Sweet (4). 
VICTORIA SWEETING (2). 



232 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

This variety belongs in the same group with Mabie. The fruit 
is of good medium size, dark red, with conspicuous, large dots 
somewhat like those seen on Westfield Seek-No-Further and Blue 
Pearmain. The flesh is moderately coarse, very tender, rather juicy, 
sweet, good to very good, for either dessert or culinary uses. In 
ordinary storage it is in season from October^to January, with 
October as the commercial limit ; in cold storage it may be held 
till January (4). The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into 
bearing rather young and yields full crops biennially. It is recom- 
mended for trial in Central and Eastern New York where a variety 
of this type is desired either for the home or for the local market. 

Historical. Origin uncertain. It is supposed by some to have originated in 
Chenango county. Probably it is nowhere grown extensively but it is culti- 
vated more in Chenango and adjacent counties than in any other region. 
It is occasionally listed by nurserymen (2). 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with rather short, rather stocky, crooked 
branches. Form spreading. Twigs moderately long, rather slender ; inter- 
nodes medium. Bark dull reddish-brown or olive-green, slightly mottled 
with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels scattering, usually large and elongated. 
Buds medium size, rather narrow, plump, appressed, acute, pubescent. 
Leaves medium size, rather broad. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to medium, fairly uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish inclined to conic, somewhat flattened at base, faintly and broadly 
ribbed. Stem usually short, moderately thick. Cavity moderately deep, 
medium in width to broad, symmetrical, often lipped, sometimes red and 
smooth, but often bright yellow russet or greenish-russet overspreads the 
cavity and radiates irregularly over the base in broken lines and splashes. 
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open ; lobes usually short and not 
separated at base, acute. Basin medium in depth to moderately deep, narrow 
to wide, somewhat abrupt, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin tough, nearly smooth, yellow, blushed and faintly mottled with 
rather dull red and marked with numerous, narrow stripes of deeper red. 
Highly colored specimens are purplish-red with obscure stripes. Dots or 
flecks conspicuous, gray or russet, becoming smaller and more numerous 
toward the cavity. 

Calyx tube short, medium size, conical or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens 
median to basal. 

Core medium to somewhat distant, usually abaxile ; cells closed or partly 
open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish cordate to 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 233 

elliptical, decidedly concave, tufted. Seeds numerous, dark, medium size, 
flat, acute to obtuse. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, very tender, juicy, 
sweet, good to very good. 

Season October to January. 

VICTUALS AND DRINK. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1845:141. 2. Thomas, 1849:163. 3. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:88. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:179. 5. Hooper, 1857:94. 
6. Warder, 1867 :499. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 8. Taylor, Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:200. 

SYNONYMS. Big Sweet (i, 4, 5). Fall Green Sweet (6)., Green Sweet of 
Indiana (6). Pompey (i, 4, 5, 6). VICTUALS AND DRINK (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
7,8). 

A large, somewhat rough, dull green or yellowish apple often veined with 
russet. The flesh is sweet, very tender, fine-grained, very good to best in 
quality; in season from October to January or later. The tree is medium to 
rather large, upright or roundish, stocky, vigorous, very productive, often 
carrying so heavy a load of fruit that many of the apples are small. Down- 
ing states that it originated in the neighborhood of Newark, N. J., about 
1750 (i). In 1873 (7) it was entered in the catalogue of the American 
Pomological Society but was dropped from that list in 1897. Bailey does not 
mention it in his Inventory of Apples Offered by American Nurserymen in 
1892. * It has been popular in some portions of the West but so far as we 
know has never been much cultivated in New York. It is undoubtedly an 
excellent variety for the home orchard. 

VINEUSE ROUGE. 

REFERENCES, i. Leroy, 1873:230. fig. 2. Ib., 1873:846. fig. 3. Hoskins, 
la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:414. 4. Gibb, Ib., 1883:442. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. 
Rpt., 3:20. 1884. 6. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885:16. 7. Craig, Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 12:102. 1886-87. 8. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:587. 
1892. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., ,1892 :24O. 10. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 12 :, 
600. 1893. ii. Ib., 13:581. 1894. 12. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 
1:24. 1894. fig- J 3- Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:110. 1902. 

SYNONYMS. Aromatic Spike No. 354 (13). COMPTE ORLOFF (i). COUNT 
ORLOFF (8). Count Orloff (13). De Revel (2). GRAND SULTAN (3, 7, 9, 
10, 12). Grand Sultan (2). Green Transparent (13). GROSKOE SELENKA 
GRUNER (5, 11). ORLOFF (6). Orloff (4). Orlovskoe (6). ORLOWSKOE (4). 
Red Transparent (13). Revelstone Pippin (2). TRANSPARENTE JAUNE (2). 
Transparente Rouge (i). Transparente de Sainte-Leger (2). Transparente 
Verte (i). VINEUSE ROUGE (13). Vineuse Rouge (i). 

Hansen gives the following description of this variety (13): "Origin, 
Russia; as fruited in the Iowa Experiment Station orchard, this variety 
and Red Transparent, Count Orloff, Grand Sultan, Green Transparent and 

1 An. Hort., 1892. 



234 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Aromatic Spike No. 354 are identical or very similar. Tree a strong grower, 
round topped, a heavy annual bearer. Fruit medium to large, round oblate 
conic, regular ; surface greenish-yellow, rarely faintly splashed with red on 
sunny side, overlaid with white bloom ; dots large, white, few ; cavity narrow, 
abrupt, with irregular patch of russet, stem short, stout, often clubbed; basin 
small, shallow ; calyx, small, closed. Core closed or nearly so, clasping : tube 
long, funnel-shaped; flesh white, firm, juicy, fragrant, subacid, good for table, 
very good for cooking. Season very early, about one week before Yellow 
Transparent, but perishable and should be picked early to prevent water- 
coring and rotting on the tree. Evidently the name is a misnomer as it 
means Red Wine Colored." 

As grown at this Station Count Orloff, Grand Sultan and Groskoe Selenka 
Gruner are identical or very similar, and none of them is very desirable. 

WASHINGTON STRAWBERRY. 

REFERENCES, i. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1849:117. 2. Mag. Hort., 23:26. 
1857. 3. Hovey, Ib., 24:79. 1858. fig. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869. 5. 
Downing, 1869:396. fig. 6. Thomas, 1875:205. 7. Downing, 1881:11, 12 
index, app. 8. Barry, 1883:341. 9. Wickson, 1889:244. 10. Lyon, Mich. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. ii. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 12. Burnett, 
La. Sta. Bui, 27:926. 1894. 13. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
48:60. 1903. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:197. fig. 15. Farrand, Mich. Sta. 
Bui, 205:47. 1903. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:150. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. Juniata (7). WASHINGTON (2, 3). Washington of Maine 
(7). Washington County Seedling (2). WASHINGTON STRAWBERRY (i, 4, 5, 
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 15, 16). WASHINGTON Strawberry (14). Washington 
Strawberry (3). 

Fruit smooth, of good size and pretty good color, fairly uniform 
in shape but somewhat variable in size, desirable for either dessert 
or culinary uses. It is quite variable in season in different years 
and in different localities. As fruited at this Station it conies in 
season in September or October, and some portion of the fruit may 
be kept in fair condition into the winter or sometimes through the 
winter. In ordinary storage its commercial limit is October, and 
in cold storage November (13, 16). The fruit hangs well to the 
tree. The tree is vigorous, hardy, healthy, moderately long-lived, 
comes into bearing rather early and is a reliable cropper, yielding 
good crops biennially or almost annually. It is a good variety for 
home use, but evidently is not wanted in market. Its season is 
rather short, and it begins to mature at a time when the markets 
are filled with other fruits. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 235 

Historical. Washington Strawberry was first exhibited at the Fair of the 
State Agricultural Society in Syracuse in 1849 (i, 3). It originated on the 
farm of Job Whipple, Union Springs, Washington county, N Y. (i). It was 
included in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1869 (4). 
It is still listed by nurserymen and has been disseminated to some extent 
in various parts of the continent. Although it has been known for a half 
century it has failed to establish itself in the commercial orchards of this 
state and is but little known among New York fruit growers. 

TREE. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous to moderately vigorous. Form rather flat, 
spreading, open. Twigs below medium to short, straight or nearly so, rather 
slender to stout with large terminal buds ; internodes medium or below. 
Bark clear brownish-red or with more or less olive-green, lightly streaked 
with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small to medium, round or 
somewhat elongated, slightly raised. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, 
obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large or very large. Form globular, usually inclined to 
conic, base rounding or sometimes flattened, nearly regular; sides often a 
little unequal. Stem short and rather thick or sometimes long. Cavity below 
medium to medium, acute to somewhat acuminate, rather shallow to deep, 
narrow to moderately broad, occasionally lipped, often somewhat furrowed, 
usually thinly russeted. Calyx below medium to rather large, usually some- 
what open; lobes a little separated and broad at the base, narrow above, 
long, acute to acuminate. Basin small to medium, narrow to moderately 
wide, medium in depth, abrupt, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, greenish or yellow, 
washed and mottled with red, conspicuously splashed and striped with 
bright carmine and overspread with thin bloom. Dots numerous, russet or 
whitish and rather conspicuous, often submerged. Prevailing effect striped 
red. 

Calyx tube rather large, wide, cone-shape with core lines meeting, some- 
times becoming funnel-form with clasping core lines. Stamens basal or 
nearly so. 

Core below medium to above, axile or sometimes abaxile ; cells not uni- 
formly developed, usually symmetrical and more or less open, sometimes 
closed; core lines meeting if the calyx tube is cone-shape, clasping if it is 
funnel-form. Carpels variable, ovate to broadly obcordate, sometimes a little 
emarginate, often tufted. Seeds dark, medium in size, rather long, some- 
what acute; often many are abortive. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine to a little coarse, crisp, 
tender, very juicy, pleasant snbacid, sprightly, good to very good. 

Season from September or October into early winter. 



236 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

WATER. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, Horticulturist, 19:172. 1864. -figs. 2. Warder, 
1867:735. 3. Downing, 1869:397. fig. 4. Thomas, 1875:315. 5. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1877:16. 6. Lyon, Mich' Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 7. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892 1252. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A mild flavored dessert apple of medium size, pale yellow or greenish with 
attractive blush of lively red; in season from October to December. The 
tree is a rather moderate grower, does not come into bearing young and is a 
biennial bearer yielding from fair to good crops. Not recommended for 
commercial planting. 

Historical. Origin Durham township, Bucks county, Pa. (i, 3). It was en- 
tered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1877 (5) and 
dropped from that list in 1897. It is but little known in this state. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short, slender, curved branches. Form 
erect or roundish, rather dense. Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; 
internodes short. Bark dark brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin ; 
pubescent near tips. Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised. Buds 
rather prominent, medium to large, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium size. Form broadly ovate to roundish conic varying to 
oblong conic with flattened ends, nearly regular. Stem short to medium, 
slender. Cavity acuminate, rather narrow to moderately broad, moderately 
shallow to deep, often compressed, sometimes thinly russeted, the russet not 
extending beyond the cavity. Calyx small to medium, closed or open; lobes 
long, narrow, acute to acuminate. Basin varying from shallow to rather 
deep and abrupt, narrow to medium in width, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin pale yellow or greenish with very attractive, lively pinkish-red blush, 
in well colored specimens deepening to dark or purplisH-red, not striped, over- 
spread with thin bloom. Dots numerous, medium to small, grayish or whit- 
ish, often submerged. 

Calyx tube short, wide, broadly conical. Stamens basal to median. 

Core rather small, somewhat abaxile; cells closed or slightly open; core 
lines slightly clasping. Carpels small, slightly obovate to obcordate, emar- 
ginate. Seeds medium in size, few, dark brown, varying from blunt and 
flat to acute and rather narrow. 

Flesh nearly white, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant mild subacid, good. 

Season October to December or later. 

WEALTHY. 

REFERENCES. i. Downing, 1869:398. 2. Foster, Horticulturist, 25:362. 
1870. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:10. 4. Thomas, 1875:515. 5. Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:19. 6.7^1879:33- Hg> 7- !<* Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879: 





WEALTHY 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 237 

453. 8. Sheppard, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:140. 1881-82. g. Foster, 
la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882:100. 10. Barry, 1883:356. n. Gideon, Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1885:114. 12. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:17, 27. 13. 
Rural N. Y., 46:494, 751. 1887. 14. Am.' Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:92. 15. 
Can. Hort., 11:31. 1888. 16. Rural N. Y., 48:177. 1889. 17. Gibb, Mon- 
treal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 15:19- 1890. 18. Hamilton, Ib., 15:27. 1890. 19. 
Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 20. Can. Hort., 14:119, 131, 33*- 

1891. 21. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892 157. 22. Rural N. Y., 51 705. 

1892. 23. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn. An. Rpt., 26:65. 1894. 24. Rural N. Y., 54: 
682. 1895. 25. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:17. 1896. figs. 
26. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui., 61 :32. 1897. 27. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 
1898:357. 28. Am. Card., 20:404. 1899. 29. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 
14:312. 1901. 30. Hays, U. S. Div. of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology 
Bui., 29:13. 1901. 31. Can. Hort., 25:121. 1902. 32. Van Deman, Rural 
N. Y., 61 :249. 1902. 33. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18 :85, 90. 1902. 
34. Hansen, 5. D. Sta. Bui., 76:112. 1902. fig. 35. Dickens and Greene, Kan. 
Sta. Bui, 106:56. 1902. 36. Can. Hort., 26:12. 1903. 37. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:198. fig. 38. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 205:47. 1903. 39. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:60. 1903. 40. Macoun, Can. Hort., 27:71. 
1904. fig. of tree. 41. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:150. 1904. 
42. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:326. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This variety is particularly valuable for cold climates because 
the tree is very hardy and the fruit sells well, being bright red and 
good in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. It is in season 
from October to early winter or mid-winter. In ordinary storage 
its commercial limit is October, but in cold storage it may be kept 
till January or later. It does not stand heat very well before going 
into storage, and goes down rather quickly (41). Young trees or 
trees which are making a thrifty growth produce fruit of good 
size, but mature, slow-growing trees are apt to yield a considerable 
percentage of undersized fruit, especially when they are overloaded, 
as is often the case. The crop ripens unevenly, and more than one 
picking should be made in order to secure the fruit in prime con- 
dition. If it is left upon the tree till fully colored there is apt to 
be considerable loss by dropping. The tree is a good thrifty 
grower when young, but with maturity it becomes a moderate or 
rather slow grower, forming a medium-sized or rather dwarfish 
tree. Wealthy is being planted for commercial purposes in many 
parts of the state, but in most localities the trees are as yet com- 
paratively young; in some sections of the state it is being planted 



238 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

more than any other apple of its season. Trees that have become 
old enough to develop the tendency to produce rather small fruit 
are in some places being grafted over to other sorts. In other 
places fruit growers, by adopting such treatment as thinning the 
fruit and keeping the soil fertile, continue to produce apples of 
good marketable size when the trees are mature. 

Historical. Originated by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from seed 
of the Cherry Crab, which he obtained about 1860 from Albert Emerson, 
Bangor, Me. (n, 28). Ragan (42) states that the fruit was first described 
in the Western Farmer in 1869. It has been extensively disseminated, par- 
ticularly in those apple-growing districts where a tree of superior hardiness 
is especially desired. It is generally listed by nurserymen and its cultivation 
is gradually increasing. 

TREE. 

Tree somewhat dwarfish to medium size, moderately vigorous with short, 
moderately stout, curved branches. Form upright spreading or roundish, 
open and somewhat drooping. Twigs long, curved, slender ; internodes long. 
Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels 
quite numerous, medium to small, oblong, not raised, rather conspicuous. 
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large when well grown but often small on old 
trees ; pretty uniform in shape and quality but more or less uneven in size. 
Form roundish conic, slightly flattened at base, regular, symmetrical. Stem 
usually short to medium, but rather long on small fruit and rather slender. 
Cavity decidedly acuminate, rather deep, moderately narrow to rather broad, 
russeted. Calyx medium size, closed or partly open; lobes broad, obtuse to 
acute. Basin medium in depth to rather shallow, rather narrow, abrupt, 
smooth, symmetrical. 

Skin thin, tough, pale yellow or greenish, blushed and marked with narrow 
stripes and splashes of red, deepening in highly colored specimens to brilliant 
red, very attractive. Dots numerous, small, inconspicuous, pale or russet. 
Prevailing effect bright red. 

Calyx tube conical approaching funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium to very small, axile or sometimes slightly abaxile; cells 
symmetrical, slightly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels medium to rather 
small, roundish, narrowing toward base and apex, smooth, flat. Seeds mod- 
erately dark brown, above medium, rather acute. 

Flesh whitish sometimes stained with red, moderately fine, crisp, tender, 
very juicy, agreeable subacid, sprightly, somewhat aromatic, good to very 
good. 

Season October to January. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 239 

WESTERN BEAUTY. 

REFERENCES, i. Gardeners' Monthly, 1861:124 (cited by 2). 2. Kenrick, 
Mag. Hort., 29:73. 1863. fig. 3. Warder, 1867:464. fig. 4. Downing, 1869: 
89. 5. Ib., 1872:37 app. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877. 7- Barry, 1883:356. 
8. Thomas, 1885:528. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 10. Burrill and Mc- 
Cluer, ///. Sta. Bui., 45 :345. 1896. 

SYNONYMS. BEAUTY OF THE WEST (4). Beauty of the West (10). Big 
Rambo (3, 5). Musgrove's Cooper (3, 4, 5). OHIO BEAUTY (i). Ohio 
Beauty (3, 4, 5). WESTERN BEAUTY (2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). 

The three varieties, Western Beauty, Grosh and Summer Rambo, resemble 
each other so closely in fruit that it is practically impossible to distinguish 
the one from the other from the examination of the fruit alone. The Sum- 
mer Rambo, however, ripens about a month earlier than the other two 
varieties and it can consequently be readily distinguished in the orchard. 
Pomologists are in doubt as to whether the Grosh and Western Beauty are 
two distinct varieties or the same variety under two names. We have been 
unable to obtain sufficient evidence to determine this point. 

For a technical description of the fruit, see Grosh, page 89. 

Hyde King was received here for testing under the name Western Beauty 
and consequently is referred to under that name erroneously in some pub- 
lished accounts of its record at this Station. See Volume I, page 166.. 

Historical. Origin unknown. First introduced to notice by William F. 
English of Rhinehart, Auglaize county, Ohio (i, 2). 

WHITE ASTRACHAN. 

REFERENCES, i. Pom. Mag., 2:No. 96. 1829. col. pi 2. London Hort. 
Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 32. 3. Floy-Lindley, 1833 :6. 4. Mag. Hort., i :39i, 392. 
1835. 5. Manning, Ib., ^ 152. 1841. 6. Downing, 1845 78. 7. Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 3:17. 1851. 8. Elliott, 1854:179. 9. Warder, 1867:735. 10. 
Leroy, 1873:79. fig. n. Thomas, 1875:516. 12. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1:9. 1876. 13. Ib., 5:23. 1879. 14- Hogg, 1884:238. 15. Wickson, 1889:243. 
16. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:14. 17. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:113. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. ASTRACAN BLANCHE (10). Astracan d'Ete (10). Astra- 
canischer Sommer (10). ASTRACHAN WHITE (2). Blanche Glacee d'Ete 
(10). De Glace d'Ete (10). De Glace Hative (10). De Moscovie d'Ete 
(10). Gelee d'Ete (10). Glace de Zelande (i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10). Glacee 
d'Ete (10). Naliwi Jabloky (10). Pomme Astrachan (3). Pomme 
d'Astrachan (2). Pyrus Astracanica (i, 2, 6, 7). Taintai (10). Transparent 
Apple (14). Transparente de Astracan (10). Transparente d'Ete (10). 
Transparente de Zurich (10). Transparente de Muscovie d'Ete (10). Trans- 
parent Muscovie (7). Transparent de Muscovie (i, 2, 3, 6, 8). WHITE 
ASTRACAN (i, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15). White Astracan (10). WHITE ASTRACHAN 
(6, 8, 9, n, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17). 

A Russian apple of little or no value for this region. Fruit medium size, 
roundish to roundish oblate, waxen yellow or whitish with faint streaks of 
red ; flesh white, acid, good for culinary use ; season August and September 
(6, 17). 



240 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Historical. It has been known in this country for many years (4, 5, 6, 7, 
8, 9). It was not entered on the catalogue of the American Pomological 
Society till 1889 (16) and was dropped from that list in 1891. It is practi- 
cally unknown in New York. 

WHITE JUNEATING. 

REFERENCES, i. Am. Card. Cal, 1806:584. 2. Coxe, 1817:100. fig. 3. 
London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831 :No. 612. 4. Floy-Lindley, 1833:3. 5. Mag. 
Hort., 1:326. 1835. 6. Downing, 1845:78. fig. 7. Thomas, 1849:144. fig. 
8. Cole, 1849:97. 9. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:17. 1851. 10. Elliott, 
1854:162. ii. Hooper, 1857:20. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 13. Horti- 
culturist, 21:292. 1866. fig. 14. Warder, 1867:417. 15- Fitz, 1872:143, 151, 
161. 16. Hogg, 1884:117. 17. Wickson, 1889:242. 18. Bruner, N. C. Sta. 
Bui, 182 :23. 1903. 19. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :2OO. 

SYNONYMS. Bracken (8, u, of Ohio 7). Carolina (10). Caroline (10). 
Early Jenneting (16). Early May (10, ?I4>. Gennetting (17). GINETTING 
(i). Ginetting (16). Jenneting (2). Jennetting (17). JOANETING (16). 
Juneateing (i). JUNEATING (4). Juneating (6, 8, 10, n, 14, 16). JUNETING 
(2). Juneting (16). Owen's Golden Beauty (3, 6, 10, 16). Primiting (16). 
WHITE JUNEATING (3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19). White 
Juneating (16). Yellow May (18, 19). Yellow June (14). 

This apple has little to recommend it except that it ripens very early in the 
season. It is small, roundish oblate, pale yellow, sometimes faintly blushed 
and has white, crisp, pleasant subacid flesh which becomes mealy if kept only 
a few days after it ripens. The tree is not large, only a moderate grower 
and not a great bearer (6, 8, 16). 

Historical. Hogg (16) gives the following interesting account of the 
history of this apple and the probable derivation of the name Juneating: 

" One of our oldest apples, and although generally known and popular, 
seems to have escaped the notice of Miller, who does not even mention it in 
any of the editions of his Dictionary. As I have doubts of this being the 
Geneting of Parkinson his figure being evidently intended for the Margaret, 
which in some districts is called Joaneting the first mention we have of 
this variety is by Rea, in 1665, who describes it as ' a small, yellow, red-sided 
apple, upon a wall, ripe in the end of June.' 

" ' Juneating/ as applied to this apple, is quite a misnomer. Abercrombie 
was the first who wrote it June-eating, as if in allusion to the period of its 
maturity, which is, however, not till the end of July. Dr. Johnson, in his 
Dictionary, writes it Gineting, and says it is a corruption of Janeton (Fr.), 
signifying Jane or Janet, having been so called from a person of that name. 
Ray 1 says, ' Pomum Ginettinum, quod unde dictum sit met latet.' Indeed, 
there does not seem ever to have been a correct definition given of it. 

" My definition of the name is this. In the Middle Ages, it was customary 
to make the festivals of the Church periods on which occurrences were to 
take place or from which events were to be named. Even in the present day 
we hear the country people talking of some crop to be sown, or some other 

1 Hist. Plant., ii. 1447. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 241 

to be planted, at Michaelmas, St. Martin's, or St. Andrew's tide. It was also 
the practice for parents to dedicate their children to some particular saint, 
as Jean Baptiste, on the recurrence of whose festival all who are so named 
keep it as a holiday. So it was also in regard to fruits, which were named 
after the day about which they came to maturity. Thus, we have the 
Margaret Apple, so called from being ripe about St. Margaret's Day, the 
20th of July; the Magdalene, or Maudlin, from St. Magdalene's Day, the 
22d of July. And in Curtius 1 we find the Joannina, so called, ' Quod circa 
divi Joannis Baptistse nativitatem esui sint.' These are also noticed by J. 
Baptista Porta ; he says, ' Est genus alterum quod quia circa festum Divi 
Joannis maturiscit, vulgus Melo de San Giovanni dicitur.' And according to 
Tragus, 2 ' Quse apud nos prima maturantur, Sanct Johans Opfell, Latine, 
Prsecocia mala dicuntur.' 

" We see, therefore, that apples were called Joannina because they ripened 
about St. John's Day, and we have among the old French pears Amire 
Joannet the ' Wonderful Little John,' which Merlet informs us was so 
called because it ripened about St. John's Day. If, then, we add to Joannet 
the termination ing, so general among our names of apples, we have Joannet- 
ing. There can be no doubt that this is the correct derivation of the name 
of this apple." 

WHITE SPANISH REINETTE. 

REFERENCES, i. Pom. Mag., s:No. no. 1830. col. pi. 2. Floy-Lindley, 
1833:61. 3. Downing, 1845:130. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:88. 1851. 

5. Elliott, 1854:162. 6. Downing, 1869:404. 7. Leroy, 1873:669. fig. 8. 
Thomas, 1875:231. 9. Hogg, 1884:190. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890 :3oo. 

SYNONYMS. American Fall Pippin (9). Belle Josephine (9). Blanche 
(7). Blanche d'Espagne (7). Camuesar (i, 6, 9). Camoisas du roi d'Es- 
pagne (7). Camoise Blanche (7). Camoisee Blanche (7). Camuezas (7). 
Camusar (7). Cobbett's Fall (i) err. Cobbett's Fall Pippin (2, 3, 6, 7) err. 
Concombre Ancien (i, 2, 5, 7, 9). De Ratteau (i, 2, 5, 7, 9). D'Espagne (1,2, 
3, 5, 6, 7). Elgin Pippin? (6). Episcopate (7). Fall Pippin (i, 2, 3, 7, err. 
6) err. Josephine (9). Large Fall (i). Large Fall Pippin (2, 3, 6, 7). Phila- 
delphia Pippin (7). Reinette A Gobelet (7). Reinette Blanche (7). 
REINETTE BLANCHE D'ESPAGNE (3, 9). Reinette Blanche d'Espagne (i, 2, 5, 

6, 7, 8). REINETTE D'ESPAGNE (7). Reinette d'Espagne (i, 6, 9). Reinette 
Tendre (7). Saint-Germain (7). WHITE SPANISH REINETTE (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 
8, 10). White Spanish Reinette (3, 7, 9). York Pippin (7). 

This variety belongs in the group with Fall Pippin and Holland Pippin. 
It resembles Fall Pippin in the growth of the tree as well as in the color and 
character of the fruit, but is less regular in shape and keeps later (3, 6). 
Season here October to January or February; Hogg gives its season in 

1 Hortorum, p. 522. 

2 Hist., p. 1043. 



242 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

England as December to April (9). Lyon gives its season in Michigan 
as October to January (10). 

Historical. This is an old European variety which has long been culti- 
vated in Spain, France and England (i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9). It was early imported 
into this country and is perhaps the parent of our Fall Pippin and Holland 
Pippin (6). According to Lyon (10) it is seldom seen under its own name. 
It appears to be but little cultivated in New York having been superseded by 
other varieties. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large. Form roundish oblate or inclined to oblong, angular, 
uneven at the crown where it is nearly as broad as at the base (3, 6, 9). 
Stem short. Cavity narrow, rather small, regular. Calyx large, open. 
Basin deep, broadly angular, irregular, oblique. 

Skin smooth, waxy, yellowish-green, with orange tinge and brownish-red 
blush on the exposed cheek. 

Calyx tube conical. Stamens marginal. Cells open, obovate. 

Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, very good for either 
dessert or culinary purposes. 

Season October to January or February. 

WILLIAMS. 

REFERENCES, i. Kenrick, 1832 129. 2. Manning, 1838 149. 3. Ib., Mag- 
Hort., 7:51. 1841. 4. Downing, 1845:79. 5. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:118. 
1848. fig. 6. Goodrich, 1849:51. 7. Cole, 1849:100. fig. 8. Thomas, 1849: 
142. fig. 9. Waring, 1851:32. fig. 10. Barry, 1851:282. n. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:12. 1851. 12. Elliott, 1854:163. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1854. 14. Hooper, 1857:100. 15. Warder, 1867:618, 736. 16. Fitz, 1872:161. 
17. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:26. 18. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:507. 

19. Hogg. 1884:243. 20. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:300. 21. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892 :252. 22. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53 :248. 1894. 23. Beach, 
N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:255. 1895. 24. Card, and For., 8:248. 1895. 2 5- 
Can. Hort.., 20:183. 1897. 26. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:357. 
27. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:312. 1901. 28. Budd-Hansen, 1903:203. 
fig- 

SYNONYMS. Lady's Apple (5). Queen (5). WILLIAMS (i, 5, 6, 7, 12, 

20, 26, 27). Williams (7, 8). Williams Early (5, 12, 15, 19). Williams Early 
Red (7, 12). WILLIAMS FAVORITE (3, 8, 9, 10, n, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 
22, 23, 24, 25). Williams Favorite (5, 7, 12, 27). Williams Favorite Red 
(5, 8, 12). WILLIAMS Favorite (28). WILLIAMS FAVOURITE RED (2). WIL- 
LIAMS FAVOURITE (4, 19). Williams Red (8, 12, 19). 

Williams is a very beautiful, bright red apple of mild agreeable 
flavor, good for dessert but not suitable for culinary uses. It is a 
favorite in Boston and other eastern markets, and is grown to a 
limited extent for commercial purposes in some portions of Eastern 
New York. It does not stand shipping very well, the skin being 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 243 

thin, tender and easily bruised, therefore best handled in small 
packages. It is in season during late August and early September. 
Under favorable conditions the fruit becomes rather large, but with 
very heavy crops it is apt to be rather small unless properly thinned. 
The crop ripens unevenly, and more than one picking is required 
to secure the fruit in prime condition. The tree being only mod- 
erately vigorous, it is an advantage to topwork it upon some 
thrifty hardy stock, such as Northern Spy, Rhode Island Greening, 
or Tolman Sweet. When topworked in this way the Williams 
becomes a rather vigorous grower, makes a tree of pretty good 
size, comes into bearing early and in favorable locations, under 
good treatment, is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops annually 
or nearly anually. It can be recommended for commercial planting 
where fruit of this type and season is desired. 

Historical. Williams originated in Roxbury, Mass., more than 150 years 
ago. It was brought to the notice of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety in 1830 and then named Williams. It had previously been known in 
market under the name Queen and Lady's Apple (5). It was entered in 
the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1854 and is still 
retained on that list (13). It has become widely disseminated and is still 
often listed by nurserymen (21) but is nowhere being planted to any con- 
siderable extent. 

TREE. 

Tree rather small and a slow grower but when topworked on vigorous 
stock and properly tilled and fertilized it becomes rather large and vigorous. 
Form upright spreading or roundish, somewhat dense. Twigs short, curved, 
moderately stout, with large terminal buds; internodes short. Bark dark 
brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; slightly pubes- 
cent. Lenticels quite numerous, small to medium size, oblong, raised. Buds 
medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or under favorable circumstances rather large, pretty 
form in size and shape. Form oblong conic to roundish conic, broadly 
ribbed ; sides often unequal. Stem medium to long, moderately thick. 
Cavity obtuse, shallow, rather broad, furrowed, sometimes russeted. Calyx 
above medium size, usually closed ; lobes long. Basin medium to rather 
shallow, rather narrow to moderately broad, a little abrupt, somewhat 
furrowed. 

Skin moderately thick, rather tender, nearly smooth, pale yellow overlaid 
with bright deep red, indistinctly striped with dark red or crimson. Dots 
numerous, inconspicuous, small, grayish or russet. 



244 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Calyx- tube long, narrow, funnel-shape or approaching cylindrical, some- 
times extending to the core. Stamens marginal. 

Core medium to rather large, axile; cells closed or slightly open; core 
lines clasping. Carpels ovate to roundish. Seeds above medium, rather nar- 
row, long, moderately plump, acute or nearly acuminate, dark brown. 

Flesh sometimes tinged with red, firm, a little coarse, moderately crisp, 
tender, rather juicy, becoming dry when overripe, pleasant mild subacid, 
aromatic, good. 

Season late August and September. 

WILLIS SWEET. 

REFERENCES, i. Mag. Hort., 18:491. 1852. 2. ? Elliott, 1854:179. 3. Hicks, 
Horticulturist, 21:361. 1866. fig. 4. Warder, 1867:635. 5. Downing, 1869: 
408. fig. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869. 7. Thomas, 1875:516. 8. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:252. 

SYNONYMS. Pear Lot (5). Pear-Tree Lot (5). WILLIS SWEET (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
8). WILLIS SWEETING (i, 3). 

A rather large sweet apple in season in late summer and early autumn. 
According to Downing the tree is a good grower and productive; the fruit 
whitish with shade of light red washed with crimson; flesh crisp, juicy, 
tender, rich, sweet, very good; valuable for dessert, for culinary purposes 
and for market (5). 

Historical. A chance seedling that originated at Oyster Bay, Long Island, 
about 1800, on the farm of Edmond Willis. It first had the local name of Pear- 
tree Lot or Pear Lot. Later it was named Willis Sweeting by Parsons & Co., 
of Flushing, N. Y. (3). In 1869 it was entered in the catalogue of the 
American Pomological Society (6), but was dropped from that list in 1899. 
It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (8) but is now seldom planted. 
It is not generally known in New York. 

WINE RUBETS. 

REFERENCES, i. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885:7. 2. Beach, N. Y. Sta. 
An. Rpt., 12:600. 1893. 3. Ib., 12:603. 1893. 4. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
56:337. 1905- 

SYNONYMS. CUT WINE (2). Cut Wine (3, 4). No. 210 (i, 2, 3, 4). 
Rubets Vinogradnui (4). Rub ets vino gradnui (i). Rubez vuinogradnui (4). 
VINOGRAD (i). Vinograd (3). WINE RUBETS (3, 4). 

Fruit below medium size, nearly symmetrical, covered with delicate bloom. 
Skin green, lightly shaded with red and with a crimson cheek. Basin 
shallow, wrinkled. Stem medium length, slender, set in a deep cavity. Flesh 
mild subacid, fair to good in quality. Begins to ripen here about the ist 
of August. Not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. A Russian apple imported by the United States Department 
of Agriculture. It was received here in 1888 from Dr. T. H. Hoskins, New- 
port, Vt, under the name Cut Wine. 





WOLF RIVER 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 245 



WINTHROP GREENING. 

REFERENCES, i. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 12:475. 1846. 2. Cole, 1849:104. 3. 
Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 4. Mag. Hort., 21 :6$. 1855. 5. Downing, 1857 : 
204. 6. Warder, 1867:737. 7. Thomas, 1875:209. 8. Downing, 1881:11 
index, app. 9. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:300. 10. Burrill and 
McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45 '347- 1896. 

SYNONYMS. Howe Apple (2, 5). Kennebec Seedling (8). LINCOLN (i), 
LINCOLN PIPPIN (4). Lincoln Pippin (2, 5). WINTHROP GREENING (2, 3, 5, 
6, 7, 8, 9, 10). 

Fruit yellow, tinged with red, of good size and good quality; season 
September to early winter. The flesh is tender, crisp, very juicy, sprightly, 
mild subacid (2). The tree is a shy bearer. 

Historical Originated in Winthrop, Me., about the year 1800 (i, 2). It 
was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 
1854 (3) and dropped from that list in 1897. It is but little known in New 
York. 

WOLF RIVER. 

REFERENCES, i. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1875:107. 2. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1879:452. 3. Budd, Ib., 1880:524. 4. Downing, 1881:113 app. 5. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1881:16. 6. Barry, 1883:357. 7. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:148. 
8. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1886:271. fig. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.. 
1887:93. 10. Can. Hort., 11:9. 1888. n. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:253. 12. 
Can. Hort., 16 :34. 1893. 13. Ib., 20 :34. 1897. 14. Thomas, 1897 :2 &6. 
fig. 15. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui, 61 :32. 1897. 16. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. 
An. Rpt., 6:32. 1899. 17. Can. Hort., 22:121, 437. 1899. n gs. 18. Woolver- 
ton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 7:10. 1900. figs: 19. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. 
Rpt., 14:313. 1901. 20. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:116. 1902. fig. 21. 
Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. But., 106:56. 1902. 22. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:207. fig. 23. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:61. 1903. 
24. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:151. 1904. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This is a variety of the Aport group. It resembles Alexander 
very closely in size, form, and color. Hansen states (20) that it is 
" supposed to be a seedling of the Alexander, which it sometimes 
resembles, but is more round and less conical, and averages larger, 
as grown in the West. The Wolf River has largely superseded 
Alexander in the western states. Tree a strong spreading grower, 
not an early bearer, but productive in alternate years." As fruited at 
this Station it is in season from September to December, with 
October as the commercial limit in ordinary storage. In cold 
storage it may be held till January. It does not stand heat well, 



246 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

and goes down quickly (24). The tree is very hardy and a good 
grower, and is a biennial or sometimes annual cropper, yielding 
moderate to good crops. The fruit, being large, shapely and highly 
colored, often sells well because of its attractive appearance ; some 
fruit growers are rinding it a profitable variety. 

Historical. Originated by W. A. Springer, near Wolf River, Fremont 
county, Wis., hence its name. It was entered in the catalogue of the 
American Pomological Society in 1881 (5). It is frequently listed by 
nurserymen (n). Within recent years it has been planted to a limited 
extent in New York state and at the present time its cultivation is probably 
increasing somewhat. 

TREE. 

Tree large, moderately vigorous. Form much spreading, open and in- 
clined to droop. Twigs short, straight, slender ; internodes short. Bark 
brown, tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf -skin ; slightly pubes- 
cent. Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised. Buds small, plump, 
obtuse to acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large, uniform in size and fairly uniform in shape. Form broad 
and flat at the base and somewhat inclined to conic or roundish, often some- 
what irregular. Stem short to medium, rather thick, not exserted. Cavity 
acuminate, usually deep, rather wide and very heavily russeted. Calyx 
medium to large, open or closed. Basin medium to deep, moderately nar- 
row, abrupt, usually smooth, somewhat broadly furrowed. 

Skin rather thick, pale bright yellow or greenish, mottled and blushed with 
bright deep red and marked with conspicuous splashes and broad stripes of 
bright carmine. Dots numerous, medium to rather large, areolar, depressed, 
pale or russet. 

Calyx- tube conical. Stamens median to basal. 

Core below medium to rather large, somewhat abaxile ; cells closed or 
partly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly cordate, approaching 
elliptical, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds dark brown, of 
medium size, rather wide, short, moderately plump, obtuse. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, tender, juicy, 
subacid, a little aromatic, fair to good. 

Season September to December. 

WORKAROE, 

REFERENCES, i. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:349. 1889. 2. Beach, Ib., 11:588. 
1892. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A Russian apple of good size, pale yellow, blushed and striped with red 
and overspread with pinkish bloom. Flesh firm, crisp, tender, juicy, rather 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 247 

mild subacid with an agreeable but not high flavor and good quality. It is 
a good apple but hardly equal to other varieties of its season. The tree 
does not come into bearing very young but is a pretty good grower and 
eventually a good cropper yielding full crops biennially. 

Received in 1884 from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, N. Y., for testing 
at this Station. 

YELLOW CALVILLE. 

REFERENCES, i. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885:17. 2. Gibb, Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1887:48. 3. Beach and Paddock, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:584. 
1894. 4- Beach, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 41 :5o. 1896. 5. Ragan, U. 6'. 
B. P. I. Bui, 56 :345, 353- IQOS- 

SYNONYMS. Kalvil jeltui (2, 5). Kalville scholti (i, 2, 5). No. 442 (i, 2, 
3, 5)- Voronezh No. 21 (3). YELLOW CALVILLE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5). 

An August apple, medium to rather small, smooth, pale yellow, some- 
times with faint blush, oblate to oblate conic. Cavity acute, wide, rather 
shallow; calyx closed; basin shallow, slightly wrinkled; flesh white, fine- 
grained, tender, moderately juicy, subacid, fair or sometimes good. The 
tree comes into bearing moderately young and is nearly an annual cropper. 
Not recommended for cultivation in this state being much inferior to standard 
sorts of its season. 

Historical. This is a Russian apple, being No. 442 of the importation of the 
United States Department of Agriculture of 1870 (3, 5). Later it was im- 
ported by the Iowa Agricultural College under the designation Voronesh 
No. 21 (i). In 1888 it was received for testing at this Station from Dr. 
T. H. Hoskins, Newport, Vt. It is practically unknown in New York. 

YELLOW TRANSPARENT. 

REFERENCES, i. Leroy, 1873 :846. fig. 2. Budd, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880 : 
523. 3. Downing, 1881:114 app. fig. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat.,, 1881 :i6. 5. 
Webster, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 7:54. 1881. 6. Gibb, Ib., 7:154. 1881. 
7. Ib., la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883 :437. 8. Barry, 1883 :336. 9. Hoskins, Rural 
N. Y., 43:651. 1884. fig. 10. Penhollow, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 10:65. 
1884. ii. Thomas, 1885:530. 12. Rural N. Y., 44:185, 200. 1885. 13. 
Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:14. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1887:92. 15. Rural N. Y., 46:107, 201, 382. 1887. fig. 16. Can. Hort., 
11:209, 223. 1888. 17. Fisk, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 14:33. 1889. 18. 
Can. Hort., 13:121, 132, 216, 272, 301. 1890. 19. Hamilton, Montreal Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 15:27. 1890. 20. Can. Hort., 15:281. 1892. 21. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:253. 22. Budd, la. Sta. Bui., 19:535. 1892. 23. Pa. Sta. Rpt., 
1892:110. fig. 24. Hoskins, Card, and For., 7:138. 1894. 25. Woolverton, 
Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 2:11. 1895. figs. 26. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 
55:613. 1896. 27. Hoskins, Ib., 56:156. 1897. 28. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. 
Stas. An. Rpt., 4:5. 1897. figs. 29. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui., 61:32. 1897. 
30. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui., 130:122. 1901. 31. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 
14:313. 1901. 32. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:119. 1902. fig. 33. Dickens 
and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui, 106 :56. 1902. 34. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 
18:85, 88. 1902. 35. Rural N. Y., 61:626. 1902. fig. 36. Budd-Hansen, 



248 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

1903:213. fig. 37. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:47. 1903. 38. Bruner, 
N. C. Sta. Bui, 182:24. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. De Revel (i). Grand-Sultan (i). Revelstone (i). 
SKWOSNOI SCHOTOI (7). Skwosnoi Schotoi (5). Transparente de Saint- 
Leger (i). TRANSPARENTE JAUNE (i). YELLOW TRANSPARENT (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 
3i, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38). Yellow Transparent (7). 

This is one of the best of the extra early apples, being excellent 
for culinary use and acceptable for dessert. It is not equal in qual- 
ity to Early Harvest, but it begins to ripen somewhat earlier and 
is a more reliable cropper, yielding good crops annually or nearly 
so. Generally speaking, it is grown in New York state for home 
use only, but in some places it is cultivated to a limited extent for 
market, particularly for local market. It is desirable for this pur- 
pose because it takes on a good clear yellow color before becoming 
overripe. On account of its delicate color and tender skin it shows 
bruises readily and must be handled with extra care. The crop 
ripens continuously through a period of three or four weeks, and 
two or more pickings are required in order to secure the fruit in 
prime condition. It begins to ripen in July, and continues in season 
in some cases till early September. On young or vigorous-growing 
trees the fruit may grow rather large, but on mature slow-growing 
trees, especially when they are overloaded, the fruit is apt to be 
below medium size unless thinned. The tree is a moderately vig- 
orous grower, hardy, healthy and comes into bearing very young. 
In some portions of the West it suffers from twig blight (fire 
blight) but it appears to be quite free from this disease in New York. 

Historical Imported from Russia by the United States Department of 
Agriculture in 1870. Its merits were first brought to notice in this country 
by Dr. T. H. Hoskins, of Newport, Vt. (9). It has been disseminated 
throughout the apple-growing regions of the country from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific and is now commonly listed by nurserymen (21). In New York 
its cultivation for home use is gradually increasing, and occasionally it is 
grown to a limited extent for market. 

TREE. 

Tree of medium size, moderately vigorous, with short, stout, crooked 
branches filled with short spurs. Form upright at first but becoming spread- 
ing or roundish and rather dense. Twigs short, curved, stout with large 





YELLOW TRANSPARENT 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 249 

terminal buds; internodes medium. Bark conspicuously yellow or tawny, 
lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, me- 
dium to small, oval or elongated, not raised. Buds medium size, broad, 
plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above medium, sometimes large, pretty uniform in shape 
and size. Form roundish ovate to roundish conic or oblate conic, slightly 
ribbed; sides unequal. Stem medium to long, rather thick. Cavity acute or 
approaching obtuse, medium to deep, rather narrow, sometimes slightly lipped, 
sometimes russeted. Calyx medium size, closed; lobes medium in length, 
broad. Basin moderately shallow, rather narrow, somewhat abrupt, fur- 
rowed and slightly wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, waxy, pale greenish-yellow changing to an at- 
tractive yellowish-white. Dots moderately numerous, greenish and light 
colored, often submerged. 

Calyx tube conical. Stamens marginal. 

Core medium to small; cells partly open to wide open; core lines clasp- 
ing. Carpels broadly ovate. Seeds medium size, rather wide, rather flat, 
obtuse to slightly acute. 

Flesh white, moderately firm, fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly 
subacid with a pleasant but not high flavor, good or sometimes very good. 

Season late July and August. 

YOPP. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857:205. 2. Horticulturist, 12:179. ^57- 3- 
Warder, 1867:737. 4. Fitz, 1872:175. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 6. Le- 
roy, 1873:871. figs. 7. Thomas, 1875:517. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:253. 
9. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bui, 47:7. 1893. TO. Budd-Hansen, 1903:213. 

SYNONYMS. YOPP (10). YOPP'S FAVORITE (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). 

A southern apple of little value in New York. It originated in Georgia. 
In 1873 it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological So- 
ciety (5). It is practically unknown in this state. 

As grown at this Station the fruit is medium to rather large, oblate conic 
to roundish conic, somewhat ribbed; stem short, slender; cavity acuminate, 
moderately wide, rather deep, usually russeted; calyx small, open; basin 
narrow, moderately deep to deep, abrupt, wrinkled. Skin light yellow usually 
with a dull red blush ; dots numerous, small, russet. Calyx tube conical ; 
stamens median. Core medium to small; cells partly open; core lines clasp- 
ing. Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Flesh whitish, 
somewhat tinged with yellow, moderately fine, tender, juicy, breaking, sub- 
acid, fair to good ; season October and November. 

The tree is below medium size, a rather slow grower with spreading tcp. 
It comes into bearing moderately early and yields good crops biennially. 

YORK. 

A variety which is known to many in Central and Western 
New York under the name York Pippin is now called by 



250 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

pomologists Golden Pippin, under which name it is described on 
page 78. It is an apple of the Fall Pippin group, large, quite 
yellow when fully ripe, often with a brownish blush on the 
exposed cheek. 

Fall Pippin has also been known to some under the name 
York Pippin. It is described on page 61. 

Both of these are distinct from the York which is a Massa- 
chusetts apple of medium size, pale yellow with shade of red, 
good to very good for culinary uses. Season October and 
November. 1 

1 Downing, 1869 1420. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 251 



SIBERIAN CRABAPPLES AND THEIR HYBRIDS AND OTHER 

CRABAPPLES. 



BAILEY CRIMSON, 

REFERENCES, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871 150. 2. Montreal Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1879:91. 3. Ib., 1884:38. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 

SYNONYMS. BAILEY'S CRIMSON (2, 4, of New York 3). BAILEY'S CRIMSON 
CRAB (i). 

In 1871 the Committee of the American Pomological Society on Native 
Fruits made the following report concerning this variety : " Originated with 
Wm. H. Bailey, Pittsburgh, N. Y. Tree vigorous, upright, very productive 
and very handsome. 

" Fruit medium or large for its class ; roundish, inclining to conic ; skin 
yellow, shaded over the whole surface with deep rich crimson ; flesh similar 
to other Siberian crabs." 

We have not seen this variety nor have we obtained any report concerning 
it from our correspondents. 

BRIER. 

REFERENCES, i. Rural N. Y., 1870 (cited by 2). 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1871:51. 3. Downing, 1872:39 app. 4. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:70. 5. 
Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881 :322. 6. Barry, 1883 :358. 7 Gibb, Mon- 
treal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:34. 8. Keffer, S. D. Sta. Bui, 23:141. 1891. 
9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 10. Thomas, 1897:629. n. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:216. fig. 

SYNONYMS. BRIAR SWEET (i, 2, 9). BRIER (n). BRIER'S SWEET (4, 5, 6, 
7, 8). Brier Sweet (n, erroneously 10). BRIER'S SWEET CRAB (3). VAN 
WYCK (10). 

Tree vigorous, hardy, comes into bearing rather young and is productive. 

Historical. Originated with B. B. Brier, of Baraboo, Wis., as a result of 
the fertilization of the Siberian crab with the Bailey apple (3). 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large. Form roundish to conic, ribbed. Stem long, slender. Cavity 
narrow, deep, russeted. Calyx small, closed or slightly open. Basin deep, 
narrow, abrupt, wrinkled. 

Skin pale yellow washed with lively red, striped with carmine, dotted and 
flecked with yellow and covered with thin, whitish bloom. 

Calyx tube conical to funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium in size, axile or nearly so ; cells closed. 

Flesh yellowish, rich, fine-grained, moderately juicy, pleasant, sweet, aro- 
matic, not astringent, good in flavor and quality. 

Season September and October. 



252 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

CHERRY. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, 1867:715. 2. Downing, 1869:422. 3. Barry, 
1883 :35Q. 4. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884 '39- 5- Thomas, 1897 :2g8. fig. 
6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:217. 

SYNONYMS. CHERRY (2, 5, 6). CHERRY CRAB (i, 3, 4). 

Cherry is an old variety of unknown origin. The tree is a pretty good 
grower, particularly on light soils, attains considerable size and is quite a 
regular bearer. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with long, slender, curved branches. Form 
upright spreading to roundish, open. Twigs moderately long, straight, mod- 
erately stout; internodes long. Bark clear reddish-brown tinged with olive- 
green, mottled with scarf-skin especially at the tips; slightly pubescent. 
Lenticels very scattering, small, roundish, not raised. Buds prominent, me- 
dium to large, plump, acute, free, not pubescent. 

, FRUIT. 

Fruit small. Form oblate or roundish, ribbed. Stem long to very long, 
slender, bracted. Cavity rather broad, shallow, obtuse to slightly acute, 
somewhat russeted. Calyx medium to large, usually closed or eventually 
deciduous. Basin wide, shallow, obtuse, wrinkled. 

Skin pale yellow nearly covered with bright red, often striped with car- 
mine and overspread with a thin bluish bloom. Dots distinct, numerous, 
large, whitish or russet. 

Calyx tube funnel-form. Stamens marginal. 

Core large, axile; cells closed. Carpels broadly roundish or elliptical, 
emarginate, mucronate. 

Flesh yellowish, rather coarse, juicy, crisp, mild subacid, somewhat 
astringent. 

Season last of August to October. 

CORAL. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, Tilt. Jour. Hort., 5:208. 1869. 2. Downing, 
1869:423. 3. Barry, 1883:359- 4- N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 2:35. 1884. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit of pretty good size, brilliant color, sprightly subacid flavor, in 
season from October to February. The tree is a pretty good grower, rather 
spreading, comes into bearing early and is a reliable cropper yielding good 
crops annually. 

Historical. In 1869 Warder described this as No. 4 of the Marengo Winter 
Siberian crabapples received from Charles Andrews, Marengo, 111. (i). 
It originated in the vicinity of Marengo (2). It is but little cultivated in 
New York. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium size or above, about an inch and a half in diameter. Form 
roundish to somewhat oblong, regular. Stem medium to rather long, 
slender, bracted. Cavity somewhat acute, medium in width and depth, regu- 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 253 

lar, usually russeted. Calyx small, closed; lobes reflexed. Basin very shal- 
low, broad and obtuse, or none. 

Skin smooth, yellow, blushed with scarlet. Dots numerous, medium to 
small, gray or russet. 

Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium to rather small, axile with narrow cylinder in the axis; 
cells closed or nearly so; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels 
roundish ovate. Seeds compactly fill the cells ; small to above medium, 
obtuse to somewhat acute, plump, dark. 

Flesh yellow, breaking, juicy, crisp, sprightly, mild subacid to nearly 
sweet. 

Season October to February. 

CURRANT. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1857 1229. 2. Barry, 1883 1359. 3. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:237. 4. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:39. 

SYNONYMS. CURRANT (2). CURRANT CRAB (i, 3). CURRENT CRAB (4). 
Pomme Groseille (i). 

Fruit small, borne in clusters ; said to be hardier than Transcendent. Of 
no commercial value. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing young 
and is productive. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, slender, curved branches. 
Form upright spreading or roundish, open. Twigs long, curved, slender; 
internodes short. Bark dark brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin ; slightly 
pubescent near tips. Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, roundish, 
slightly raised. Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit small or below medium. Form somewhat oblate, regular, uniform. 
Stem medium to long, rather slender. Cavity obtuse, rather deep, broad, 
symmetrical, frequently russeted. Calyx sometimes deciduous, medium size, 
closed ; lobes rather narrow, acute. Basin rather deep, wide, abrupt, ob- 
scurely furrowed. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, glossy, yellow, striped with brilliant red, over- 
spread with bluish bloom. Dots numerous, small, pr.le or whitish. 

Calyx tube broadly cone-shaped, short. Stamens marginal. 

Core medium to rather large, axile; cells closed; core lines clasping. 
Carpels roundish to elliptical, emarginate. Seeds light brown, medium to 
large, wide, somewhat obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine, tender, dry, subacid, medium to poor. 

Season October and November. 

DARTMOUTH. 

REFERENCES, i. Barry, 1883:359. 2. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:277. 
1896. 3. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui., 143:200. 1897. 4. Farrand, Ib., 205:47. 
1903. 5- Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 56:363. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. None. 



254 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Fruit large, brilliantly colored, good in flavor and quality. The tree is 
not a vigorous grower, comes into bearing rather early and yields full crops 
in alternate years. 

Historical. Origin New Hampshire (i). 

TREE. 

Tree a moderately vigorous or rather slow grower with moderately long, 
stout, crooked branches. Form upright spreading to roundish, open. Twigs 
short, curved, moderately stout; internodes short. Bark clear brown, min- 
gled with olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin ; pubescent near tips. 
Lenticels scattering, small, round, slightly raised. Buds rather prominent, 
medium to large, long, narrow, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large. Form oblate or roundish oblate, ribbed. Stem 
long and slender, often bracted. Cavity acute, broad, deep, russeted. Calyx 
small ; lobes long, reflexed. Basin rather broad, shallow. 

Skin pale yellow, almost entirely overlaid with bright red deepening to a 
dark red or purple on the exposed side, dotted with yellow and covered 
with a heavy bluish bloom. 

Calyx tube elongated cone-shape approaching funnel-form. Stamens 
marginal. 

Core large, abaxile ; cells open ; core lines clasping. 

Flesh yellowish, tinged with red next the skin, fine-grained, juicy, mild 
subacid, good in quality and flavor. 

Season August. 

EXCELSIOR. 

REFERENCES, i. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880. 2. Gideon, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1885:26. 3. Rural N. Y., 45:184. 1886. figs. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 
5. Beach and Paddock, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:580. 1894. 6. Munson, Me. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 12:73. 1896. 7. Lyon, U. S. Pom. Bui., 6:11. 1897. 8. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:11. 9. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:83. 1902. 10. 
Thomas, 1903:348. n. Budd-Hansen, 1903:218. 12. Farrand, Mich. Sta. 
Bui, 205:47. 1903. 13. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:41. 
1903. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit very large for a crabapple being nearly as large as a 
medium sized apple. It is very attractive in appearance and 
excellent in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. As 
grown at this Station it appears to be one of the most desirable 
varieties of its class during early September. The tree is a 
good strong grower, hardy, healthy, comes into bearing rather 
young and yields full crops in alternate years. 




"\ 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 255 

Historical. Originated by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn. " It came 
from seed of Wealthy which had a chance to be crossed with the Cherry Crab 
and also the Oldenburg" (2). 

TREE. 

Tree large with long, moderately stout branches. Form somewhat flat 
and spreading, rather dense. Twigs short, curved, stout ; internodes medium. 
Bark dark brown tinged with red; slightly pubescent. Lenticels quite nu- 
merous, medium size, oval, slightly raised. Buds medium to large, plump, 
obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit very large. Form roundish ovate to roundish oblate, symmetrical. 
Stem rather long and slender, sometimes bracted. Cavity small, acute or 
approaching acuminate, narrow, rather shallow, often slightly russeted. 
Calyx rather large, closed ; lobes reflexed. Basin shallow, moderately broad, 
obtuse, furrowed. 

Skin smooth, yellow, shaded and splashed with red over much of its 
surface. Dots numerous, russet. 

Caly.v tube wide, cone-shape. Stamens median or above. 

Core large, decidedly abaxile; cells unsymmetrical, wide open; core lines 
clasping. Carpels elongated ovate, sometimes tufted. Seeds above medium 
size, long, moderately narrow, acute, tufted. 

Flesh whitish, firm, a little coarse, crisp, juicy, subacid, with some Siberian 
crab flavor yet agreeable for dessert use, good to very good in quality. 

Season early September. 

FLORENCE. 

REFERENCES, i. Stark, Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:233. 2. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1887:134. 3. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui, 118:59, 60. 1895. 4. Thomas, 
1897:298. 5. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui, 152:219, 224. 1898. 6. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:219. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This variety seems to be very desirable for commercial plant- 
ing because the trees commence bearing very young, are reliable 
croppers and very prolific and the fruit is of good size, very 
attractive in appearance and of good quality. Although not 
superior to Martha in quality, Florence is more beautiful and 
more prolific. 

Historical. Originated by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn. 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form at first upright spreading but eventually 
inclined to droop. Twigs long, curved, moderately stout ; internodes long. 

-v 



256 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

Bark bright reddish-brown, slightly tinged with olive-green, mottled with 
scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, not 
pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium in size, uniform in size and shape. Form oblate, faintly 
ribbed. Stem very long, slender. Cavity acute, deep, medium in width, 
symmetrical, sometimes slightly russeted. Calyx variable, usually small, 
closed. Basin very shallow, rather wide, obtuse, slightly furrowed. 

Skin moderately thin, moderately tough, smooth, yellowish-white mostly 
overspread with brilliant pinkish-red, sometimes with whitish bands radiat- 
ing from the cavity, overspread with faint bloom. Dots minute, whitish. 

Calyx tube moderately long, moderately wide, varying from somewhat 
urn-shape to funnel-form. Stamens marginal. 

Core large ; cells closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly obovate, 
emarginate. Seeds medium to rather small, moderately wide, flat, obtuse. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, coarse, crisp, rather tender, juicy, very brisk 
subacid, somewhat astringent, good. 

Season late August and early September. 

GIBB. 

REFERENCES, i. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:35. fig. 2. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1885:29. 3. Stark, Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:233. 4. ///. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1889:22. 5. Craig, Can. Hort., 15:225. 1892. fig. 6. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1897:11. 7. Thomas, 1897:298. fig. 8. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 
205:47. 1903. 9. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:42. 1903. 
10. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :2i9. fig. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit large, yellow blushed with dull red. It is thinner 
skinned and much less astringent than Hyslop with remarkably 
yellow flesh. It is highly esteemed for canning; season last half 
of September. It is recommended for the home orchard and is 
worthy of trial for commercial planting where a crabapple of its 
season is desired. The tree is a slow, spreading grower fairly 
hardy as far north as Montreal, very productive (5). 

Historical. Originated with George P. Peffer, Pewaukee, Wis., being a 
seedling of an oblate Yellow Siberian crab crossed with Fall Greening 
(5, 10). 

FRUIT (5, 7, 10). 

Fruit large. Form roundish oblate. Stem short to medium length, thick. 
Cavity wide, deep, regular. Calyx medium size, open. Basin very wide, 
shallow, wrinkled. 

Skin thin, yellow, blushed with dull red, attractive. Dots white, minute. 

Flesh remarkably yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, pleasantly acid, a little astring- 
ent, sprightly. 

Season early. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 257 

HYSLOP. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, Tilt. Jour. Hort., 1869 :2o6. figs. 2. Downing, 
1869:424. 3. Fitz, 1872:147. 4. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:21. 
5. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:110. 6. Barry, 1883:359. 7. Gibb, Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:39. 8. Thomas, 1885:513. 9. Wickson, 1889:249. 
10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1802:241. n. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:134. 12. 
La. Sta. Bui, 27 :926. 1894. 13. Can. Hort., 26 :489. 1903. figs. 14. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:220. fig. 

SYNONYMS. HISLOP (i). HYSLOP (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14). 
HYSLOP'S CRAB (8). 

Fruit large, very brilliantly colored, dark red or purplish over- 
spread with thick blue bloom ; borne in clusters. The tree is 
a good grower, very hardy, and a reliable cropper yielding good 
crops biennially or in some cases annually. It is desirable both 
for home use and for market. 

Historical. Origin unknown. In 1869 Downing remarked: "This variety 
has been long and pretty extensively cultivated" (2). It is commonly 
listed by nurserymen throughout the country (10). It is one of the best 
known and most widely cultivated of the crabapples. 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous or moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading, rather 
open. Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes long. Bark olive-green, 
tinged with reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; slightly pubes- 
cent near tips. Lenticels numerous, very conspicuous, greenish-yellow, 
medium to large, oblong. Buds exceptionally large and prominent, very 
long, narrow, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit above medium to large, very uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish ovate or obovate, sometimes a little inclined to oblong, regular or 
obscurely ribbed, symmetrical. Stem rather short to very long, slender. 
Cavity acuminate, rather small, shallow, narrow to medium in width, some- 
times furrowed, often slightly russeted. Cctyx medium to large, closed; 
lobes medium to long, narrow, acuminate, reflexed. Basin shallow, medium 
to wide, distinctly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin clear pale yellow almost completely overspread with lively dark red 
shading to deep carmine or purplish carmine and covered with thick, blue 
bloom. Dots small, numerous, pale or gray. 

Calyx tube short, narrow, cone-shape to urn-shape. Stamens median. 

Core medium size, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines meeting. 
Carpels elongated ovate, emarginate. Seeds small, narrow, short, plump, 
obtuse to acute, medium brown. 

Flesh yellow, sometimes with tinge of red next the skin, very firm, mod- 



258 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

erately fine, at first juicy but eventually becoming dry and mealy, subacid, 
astringent, good for culinary purposes. 
Season late September and October. 

LARGE RED SIBERIAN. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1845:147. 2. Cole, 1849:137. 3. Fitz, 1872:147. 
4. Barry, 1883:359. 5. Wickson, 1889:249. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

This fruit is of medium size for a Siberian crab, being larger 
than Red Siberian, but smaller than either Transcendent or Hyslop. 
It is similar to Red Siberian in appearance and quality. The foliage 
is coarser than that of Red Siberian, and the tree is larger, being 
medium to rather large, a vigorous grower, erect or roundish, with 
long, slender twigs. It is very hardy, healthy, moderately long-lived, 
and a reliable cropper, yielding heavy crops biennially or some- 
times annually. It has long been known in cultivation, and is still 
listed by nurserymen (6), but larger and handsomer varieties of 
more recent introduction are generally preferred in market. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit of medium size, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish to 
roundish ovate, regular. Stem medium to long, slender. Cavity acuminate, 
shallow, moderately broad, often furrowed, usually russeted. Calyx medium 
size, closed; lobes long, narrow, acuminate. Basin shallow or none, obtuse, 
wrinkled, having mammiform protuberances. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale yellow, almost wholly overlaid with bright 
red and marked with obscure narrow stripes of dark red. Dots very small, 
light, inconspicuous. 

Calyx tube short, wide, urn-shape. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium size, axile; cells closed; core lines meeting. Carpels ovate 
to obovate, emarginate. Seeds glossy, dark brown, rather small, short, 
wide, obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish, very firm, subacid, astringent, good for culinary uses. 

Season September and October. 

LARGE YELLOW SIBERIAN. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, 1867:732. 2. Downing, 1869:425. 3. Barry, 
1883:360. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit large, similar in size to Large Red Siberian, clear pale yellow with 
a shade of red in the sun, roundish approaching oblong truncate; season 
September and October. Tree upright, somewhat irregular in form, of me- 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 259 

dinm size, vigorous or moderately vigorous, very hardy, healthy, comes into 
bearing young and is very productive. It is generally superseded in market 
by larger varieties. 

MARENGO. 

REFERENCES. i. Elliott, Horticulturist, 23:136. 1868. fig. 2. Warder, 
Tilt. Jour. Hort., 5:207. 1869. fig. 3. Downing, 1869:425. 4. Horticul- 
turist, 26:371. 1871. 5. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1877:112. 6. Ib., 1879:196. 
7. Barry, 1883:360. 8. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:37. 9. Thomas, 
1885:226, 517. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. n. Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:134. 
12. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :222. 

SYNONYMS. MARENGO (5, 6). MARENGO CRAB (3, 7, 9, 10, IT, 12). 
MARENGO No. i (2, 8). MARENGO WINTER CRAB (i, 4). Marengo Winter 
Crab (2). 

Originated at Marengo, 111. (3, 6). This is a good variety for home use 
where a late-keeping crabapple is desired, and some have found it a profit- 
able market variety but other varieties of its season which are more attractive 
in color are generally preferred for commercial purposes. The tree is of 
medium size, vigorous, spreading, very hardy, long-lived and a reliable 
cropper usually yielding heavy crops annually. The limbs are very tough 
and support heavy loads well. The fruit hangs well to the tree till very 
late in the season. It agrees well with the following description given by 
Warder (2) : " Fruit globular, truncate, regular, or slightly flattened on 
the sides, one of the largest of its class ; surface smooth, yellow, blushed 
or covered with crimson; dots minute; basin shallow, folded; eye small, 
closed; cavity medium, regular; stem long; core large, closed, meeting the 
eye; seeds few, small, plump, light brown; flesh yellow, firm, rather juicy; 
flavor subacid, aromatic. Use, kitchen and dessert; quality, good; season, 
winter, and till spring in the North." 



MARTHA. 

REFERENCES, i. ? la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:452. 2. Ib., 1880:68. 3. Rural 
N. Y., 45:284. 1886. figs. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:134. 5. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:244. 6. Thomas, 1897:299. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1897:11. 8. Budd-Hansen, 1903:222. 9. Rural N. Y., 62:235. 1903. 10. 
Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205 147. 1903. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

Fruit large, very handsome clear yellow more or less overspread 
with bright red ; excellent in flavor and quality ; one of the very 
best of its class for all culinary purposes. The tree is of medium 
size, moderately vigorous, roundish or spreading, very hardy, 
comes into bearing young, and is a reliable cropper, yielding good 
to heavy crops annually or nearly annually. The fruit hangs well 
to the tree, is uniform, reliable, and satisfactory in appearance and 



260 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

quality. Season, September to late fall. It should be more gen- 
erally grown in New York. 

Historical. Originated with Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn. It has 
as yet been grown but little in this state. 

TREE. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form spreading, open and 
somewhat inclined to droop. Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes long. 
Bark reddish-brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, not 
pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, small, oblong, not raised. Buds very 
prominent, large, long, acute, free, not pubescent. Leaves rather long, 
somewhat twisted and drooping. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit usually rather large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish or 
oblate, regular or very faintly ribbed, usually symmetrical ; sides sometimes 
unequal. Stem long, slender. Cavity acute to somewhat obtuse, medium 
in depth to rather shallow, rather broad, sometimes furrowed, often thinly 
russeted. Calyx medium to small, closed or partly open, occasionally de- 
ciduous. Basin shallow, wide, obtuse, smooth. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, clear pale yellow almost entirely 
covered with an attractive bright light red overspread with bluish bloom; 
sometimes faint narrow stripes extend from the cavity to calyx. Dots 
rather numerous, light-colored, small to medium size. 

Calyx tube short, rather narrow, very small, conical or somewhat funnel- 
form. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium size, axile; cells closed or nearly so. Carpels roundish or 
somewhat obovate, slightly tufted. Seeds medium size, rather narrow, acute 
to acuminate. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, juicy, rather brisk sub- 
acid, good to very good in flavor and quality. 

Season September to November. 

MINNESOTA. 

REFERENCES. I. Gideon, Horticulturist, 27:244. 1872. 2. Gibb, Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1883:125. 3. Ib., Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 10:36. 1884. 4. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 5. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:277. 1896. 
6. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :223. 7. Thomas, 1903 :34Q. 

SYNONYMS. MINNESOTA CRAB (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). MINNESOTA (i). 

This variety originated in Minnesota. The fruit is very large for its class, 
roundish; skin pale yellow blushed or mottled on the sunny side and over- 
spread with thin whitish bloom; flesh white, firm, crisp, juicy, fine-grained, 
subacid to mild subacid or nearly sweet, slightly astringent, good. Season 
September and October. As grown at this Station the tree is of spreading 
form, moderately vigorous and not very productive. 






THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 261 



MONTREAL BEAUTY. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869:425. 2. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1876:17. 3. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1877:112. 4. Barry, 1883:360. 5. Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:39. 6. Wickson, 1889:249. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:244. 8. Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:134. 9. Thomas, 1897:299. 10. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:223. 

SYNONYMS. MONTREAL (10). Montreal Beauty (10). MONTREAL BEAUTY 
CRAB (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). 

This very beautiful fruit originated in Quebec and was propa- 
gated as early as 1833. Gibb (2, 5) states the tree is less hardy 
than that of Transcendent, but is strong, vigorous, rather large, 
at first very close and upright, does not come into bearing early, 
but bears heavily. The fruit is large for its class, oblong conic to 
roundish oblong and truncate, yellowish-green, mostly covered with 
red; flesh yellowish-white, tender, rather juicy, unless overripe, 
subacid, very slightly astringent ; season, late September and 
October. It is well known in the vicinity of Montreal and other 
portions of Quebec. In the United States it is quite frequently 
listed by nurserymen (7), yet it is not generally known. 

OBLONG. 

REFERENCES, i. Desportes, Horticulturist, 6:507. 1851. fig. 2. Downing, 
1869:425. 3. Barry, 1883:360. 

SYNONYMS. Baccata fructa oblonga (i). OBLONG-FRUITED SIBERIAN CRAB 
(2). OBLONG SIBERIAN CRAB (i, 3). 

Fruit medium size, oblong conic, yellowish-white, partly shaded with crim- 
son, striped with carmine and covered with thin bloom; stem very long, 
slender, usually bracted. This variety has been sparingly disseminated in 
New York but is now seldom or never planted here. It is not superior 
to other varieties of its season. 

ORANGE. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1869 ^25. 2. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884 :36. 
fig. 3. Thomas, 1897 :299. fig. 4. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :224. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A variety of American origin but little grown in New York. Some 
regard it as a desirable variety for both home use and market. The tree 
is roundish, spreading, dwarfish, a moderate or rather slow grower, hardy, 
moderately long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding good to heavy crops 
annually. It comes into bearing rather young. Season September to No- 
vember. 



262 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

FRUIT (i, 4). 

Fruit medium size. Form roundish, slightly oblate. Stem very long, 
slender. Cavity open, deep, acute with trace of russet. Calyx closed. Basin 
very shallow or flat, wrinkled. 

Skin orange-yellow often netted with russet. Dots minute, white, 
obscure. 

Core open. 

Flesh light salmon-yellow, a little dry, rather mild subacid with sweet 
after-taste, good. 

Season September to November. 

PAUL IMPERIAL. 

REFERENCES, i. Ellwanger and Barry, Cat., 1888:14. 2. Thomas, 1897:299. 
SYNONYMS. None. 

A September variety in season about with Transcendent ; somewhat irreg- 
ular in shape ; of very good general appearance but less attractive in size 
and color than Hyslop and inferior to Martha in quality. The tree is below 
medium size, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable annual 
cropper. 

Historical. Introduced by Paul and Son, Cheshunt, England. A cross 
between the Red Astrachan and Siberian Crab (i). 

TREE. 

Tree moderately vigorous with short, stout, crooked branches having 
numerous small spurs. Form spreading, flat, open. Twigs olive-green 
tinged with brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. 
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oval, slightly raised. Buds large, 
prominent, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

. FRUIT. 

Fruit small to medium, uniform in size but not in shape. Form usually 
oblate, often irregularly elliptical, strongly ribbed ; sides unequal. Stem 
long to medium, slender. Cavity obtuse to acute, moderately deep, broad, 
furrowed, not russeted. Calyx large, closed, prominent, persistent; lobes 
long, moderately broad. Basin very shallow, wide, obtuse, furrowed and 
wrinkled and sometimes mammillate. 

Skin thin, rather tender, smooth, yellow, often entirely covered with 
dark bright red or with but little of the yellow ground color exposed, over- 
spread with blue bloom. Dots very small, numerous, indistinct, light. 

Calyx tube small, short, moderately wide, urn-shape. Stamens nearly 
marginal. 

Core rather large, axile or nearly so; cells closed or slightly open; core 
lines meeting. Carpels nearly roundish, narrowing toward apex, tufted. 
Seeds below medium size, moderately wide, acute, light brown. 

Flesh yellowish sometimes stained with pink, firm, moderately coarse, 
crisp, rather tough, juicy, brisk subacid, less astringent than Red Siberian, 
good. 

Season September and October. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 263 



PICTA STRIATA. 

REFERENCES. I. Ellwanger and Barry, Cat., 1888:14. 2. Beach, N. Y. Sta. 
Am. Rpt., 12:601. 1893. 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:370. 1905. 
SYNONYMS. PICTA STRIATA (i, 2). PIETA (3). Picta Striata (3). 

Fruit handsome, rather mild in flavor; season late fall and early winter. 
It is hardly large enough for a good commercial variety. The tree is a 
good grower, comes into bearing rather late and is an annual cropper yield- 
ing moderate to good crops. 

Historical. Received from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, N. Y., in 
1888 for testing at this Station. 

TREE. 

Tree rather large. Form upright spreading to roundish with rather droop- 
ing laterals. Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes short. Bark clear 
brown, tinged with green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin ; slightly pubes- 
cent near tips. Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, 
oval, not raised. Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, not pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium or above, uniform in size but not in shape. Form oblate 
or roundish oblate, irregularly ribbed. Stem long, slender. Cavity obtuse, 
medium to rather deep, medium to broad, compressed, smooth or nearly so. 
Calyx usually small, closed; lobes separated at base, long, medium in 
width, acute to acuminate. Basin shallow to medium in depth, medium in 
width, obtuse, nearly smooth. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, rather glossy, pale greenish-yellow nearly cov- 
ered with crimson, blushed and striped with carmine. Dots indistinct, small, 
gray. 

Calyx tube moderately short, rather narrow, conical to urn-shape. Stamens 
marginal or nearly so. 

Core medium to large, axile ; cells slightly open or closed ; core lines 
clasping. Carpels roundish to elliptical, concave, deeply emarginate, some- 
times tufted. Seeds rather dark brown, medium size, wide, short, obtuse. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, tender, juicy, somewhat 
astringent, sprightly subacid, good. 

Season October to early winter. 



QUAKER. 



REFERENCES, i. Rural N. Y., 1870 (cited by 7). 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:247. 3. Thomas, 1897:299. 4. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui, 152:224. 1898. 
5. Farrand, Ib._, 205 :48. 1903. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :224. 7. Ragan, U. S. 
B. P. I. Bui, 56:371. 1905. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

This variety has been disseminated more in the western states than it 
has in New York. It is but little grown here. Farrand (5) describes it as 



264 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

a late ripening variety of only fair quality, size medium to large; color 
yellow with a red cheek; tree handsome, vigorous but not very productive; 
season October. 

QUEEN CHOICE. 

REFERENCES, i. Bailey, An. Hon., 1892:247. 2. Ellwanger and Barry, 
Cat., 1894:15. 3. Thomas, 1897:299. 4. Budd-Hansen, 1903:224. 
SYNONYMS. QUEEN'S CHOICE (i, 2, 3). QUEEN Choice (4). 

This crab has a fruit which is medium or above, roundish conical, of a 
beautiful crimson color, showy and attractive; flesh whitish and of pleasant 
flavor and quality; season October; tree vigorous, very prolific (2, 3, 4). 

It is but little known in New York. 



RED SIBERIAN. 

REFERENCES. i. Forsyth, 1803:57. 2. Coxe, 1817:106. 3. Fessenden, 
1828:129. 4. Kenrick, 1832:57. 5. Ib., 1835:75. 6. Downing, 1845:147. 
7. Thomas, 1849:158. 8. Cole, 1849:137. 9. Barry, 1851:287. 10. Elliott, 
1854:157. n. Gregg, 1857:62. fig. 12. Downing, 1869:426. 13. Fitz, 
872: 147. 14. Thomas, 1875:208. 15. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 10:39. 
1884. 16. Lyon, Mich. 'Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:300. 17. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:248. 18. Lyon, U. S. Pom. Bui, 6:11. 1897. 19. Budd-Hansen, 
1903 :224. 

SYNONYMS. RED SIBERIAN (n, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19). RED SIBERIAN CRAB 
(5, 8, 9, 12). SIBERIAN CRAB (i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14). 

Origin France (19). Fruit small, decidedly ornamental, borne 
in clusters. It is three-quarters of an inch to an inch in 
diameter, roundish oblate to somewhat oblong, irregularly ellip- 
tical ; stem long and slender; cavity acute, medium in width and 
depth ; calyx small to medium, often deciduous ; basin but 
slightly depressed. Skin smooth, pale yellow striped and 
blushed with lively red and overspread with blue bloom ; flesh 
subacid, astringent, good for culinary uses. Season September 
and October. 

SEPTEMBER. 

REFERENCES, i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1888:319. 2. Beach, N. Y. Sta. 
An. Rpt., 12:602. 1893. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

A very handsome fruit of good quality for either dessert or 
culinary use. It ripens a few days later than Transcendent. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 265 

The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing young and yields 
full crops biennially. 

This is distinct from the September apple described by Down- 
ing. 1 

Historical. Originated with Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., frcm 
seed of Cherry Crab. In 1888 Mr. Gideon sent stock of this variety to this 
Station for testing. 

TREE. 

Tree vigorous, with short, stout, crooked and twisted branches. Form 
rather flat, spreading, open. Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately 
stout with large terminal buds ; internodes long. Bark clear brown, lightly 
mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels quite nu- 
merous, medium size, round, not raised. Buds prominent, large, long, plump, 
acute, free, not pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to large for a crab, uniform in size but not in shape. Form 
roundish oblate to somewhat oblong, inclined to conic, frequently ribbed ; 
sides usually unequal. Stem usually long and slender. Cavity somewhat 
cbtuse, rather shallow to medium in depth, medium to broad, occasionally 
furrowed, sometimes russeted. Calyx medium to rather large, closed or 
partly open. Basin mammillate, very shallow to moderately deep, medium in 
width, slightly obtuse. 

Skin thin, tender, smooth, pale yellow or greenish, striped with red, in 
well colored specimens becoming nearly covered with dark red, overspread 
with bluish bloom. Dots small, scattering, inconspicuous, gray or brownish. 

Calyx tube rather short, medium in width, broadly funnel-form ; pistil 
point persistent. Stamens median to nearly marginal. 

Core medium size, axile or slightly abaxile ; cells closed or wide open ; 
core lines clasping. Carpels roundish, elongated. Seeds variable in shape, 
medium size, moderately wide, rather short, acute to broadly acute, rather 
light dull brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, medium in grain, moderately tender, juicy, sub- 
acid, not astringent but with an agreeable crabapple flavor, good to very 
good in quality. 

Season September. 

SOULARD. 

REFERENCES, i. Soulard, Card. Monthly, 10:199. 1868 (cited by 13). 2. 
I]}., III. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1869:195, 260. 3. Downing, 1869:426. 4. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1871:8. 5. Soulard, ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1873:291. 6. Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 5:91. 1879. 7- Ib., 10:37. 1884. 8. Thomas, 1885:524. 
9. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:300. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:249. 
ii. Budd, Amer. Card., 14:244. 1893. 12. Thomas, 1897:264. fig. 13. 
Bailey, Evol. Native Fruits, 1898:261. fig. 14. Craig, la. Acad. Sci., 7:130. 
1899. pi. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:225. fig. 

SYNONYMS. None. 

1 Downing, 1868:350. 



266 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

This is regarded by Bailey as a hybrid between the native prairie crab, 
Pyrus loensis, and the common apple, Pyrus malus (13), in which opinion 
he is supported by Craig (14). It is distinct from the Soulard apple. 
According to Soulard's account (13) "it originated on a farm about twelve 
miles from St. Louis, Mo., where stood an American crab thicket not in- 
closed, near the farmhouse, about twenty-five years since. The thicket was 
cut down and the ground cultivated some two or three years; culture being 
discontinued, another crab thicket sprang up, and when bearing, one tree (the 
identical kind now called Soulard crab) was discovered. The fruit r.s- 
tonished me by its remarkably large size, being sent to me by a friend 
whose widowed mother, Mrs. Freeman Delauriere, occupied the farm. I im- 
mediately propagated it by grafting upon crab stock and upon our common 
seedlings. Upon both stocks producing the same fruit and thriving admir- 
ably, I disseminated it among my friends as a very desirable fruit, having 
nothing of the Siberian type. It is to me conclusive that this crab is the 
offspring of an accidental hybridization of the wild crab by our common 
apple. The tree, its foliage, habit, increased size of fruit and tree, and 
decreased acerbity, convince me it is a hybrid, and as far as I know, the 
first instance of such cross. 

" I consider it the most desirable of all crabs that I have seen. Adding 
sweetness, it is delicious baked. It makes most excellent preserves, being 
large enough to be quartered, and unsurpassed by any crab for jams, jellies, 
etc., imparting its delicate taste and rich crab aroma. The largest have 
measured over seven inches around. In form, color and smell it is like 
the common crab, and it hangs on the tree until destroyed by frost. It 
will keep two years, with common care, in a cellar, and will stand repeated 
freezing and thawing in a dark place. It is agreeable to many palates in 
the spring. 

" The tree is an immense grower in the nursery, coming early into fruit and 
making but little growth afterward, and is an immense and regular bearer. 
I have made some cider as clear as wine, with sugar or a quarter part of 
sweet apples. It will make delicious strong cider. Tree perfectly hardy, 
having stood the severest winters here and at St. Paul, Minn., for twenty- 
five years." 

After giving the testimony of several observers with regard to the value 
of this hybrid for the Upper Mississippi valley Bailey concludes : " It is 
probable that too much was expected of the Soulard crab when it was first 
introduced, and that it afterward, suffered from the partial collapse. Such 
an array of apples has now been introduced into the cold Northwest from 
the East, from Russia, offspring of the Siberian crab, and local seedlings 
of the common apple that the Soulard crab and its kin have been ob- 
scured" (13). 

The variety is still listed by some nurserymen (10). It is practically un- 
known in New York and has no value for this state. 



TRANSCENDENT. 

REFERENCES, i. Horticulturist, 22:125. 1867. 2. Warder, Tilt. Jour. Hort., 
5 1205. 1869. fig. 3. Downing, 1869 1426. 4. Todd, 1871 183. fig. 5. Fitz, 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 267 

1872:147. 6. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1:21. 1876. 7. Barry, 1883: 
360. 8. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 10 139. 1884. 9. Wickson, 1889 1249. 
10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:251. u. Thomas, 1897:300. 12. U. S. Pom. 
Bui, 6:11. 1897. 13. Can. Hort., 26:489. 1903. figs. 14. Budd-Hansen, 
1903 :226. fig. 

SYNONYMS. TRANSCENDANT (5, 9, 10, 13). TRANSCENDENT (i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 
7, 8, 11, 12, 14). 

This beautiful fruit has for many years been one of the most 
popular of the crabapples cultivated in this state. The tree is a 
good grower, roundish, spreading, hardy and usually very pro- 
ductive yielding good to very heavy crops nearly annually. It 
is in season from late August to the middle of September or a 
little later. 

Historical. The history of Transcendent seems to be unknown. Although 
our first reference to this variety is 1867, William Prince had it listed in 
his nursery catalogue as early as 1844. 1 It seems to have been in the hands 
of nurserymen for years before it came to the attention of pomological 
writers, hence the obscurity in regard to its origin. 

TREE. 

Tree large with stout, curved and drooping branches. Form very spreading, 
drooping, rather dense. Twigs moderately long, curved, slender, with large 
terminal buds ; internodes long. Bark brown, tinged with green, lightly 
streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubesent near tips. Lenticels quite numer- 
ous, medium to large, oval, raised, conspicuous. Buds medium to large, 
rather prominent, plump, obtuse or slightly acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit medium to rather large. Form roundish or roundish oblong, flat- 
tened at the ends, somewhat ribbed. Stem medium to long, rather stout, 
bracted. Cavity narrow, shallow, obtuse. Calyx large, closed ; lobes long, 
leafy, reflexed. Basin shallow, wrinkled. 

Skin thin, clear bright yellow with bright red cheek, overspread with 
bloom. Highly colored specimens are nearly covered with bright red. 

Calyx tube conical. Stamens marginal. 

Core medium size; cells closed. 

Flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, moderately fine, somewhat astringent, subacid, 
very good for culinary uses. 

Season late August to the middle of September. 

VAN WYCK. 

REFERENCES, i. Downing, 1872 :39 app. 2. Barry, 1883 :36o. 3. Montreal 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 10:37. 1884. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:251. 5. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1897:11. 6. Thomas, 1897:300. fig. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:227. 

1 Ragan, U. S. P. B. I. Bui., 66:373. 1905. 



268 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 

SYNONYMS. Brier Sweet (6). VAN WYCK CRAB (2, 4, 5, 6, 7). VAN 
WYCK SIBERIAN (i). VAN WYCK SWEET (3, 4). 

A sweet crabapple which according to Downing (i) originated as a 
chance seedling in Fishkill, Dutchess county, N. Y. Fruit large for a 
Siberian crabapple, whitish shaded with bright red, covered with bloom; 
flesh whitish, tender, moderately juicy, sweet, rich; it sometimes water- 
cores; core small, closed; season August and September (i, 2). This 
variety is occasionally listed by nurserymen (4). It is not generally known 
in New York and it appears that its cultivation in this state is not increasing. 

WHITNEY. 

REFERENCES, i. Warder, Tilt. Jour. Hort., 5:206. 1869. fig. 2. Minn. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:109. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:16. 4. Barry, 
1883:360. 5. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:34. fig. 6. Ib., Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:29. 7. Thomas, 1885:529. 8. Can. Hort., 11:42. 1888. 
9. Wickson, 1889:249. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:300. n. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 12. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:584. 1894. 
13. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui., 45:346. 1896. 14. Farrand, Mich. 
Sta. Bui., 205:48. 1903. 15. Can. Hort., 26:489. 1903. figs. 16. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903 :228. 

SYNONYMS. WHITNEY (3, 10, n, 14, 15, 16). WHITNEY CRAB (4, 7, 9). 
WHITNEY No. 20 (i, 2, 5, 6, 8, n, 12, 13). Whitney No. 20 (15, 16). 

One of the most popular of the large crabapples particularly in 
the West and North. The fruit is attractive, yellow, striped with 
lively red, subacid, good for dessert and very good for culinary uses. 
It is in season in August and early September. The tree is a thrifty, 
upright grower, comes into bearing young and is very productive. 

Historical. This variety originated with A. R. Whitney, Franklin Grove, 
111. (i). It was at first disseminated under the name Whitney No. 20, 
under which name it was described by Warder as early as 1869 (i). It has 
not been much planted in New York but in regions farther north and west 
its cultivation is gradually increasing. 

TREE. 

Tree below medium with moderately stout, moderately long, curved 
branches. Form upright becoming somewhat spreading after fruiting heavily. 
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds ; internodes medium 
size. Bark bright brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; 
slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels numerous, small, oval, not raised. 
Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

FRUIT. 

Fruit large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish inclined 
to conic or to ovate. Stem slender. Cavity narrow to moderately wide, 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 269 

rather deep, obtuse. Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open. Basin 
broad, shallow, wrinkled. 

Skin light yellow largely shaded and striped with red. 

Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, mild subacid or nearly sweet with slight crab- 
apple flavor, good to very good. 

Season late August and early September. 

YELLOW SIBERIAN. 

REFERENCES, i. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 2. Kenrick, 1832:58 
3. Downing, 1845:147. 4. Cole, 1849:137. 5. Thomas, 1849:158. 6. Waring, 
1851 :3O. 7. Barry, 1851 :287. 8. Gregg, 1857 :62. 9. Warder, 1867 732. 10. 
Budd-Hansen, 1903 :228. 

SYNONYMS. Amber Crab (3). Golden Beauty. SIBERIAN CRAB (6). 
YELLOW SIBERIAN (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10). 

This is sometimes called Golden Beauty. It is similar to Red Siberian 
except in the color and size of the fruit, it being rather large and of a clear 
golden-yellow color. Season September. Tree medium size or below, a 
good grower, upright becoming roundish, and somewhat drooping, very hardy 
and healthy except that under certain circumstances it suffers from blight. It 
comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding heavy 
to very heavy crops annually or nearly annually. It is grown principally for 
home use but sometimes a portion of the fruit is disposed of in local markets. 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



(Accepted names appear wholly or in part in roman type; synonyms in italic.) 



Abe Lincoln 178 

ADIRONDACK I 

ADMIRABLE I 

ALBION 2 

Albertin 3 

ALEXANDER 3 

Alexander the First 3 

Alexandre 3 

American no 

American Fall 62 

American Fall Pippin 241 

American Gloria Mundi 77 

American Golden 83 



American Golden Pippin 
American Mammoth . . 
American Mother .... 
American Pear main . 



83 

77 

143 

211 



American Red 178 

American Red Juneating 55 

American Summer 211 

American Summer Pearmain... 211 

AMSTERDAM 5 

Amsterdam Sweet 5 

Anglesea Pippin 178 

ANISIM 5 

Anisim of Peterson 5 

Antenovka 6 

Antonowka 6 

ANTONOVKA 6 

Antony 6 

APORT 6 

Apart (synonym of Aport Ori- 
ent) 7 

Aporta 3 

Aporta Nalivia 3 



PAGE. 

APORT ORIENT 7 

Aport Oriental 7 

Arabka 32 

ARCTIC 7 

Arcad Krasivui 14 

Arkad Krasivui 14 

Arkad Krasiivui 14 

Aromatic Spike No. 354 233 

Astracan Blanch 239 

Astracan d'Ete 239 

Astracanischcr Sommer 239 

Astracan Rouge 178 

Astrachan 178 

Astrachan Red 178 

Astrachan Rouge 178 

Astrachan White 239 

Astrakhan Rouge 178 

Astravaskoe 155 

Aubertin 3 

AUGUST 9 

August (synonym of July) .... 112 

August Apple 53 

AUGUSTINE 10 

August Sweet 216 

August Szveeting 216 

Aunt Ginnie. /5 

Aurora 227 

Autumnal Bough 10 

Autumnal Szvaar (synonym of 

Autumn Swaar) n 

Autumnal Swaar (synonym of 

Autumn Sweet Swaar) 12 

Autumnal Sweet 12 

Autumnal Szveet Swaar ....... 12 

AUTUMN BOUGH . 10 



271 



272 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



Autumn Bough 10 

Autumn Bough (synonym of 

Sweet Bough) '. . . . 216 

Autumn Pearmain 124 

Autumn Pippin 62 

Autumn Rose 190 

Autumn Seek-No-Further 88 

Autumn Strawberry 120 

AUTUMN STREAKED 10 

AUTUMN SWAAR u, 12 

Autumn Swaar (synonym of 

Autumn Sweet Swaar) 12 

Autumn Sweet 12 

Autumn Sweet Bough 10 

AUTUMN SWEET SWAAR 12 

Avery Sweet v 175 



Babouskino . . 
Babuscheno .. . 
Babuschkino . 
Babushkino . . 



83 

83 
83 
83 



BAILEY SPICE 13 

Bailey's Spice 13 

BAKER SWEET 13 

Baker's Sweet 13 

Baltimore (synonym of Gloria 

Mundi) 77 

Baltimore (synonym of Vande- 

vere Pippin) 231 

Baltimore Pippin 77 

BANKS 14 

Banks Gravenstein 14 

Banks Red Gravenstein 14 

Bard Apple 49 

Baroveski 151 

Barowiski 151 

Beard Burden 49 

Beaute de Kent 15 

BEAUTIFUL ARCAD 14 

Beautiful Arcade 14 

Beautiful Pippin 184 

BEAUTY OF KENT 15 

Beauty of Queen 3 

Beauty of the West (synonym of 

Western Beauty) 239 

Beauty of the West (synonym of 

Grosh) 89 

Beauty Red 40 



Beel Solotofskaja 82 

Beitigheimer 17 

BELBORODOOSKOE 15 

Belle d' Angers 21 

Belle de Boscoop 25 

Belle de Boskoop 25 

Belle d' Orleans 3 

Belle Dubois 77 

Belle Josephine (synonym of 

Gloria Mundi) 77 

Belle Josephine v ( synonym of 

White Spanish Reinette) .... 241 

Belle of Boskoop 25 

Bellerdovskoc 15 

Belle Rose 168 

Bellflower of the West 148 

Bell's Early 203 

Bell's Favorite 203 

BEN FORD 45 

Benniger 15 

BENNINGER 15 

Bennington 203 

BENONI 16 

Bergamot 6 

Berry Apple 39 

Bielborodovska? 15 

BlETIGHEIMER 17 

Big Rambo (synonym of West- 
ern Beauty) 239 

Big Rambo (synonym of Grosh) 89 

Big Szveet 233 

'Big Vandevere 231 

BIRTH 18 

BISMARCK 19 

Bismark 19 

BLACK ANNETTE 20 

Black Apple 46 

Black Detroit 46 

Blanche 241 

Blanche d'Espagne 241 

Blanche Glacee d'Ete 239 

BLENHEIM 20 

Blenheim Orange 21 

Blenheim Pippin 21 

Blenheimsrenett 21 

BLOOM 69 

Blooming Orange 21 

Blumen Calvill 85 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



273 



PAGE. 

BLUSHED CALVILLE 22 

Blushed June 181 

Blush June 181 

Bogdanoff (synonym of Grand- 
mother) 83 

Bogdanoff Steklianka 83 

Bohannon 1 18 

BONUM 23 

BOROVINKA 24 

Borovinka Angluskaia 24 

Borovitsky (synonym of Boro- 
vinka) 24 

Borovitsky (synonym of Olden- 
burg) 151 

Borowicki 151 

Borowitski 151 

Borowitsky 151 

Borsdorfer 5 

BOSKOOP 25 

Bough 216 

Bough Apple 216 

Bough, Early Szveet 216 

Bough Sweet 216 

Bow Apple 216 

Bracken 240 

Bracy's Seek-No-Further 88 

BRESKOVKA 26 

BRILLIANT 69 

Buckley 33 

Buckram 97 

Buchanan 149 

Bullripe . . . ; 49 

BUNKER HILL 27 

BUTTER 27 

Butter Pippin 78 

Cabane du Chien 98 

Cabashaw 227 

CABASHEA 28 

Cabashie 28 

Calkin's Pippin 30 

Calville de Gravenstein 85 

Cahille Grafensteiner 85 

Calville Krasmui 22 

Cambour des Lorrains 213 

Camoisas du roi d'Espagne 241 

Camoise Blanche 241 

Camoise e Blanche 241 



PAGE. 

Camuesar 241 

Camuezas 241 

Camuzar 241 

CANADA BALDWIN 69 

Canada Peach 159 

Canada Reinette (synonym of 

Cheeseboro) 33 

Carolina 240 

Carolina June 181 

Carolina Red 181 

Carolina Red June 181 

Caroline 240 

CATHEAD 29 

Cathead (synonym of Cheese- 
boro) 33 

Cathead (synonym of Fall Pip- 
pin) 62 

Cathead Greening 29 

Catshead 29 

Catshead Greening 29 

Cattell Apple 148 

Cayuga Red Streak 227 

CELESTIA 29 

CHAMPLAIN 30 

CHANDLER 31 

Chandler's Red 31 

CHARLAMOFF 32 

Charlamoski 32 

Charlamovskce 32 

Charlamowiski 151 

Charlamowski d'Automne 151 

Charlamowskircher Nalleoid ... 151 

Charlamowski 32 

Ckarlamowsky 151 

Charlottenthaler 222 

Charlottenthaler Apple 222 

Charlottenthaler Golba 222 

Charmant Blanc 213 

Cheesborough 33 

Cheeseboro 33 

Cheeseboro's Russet 33 

Cheesebofough 33 

Cheeseborough Russet 33 

CHENANGO 33 

Chenango Strawberry 33 

Chimney Apple 65 

Christ Birth rS 

Christ Birth Apple 18 



274 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



Christmas 18 

Cinnamon 6 

CLAPPER FLAT 34 

CLARKE 35 

Clarke Beauty 35 

CLYDE 36 

Clyde Beauty 36 

Coalbrook 225 

Cobbett's Fall (synonym of Fall 

Pippin) 62 

Cobbett's Fall (synonym of 

White Spanish Reinette) .... 241 
Cobbett's Fall Pippin (synonym 

of Fall Pippin) 62 

Cobbett's Fall Pippin (synonym 

of White Spanish Reinette) . . 241 

CODLING 117 

Codlin, Keswick 117 

Coe's Spice 49 

Coleman 227 

Cole's Quince 174 

COLLAMER . 36 

Collamer Twenty Ounce 36 

COLTON 37 

Colton Early 37 

COLVERT 38 

Compte Orloff 233 

Comte Woronzoff 3 

Concombre Ancien (synonym of 

Fall Pippin) 62 

Concombre Ancien (synonym of 

White Spanish Reinette) 241 

Conic June 1 18 

CONSTANTINE 39 

COOPER 40 

Copp's Mammoth 77 

Corail 3 

CORNELL 40 

Cornell Fancy 41 

Cornell's Favorite 41 

CORNER 41 

Cornish Gilliflower 197 

Corse's St. Lawrence 193 

Cos Orange 42 

Costard 29 

Costard Ray 29 

Count Orloff 233 

Coustard 29 



PAGE. 

Cox ORANGE 42 

Cox's Orange 42 

Cox's Orange Pippin 42 

Cox's Pomona 165 

CRANBERRY PIPPIN 43 

Crandall Seedling 107 

CREAM 44 

Crimson Beauty 196 

Crimson Pippin (synonym of 

Scarlet Pippin) 196 

Crimson Pippin (synonym of 

Detroit Red) 46 

Crimson Scarlet Pippin 196 

CROW EGG 44 

Crow's Egg 44 

Cumming's Rambo 89 

Cut Wine 244 

Czarskui Schip 45 

CZAR THORN 45 

DEADERICK 45 

Dean's Codlin 165 

De Glace D'Etc 239 

De Glace Hative 239 

De La Madeleine Rouge 55 

De Lorraine 213 

Deniary 73 

De Moscbvie d'Ete 239 

De Neige 65 

De Notre Dame 213 

De Rambourg 213 

De Rambure 213 

De Ratcau 62 

De Rattcau 241 

De Revel (synonym of Yellow 

Transparent) 248 

De Revel (synonym of Vineuse 

Rouge) 233 

Derrick and Ann 186 

Derrick's Graft 186 

De Seigneur d'Automne 29 

D'Espagne (synonym of White 

Spanish Reinette) 241 

D'Espagne (synonym of Fall 

Pippin) 62 

Deterding's Early 178 

Detroit 46 

Detroit Black 46 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



275 



DETROIT RED . . . . 46 

D'Eve HI 

De Vin du Conn 227 

Diets Sommerkonig 85 

Dix-huit Onces 227 

Dodge's Early Red 203 

Douse 95 

Dows 95 

Dowse 95 

Dredge's Fame 21 

Duchess 151 

Duchesse d'Oldenbourg 151 

Duchess No. 3 158 

Duchess of Oldenburg 48, 151 

Duchess of Oldenburgh 151 

DUDLEY 48 

Dudley Winter 48 

Dudley's Winter 48 

Du Marechal 65 

Dumpling 208 

Dutchess 151 

Dutchess of Oldcnbcrg 151 

Dutchess of Oldenburgh 151 

Dutch Mignonne (synonym of 

Blenheim) 21 

Duversons June 141 

DYER 49 

Early Baldwin 168 

Early Bough 216 

Early Colton 37 

Early Congress 85 

Early French Rcinctte (synonym 

of Early Harvest) 51 

Early French Rcinctte (synonym 

of Sweet Bough) 216 

Early Golden Sweet... 81 

EARLY HARVEST 50 

Early Jack 106 

Early Jennetting 240 

EARLY JOE 52 

Early July Pippin 51 

Early June (synonym of Early 

Harvest) 51 

Early June (synonym of Egg 

Top) 56 

Early June of South 141 

Early Margaret 141 



FACE. 

Early May 240 

EARLY PENNOCK 53 

Early Red 141 

Early Red Juneating 141 

Early Red Margaret 141 

Early Red Pippin 93 

Early Redstreak 93 

Early Red Streak 93 

EARLY RIPE 54 

EARLY STRAWBERRY 54 

Early Striped Juneating 141 

Early Summer Pearmain 211 

Early Sweet 98 

Early Sweet Bough 216 

Early Sweetheart 216 

Early Tart Harvest 168 

Early Washington 203 

Egg fop 44 

EGG TOP 56 

Eighteen Ounce 227 

Eighteen Ounce Apple 227 

ELGIN PIPPIN 56 

Elgin Pippin (synonym of White 

Spanish Reinette) 241 

Empercur Alexandre 1 3 

Empereur Alexandre dc Russic . 3 

Empereur de Russic 3 

Emperor Alexander 3 

Englese Orange Appel 154 

Englische Granat-Rcinette 184 

Englischer Pepping 57 

English Borovinka 24 

ENGLISH CODLING 117 

English Jannetting 230 

English King 3 

English Pearmain 125 

ENGLISH PIPPIN 57 

English Pippin (synonym of 

Longfield) 123 

English Rambo 89 

English Sweet (synonym of 

Ramsdell Sweet) 58,175 

English Sweeting 175 

Episcopal 62 

Episcopale 241 

Ernst's Apple 149 

Ernst's Pippin 149 

Essex Pippin 184 



-2 7 6 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



PAGE. 

Eve 56 

Eve Apple (synonym of Egg- 
Top) 56 

Eve Apple (synonym of Mar- 
garet) 141 

Everbearing 108 

Fall Bough 10 

Fall Geneting 59 

Fall Gennetting 59 

FALL GREENING 58 

Fall Green Sweet 233 

FALL HARVEY 58 

Fall Jenetting 59 

FALL JENNETING 59 

Fall Jennetting 59 

Fall Orange 12, 60 

FALL PIPPIN 61 

Fall Pippin (synonym of Fall 

Harvey) 58 

Fall Pippin (synonym of Holland 

Pippin) 101 

Fall Pippin (synonym of White 

Spanish Reinette) 241 

Fall Queen 91 

Fall Strawberry 120 

Fall Stripe 196 

Fall Swaar 1 1 

Fall Swaar of the West 1 1 

Fall Vandervere 23 r 

FALL WINE 63 

FAMEUSE 65 

Fameuse (synonym of Utter)... 230 

Fameuse Baldwin 98 

FAMEUSE GREEN 69 

FAMEUSE GROUP 68 

FAMEUSE NOIRE 69 

FAMEUSE SUCRE 09 

FANNY 69 

Fin d'Automne 3 

FlSHKILL 70 

Fishkill Beauty 70 

Five-Quartered Gilliflowcr 197 

Flat 34 

Flint Russet 170 

Flower (of Genesee) 73 

Flushing Seek-No-Further 88 

FORD 71 



PAGE. 

Forever Pippin 33 

Formosa 184 

Formosa Pippin 184 

Fourth of July 112 

Praise 55 

FRANCHOT 71 

Frank 33 

Frank Rambour 213 

French Pippin (synonym of Hol- 
land Pippin) 101 

French Pippin (synonym of 

Roman Stem) 188 

French Rambo 89 

French Reinette 215 

French Spitzenburgh (synonym 

of Summer Spitzenburg) 215 

FULLERTON SWEET 71 

GARDEN ROYAL 72 

Gardiner's Apple 143 

GARDNER SWEET PEARMAIN 73 

Gelee d'Ete 239 

General Chandler 31 

GENESEE FLOWER 73 

Geneva Pearmain 30 

Gennetting 240 

German Calville 6 

German Calville 324 6 

Georgia June 181 

Gibbon's Smathhouse 231 

Gibbon's Smokehouse 231 

GIDEON 74 

Gideon White 74 

Ginetting 240 

GINNIE 75 

Glace de Zelande 239 

Glade d'Ete 239 

GLADSTONE 75 

Glazenwood 77 

Glazenwood Gloria Mundi 77 

GLORIA MUNDI 76 

Glory of York 184 

Gloucester Pippin 21 

Golden Apple 83 

GOLDEN PIPPIN (I) 78 

GOLDEN PIPPIN (II) 79 

Golden Pippin (synonym of Fall 

Pippin) 62 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



277 



Golden Pippin (synonym of 

Golding) 83 

GOLDEN PIPPINS 78 

GOLDEN REINETTE 79 

Golden Spice 49 

GOLDEN SWEET 81 

Golden Sweet (synonym of 

Northern Sweet) 147 

Golden Sweeting 81 

GOLDEN WHITE 82 

GOLDING 82 

Goldreinette von Blenheim 21 

Good Peasant (synonym of 

Longfield) 123 

Good Peasant (synonym of 

Anisim) 5 

Gov. Seward's . 227 

Graf en Apfel 85 

Grafensteiner 85 

Granat-Reinette 184 

Grand Alexander 3 

Grand Alexandre 3 

Grand Due Constantin 3y 

Grand Duke Cons tan tine 39 

GRANDMOTHER 83 

Grand Mother 83 

Grand Sultan (synonym of Vin- 

euse Rouge) 233 

Grand Sultan (synonym of Yel- 
low Transparent) 248 

Grantham 108 

GRAVENSTEIN 84 

Gravensteiner 85 

Gravenstein Rouge 180 

Gravenstine 85 

Grave Slige 85 

Grave Slije 85 

Greasy Pippin 128 

GREAT MOGUL , . 87 

GREEN SEEK-NO-FURTHER 88 

Green Sweet (synonym of Vic- 
tuals and Drink) 233 

Green Transparent 233 

Gr os- Alexandre 3 

GROSH 89 

Grosh (synonym of Summer 

Rambo) 213 

Crash's Mammoth 89 



Groskoe Selenka Gruner 233 

Gros Pomier 91 

Gros Pommier . 91 

Gros-Rambour d'Ete 213 

Grosser Mogul 87 

Grosse-Schafnase 29 

GRUNDY 90 

HAAS 91 

HAGLOE 92 

Hagloe Crab 92 

Hampers American 178 

Harmony 53 

Harvest (synonym of Early 

Harvest) 51 

Harvest (synonym of Primate) . 168 

Harvest Apple 215 

HARVEST REDSTREAK , 93 

Harvest Red Streak 93 

Harvey 58 

HASKELL 93 

Haskell Sweet 94 

Hass 91 

Haverstraw Pippin 30 

Hawkins Pippin 73 

HAWLEY 94 

Hawley (synonym of Hawthorn- 
den) 96 

Hawthorndean 96 

HAWTHORNDEN 96 

Heickes Summer Queen 53 

Herbstbreitling 213 

Herbst Strefling 10 

Herbst Streifling. 10 

Herr's June 141 

HIBERNAL 96 

HICKS 97 

Highland Pippin 168 

HIGHTOP SWEET 97 

High Top Sweet 98 

High Top Sweet (synonym of 

Amsterdam) 5 

High Top Sweeting 98 

HILAIRE 98 

HILTON 99 

Himbeerapfel Lievlander. ....... 129 

Himbeerapfel Livlander 129 

HOADLEY 99 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



HOG ISLAND SWEET 100 

Hogpen 60 

Holden , 60 

H olden Pippin 60 

HOLLAND PIPPIN 101 

Holland Pippin (synonym of 

Fall Pippin) 62 

Hollow Crown Pearmain 124 

Hominy 203 

Hoox 103 

Horning 203 

Horse 91 

Hoss 91 

/ '-louse 64 

HOWARD BEST 103 

Howard Russet 33 

Howard's Best 103 

Howard's Best Russia:: 133 

Howe Apple 245 

Hower 64 

Hoypen 60 

Hudson Red Streak 125 

HUNTER PIPPIN 104 

Hurlburt 105 

HURLBUT 104 

Hurlbut (synonym of Ramsdell 

Sweet) 175 

Hurlbut Stripe 105 

Hurlbut Sweet 175 

Hurlbutt 105 

Imperial Vandervere 231 

Imperial White 157 

Imperatrice Eugenie 21 

Imperatrice Josephine 77 

Indian Queen 53 

Indiana Vandeverc 231 

ISHAM 106 

Isham Sweet 106 

Isle of Wight Orange 154 

Isle of Wight Pippin 154 

JACK 106 

Jack Apple 106 

Jackson 33 

JARVIS 107 

Jefferies 108 

JEFFERIS 108 



JEFFERSON COUNTY 109 

Jeffries 108 

Jellynozver 197 

Jenneting 240 

Jennetting 109 

Jen netting (synonym of White 

Juneating) . 240 

Jennings 166 

JERSEY SWEET no 

Jersey Szveeting no 

Joaneting 240 

Joe Prccoce , 52 

Jolly Gentleman 3 

Jonathan of the North 5 

Jones Early Harvest 181 

Jones Pippin 60 

Josephine (synonym of Gloria 

Mundi) 77 

Josephine (synonym of White 

Spanish Reinette) 241 

JUDSON in 

JULY 112 

July Apple 168 

July Early Pippin 51 

July, Fourth of 112 

July Pippin 51 

June (synonym of Margaret) . . 141 
June (synonym of Red June) . . 181 

Juneateing 240 

Juneating 109 

Juneating (synonym of White 

Juneating) 240 

Juneting 240 

Juniata 234 

KAIGHN 113 

Kaighn's Spitzcmburg 113 

Kaighns Spitsenberg 113 

Kaighn's Spitzenbergh 113 

Kaighns Spitzenburg (synonym 

of Kaighn) 113 

Kaighn's Spitzenburg (synonym 

of Long Red Pearmain) .... 125 

Kaighn's Spitzcnburgh 113 

Kaign's Spitzenburg 113 

Kaiser Alexander 3 

Kajabowka 114 

KALKIDON 1 14 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



Kalkidonskce 114 

Kalkidouskcc 114 

Kalkidovskoc 114 

Kalvil jeltui 247 

Kalville scholti 247 

Karaboff 114 

K4RABOVKA 114 

Karabowka 115 

Kempster's Pippin 21 

Kennebec Seedling 245 

Kent Beauty 15 

Kent Fillbasket ' 115 

Kentish Filbasket 115 

KENTISH FILLBASKET 115 

Kentish Pippin 15 

Kentucky Bellftower 125 

Kentucky GilliHower 125 

KESWICK . . . 116 

Keszvick Codlin 117 

Keswick Codling 117 

Khalkidonska? 114 

Kinderhook Pippin 77 

Kingsbury Russet (synonym of 

Cheeseboro) 33 

Kingsbury Russet (synonym of 

Pumpkin Russet) 170 

KlRKBRIDGE , Il8 

Kirkbridge White 118 

Knight's Red June 181 

Korallen Apfel 3 

La Belle Fameuse . . 65 

Lady Blush 139 

Lady de Grey's . ' 115 

LADY FINGER . . . f 118 

Lady Finger '(synonym of 

Kaighn) . 113 

Lady Finger (synonym of Long 

Red Pearmain) 125 

Lady's Apple 242 

Lady SuMeld 126 

Lady Sutherland 126 

Lady Washington 40 

La Fameuse 65 

Lammas 142 

Lancaster Queen 212 

LANDSBERG 119 

Landsberger Reinette 119 



Landsburg 119 

Langerfeldska? . . . 123 

Lansberger Reinette 119 

Large Bough : 216 

Large Early 51 

Large Early Bough 216 

Large Early Harvest 51 

Large Early Yellow Bough 216 

Large Fall 241 

Large Fall Pippin 241 

Large Golden Pippin (synonym 

of Champlain) 30 

Large Golden Pippin (synonym 

of Golden Pippin I) 78 

Large Rambo 89 

Large Red and Green Sweeting 177 

Large Red Sweeting 177 

Large Summer Rambo 89 

Large Sweet Bough 216 

Large Vandervere 231 

Large White Juneating 51 

Large Yellow Bough 216 

Late Bough 10 

Late Chandler 31 

Late Golden Sweet 13 

LATE STRAWBERRY 120 

LATHAM 121 

LA VICTOIRE 69 

LEAD 121 

Lead Apple 121 

Leeds Beauty 196 

Lievland Raspberry 129 

Lima 227 

Lincoln 245 

LINCOLN PIPPIN 122 

Lincoln Pippin (synonym of 

Winthrop Greening) 245 

Lincolnshire Pippin 96 

LlNDENWALD 122 

Lippincott 215 

Liv eland Raspberry 129 

Livesley's Imperial 126 

Livland Raspberry 129 

Lodge's Early 215 

LONGFIELD 122 

Longfield's Apple 123 

Long Island 60 

Long Island Graft 60 



280 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



Long Island Pearmain 124 

Long John (synonym of Kaighn) 113 
Long John (synonym of Long 

Red Pearmain) 125 

Long Pearmain (synonym of 

Kaighn) 113 

Long Pearmain (synonym of 

Long Red Pearmain) 125 

LONG RED PEARMAIN 125 

LONG STEM 125 

Long Stem Sweet 13 

LONGWORTH 125 

Longworth Red Winter 125 

Lord Kingston 96 

Lord Nelson (synonym of Blen- 
heim) 21 

LORD SUFFIELD 126 

Lothringer Rambour 89 

Lothringer Rambour d'Ete 213 

Lou , 126 

Louis XVIII 55 

LOUISE 69, 126 

Louise, Princess 127 

LOWELL 128 

Lowell Pippin 128 

LOWLAND RASPBERRY 129 

LUBSK QUEEN 129 

Lubsk Reineite 130 

Lutius Apfel 21 

Ly man's Large Yellow 171 

Ly man's Pumpkin Sweet 171 

LYSCOM 130 

MABIE 131 

McAdow's June 112 

McCARTY '..... 132, 173 

McClellan 135 

MAcDoNOUGH 132 

MclNTOSH 69, 132 

Mclntosh Red 133 

Mackie's Clyde Beauty 36 

MCLELLAN 134 

McLelan 135 

McMahan 136 

McMahan White 136 

McMAHON 136 

McMahon White 136 

Macomber 187 



PAGE. 

Magdalene 142 

Magnum Bonum 23 

MAGOG 138 

Magog Red Streak 138 

MAIDEN BLUSH 139 

MAIDEN FAVORITE 141 

Maiden's Apple 141 

Maiden's Blush (synonym of 

Hawthornden) u6 

Malinozvska* 177 

Mammoth (synonym of Gloria 

Mundi) 77 

Mammoth (synonym of Golden 

Pippin) 78 

Mammoth Pippin 77 

Mammoth Rambo 89 

Maralandica 51 

MARGARET 141 

Margaret Early 142 

Margaret, Early Red 142 

Margaretha Apfel 142 

Marget Apple 142 

Marguerite 142 

Marigold 154 

Marigold, Creed's 154 

Marigold Pippin 154 

Marrow-bone 225 

Martin 135 

Marygold 154 

Matthews Stripe 131 

Maudlin 142 

Meachem Sweet 146 

Melon (synonym of Gloria Mun- 

di) 77 

Michigan Beauty 201 

Millcreek 231 

Miller eek Vandervere 231 

MILLER 142 

Miller Seedling 142 

MlLLIGEN 142 

Mississippi 77 

Mr. Gladstone 75 

Montgomery Sweet 10 

Monstreuse Pippin 77 

Monstrous Pippin 77 

Monstrous Rambo 89 

Montreal i r jl 

Montreal Peach 159 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



281 



Moose 1 45 

Morgan's Favorite 227 

M'OSHER 143 

Mosher S'dueet 143 

MOTHER 143 

Mother Apple 143 

Mother of America 143 

Mountaineer 145 

Mountain Flora 77 

MOUNTAIN SWEET 145 

MOUSE 145 

Mudhole 125 

MUNSON 146 

Munson Sweet 146 

Munson Sweeting 146 

Musgrove 89 

Musgrove's Cooper (synonym of 

Grosh) 89 

Musgrove's Cooper (synonym of 

Western Beauty) 239 

Mushroom 24 

Musk Spice 64 

Mygatt's Bergamot 49 

Myer's Nonpareil 148 

Naliwi Jabloky 239 

Naylor Rambo 89 

Neige 65 

Neige-Framboise de Gielen 65 

New Brunswick 151 

N. J. Red Streak 53 

Newtown Greening 83 

N. Y. Bellfiower 60 

N. Y. Gloria Mundi 77 

N. Y. Greening 83 

Niack Pippin (synonym of 

Sweet Bough) 217 

Nonpareil 148 



Nonpar eille 



184 



North American Best . 168 

Northampton 21 

Northern Golden Sweet 147' 

Northern Golden Sweeting 147 

NORTHERN SWEET 147 

Northern Sweeting (synonym of 

Munson) 146 

Northern Sweeting (synonym of 

Northern Sweet) 147 



North Star 48 

Northwick Pippin 21 

The following numbers are those 
given by Schroeder in his shipment 
to the Iowa Experiment Station in 
1879: 

No. 3 M 121 

No. 4 M 155 

83 

24 

189 

5 

5 

115 



No. 

No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 



6 M 

9 M 

n M 

14 M 

18 M 

21 M 

22 M 22 

23 M 7 

24 M 195 

26 M 6 

54 M 87 

56 M 123 

57 M 123 

80 M 195 

94 M 114 

105 M 32 

134 M 224 

139 M 183 

140 M 45 

147 M 222 

152 M 27 

161 M . 18 



The following numbers are those 
given to varieties included in the De- 
partment of Agriculture importation 
of 1870: 

No. 161 123 

No. 205 115 

No. 206 45 

No. 210 244 

No. 224 6 

No. 230 224 

No. 236 6 

No. 245 24 

No. 252 7 

No. 262 32 

No. 288 177 

No. 333 i8~ 



282 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



No. 340 129 

No. 343 182 

No. 351 170 

No. 372 195 

No. 442 247 

No. 444 130 

No. 453 14 

No. 457 39 

No. 469 83 

No. 472 155 

No. 477 18 

No. 540 114 

No. 587 57 

No. 599 189 

No. 964 10 

No. 978 82 

No. 979 82 

No. 981 82 

No. 12 Orel 7 

No. 21 Veronesh 247 

No. 51 Vor. 79 

No. 84 Vor 83 

Nyack 30 

Nyack Pippin 30 

Oats 51 

OGDENSBURG 147 

Ohio Beauty (synonym of West- 
ern Beauty) 239 

Ohio Beauty (synonym of Grosh) 89 

OHIO NONPAREIL 148 

Ohio Nonpareil (synonym of 

Gravenstein) 85 

Ohio Nonpariel 148 

OHIO PIPPIN 149 

Ohio Wine (synonym of Fall 

Wine) ,. 64 

Ohio Wine (synonym of 

Kaighn) 113 

OKABENA 150 

Okobena 150 

OLDENBURG 150 

Oldenburg, Duchess of 151 

Oldenburgh 151 

Old Hawthorndean 96 

Omensk 189 

Oporto 7 

ORANGE 153 



TAGE. 

Orange (synonym of Fall 

Orange) 60 

Orange (synonym of Lowell) . . 128 
Orange (synonym of Orange 

Pippin) 154 

Orange Blenheim 21 

Orange de Cox 42 

ORANGE (OF NEW JERSEY) 153 

ORANGE (OF PENNSYLVANIA) .... 153 

ORANGE PIPPIN 154 

Orange Pippin (synonym of 

Blenheim) 21 

Orange Russet 154 

ORANGE SWEET 154 

Orange Sweet (synonym of 

Golden Sweet) 81 

Orange Sweet (synonym of 

Munson) 146 

Orange Sweeting (synonym of 

Golden Sweet) 81 

Orange Sweeting (synonym of 

Orange Sweet) 154 

Orloff 233 

Orlovskoe 233 

Orlowskoe 233 

Orsimui 97 

Osgaod's Favorite 131 

Osimoe 97 

Oskaloosa 106 

OSTRAKOFF I$5 

Ostrakoff Glass 155 

Ostrekoff . 155 

Ostrekoff's Glass 155 

Ostrekovskaya Steklianka 155 

Ostrekowskaja Steklianka 155 

Ostrokoff 155 

Ostrokoff's Glass. . . 155 

Ox Apple 77 

Ox eye 230 

Oxheart 33 

Owen's Golden Beauty 240 

Ozark Pippin 45 

PALOUSE 156 

Paper 30 

Paper-skin 30 

Parodies Apfel 85 

Park 125 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



283 



PAGE. 

PARRY WHITE 157 

PATTEN 158 

Pattens Duchess No. 3 158 

Patten Greening 158 

PEACH (Montreal) 159 

Peach Apple of Montreal 159 

Peach of Montreal 159 

PEACH POND 160 

Peach Pond Sweet 160 

Peach Pound Sweet 160 

Pear Apple 174 

Pear Lot 244 

Pearmain 125 

PEARSALL 161 

Pear sail's Sweet 161 

Pear Tree Lot 244 

PEASE 161 

Pease, Walter 161 

PEASGOOD NONSUCH 162 

Peasgood's Nonesuch 162 

Pennsylvania Vandevere 231 

Pepin de Kent 15 

Pepin Ribston 184 

Pepping Englishcher 57 

Perle d'Angleterre 21 

PERRY REDSTREAK 162 

Perry Red Streak 162 

PETER 163 

Peterson's Charlamoff 32 

Petrovskoe 195 

Petrowskoe 195 

Philadelphia Pippin (synonym of 

Fall Pippin) 62 

Philadelphia Pippin (synonym of 

White Spanish Reinette) 241 

Philadelphia Siveet 10 

Phoenix 3 

Phonix 3 

Pickaway Rambo 89 

Pie Apple (synonym of Holland 

Pippin) 101 

Pie Apple (synonym of Sops of 

Wine) 203 

Pippin Kent 15 

Pittstown Pippin 79 

Plodowitka Cuadkaja 170 

Plodowitka Caudkaja 170 

PLUMB CIDER 164 



PAGE. 

Plum Cider 164 

Pointed Pipka 32 

Polecat 212 

Pomme Astrachan 239 

Pomme d' Astrachan 239 

Pomme de Blenheim 21 

Pomme de Fameuse 65 

Pomme de Hawthornden 96 

Pomme de Neige 65 

Pomme de Notre-Dame 213 

Pomme d'Ete (of Canada) 51 

Pomme d' Orange 154 

Pomme Fameuse 65 

Pomme Graefenstein 85 

Pomme Peche 159 

Pomme Royal 49 

Pomme Royale 49 

Pomme Roye 49 

Pomme Water 49 

Pommewater (in Illinois) 49 

POMONA 164 

Pomona Brittannica 3 

Pompey 233 

PORTER 166 

Possaris Nalivia 6 

Potter's Large 1 16 

Potter's Large Grey Seedling... 116 

Potter's Large Seedling 116 

Pound 77 

Pound Pippin . . . . 62 

Pound Royal (synonym of Fall 

Pippin) 62 

Pound Royal (synonym of 

Golden Pippin I.) 78 

Pound Royal (synonym of 

Lowell) 128 

Pound Royal (synonym of Long 

Island Pearmain) 125 

Pound's July 217 

POUND SWEET 167 

Pound Sweet (synonym of 

Pumpkin Sweet) 171 

Powers 168 

President Napoleon 3 

Pride of Genesee 73 

PRIMATE 167 

Primiting 240 

Prince Bismark , 19 



284 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



Prince of Wales 21 

Prince's Early Harvest 51 

Prince's Harvest 51 

Prince's Large Pippin of N. Y . . 62 
Prince's Large Red and Green 

Sweeting 177 

Prince's Red and Green Sweet. . 177 

Prince's Yellow Harvest 51 

Princess Louise 127 

Prinzessin Apfel 85 

Prolific Sweet 170 

PROLIFIC SWEETING 169 

Prussian 38 

PUMPKIN RUSSET 170 

PUMPKIN SWEET 171 

Pumpkin Sweet (synonym of 

Cheeseboro) 33 

Pumpkin Sweet (synonym of 

Pumpkin Russet) 170 

Pumpkin Sweeting (synonym of 

Pumpkin Sweet) 172 

Pumpkin Sweeting (synonym of 

Pumpkin Russet) 170 

Pyrus Astracanica 239 

Queen (synonym of Summer 

Queen) 212 

Queen (synonym of Williams) . 242 
Queen Anne (synonym of Low- 
ell) 128 

Queen Anne (synonym of 

Mother) 143 

QUINCE (of Cole) 174 

QUINCE (of Coxe) 174 

Quince Apple 174 

Rag Apple 146 

Rambour 213 

Rambour Aigre 213 

Rambour Blanc 213 

Rambour d'Amerique 213 

Rambour d'Ete 213 

Rambour Franc 213 

Rambour Gros 213 

Rambour Lorraine 89 

Rambour Raye 213 

Rambu 213 

Ramsdale's Sweeting 175 



Ramsdell 175 

Ramsdell Red Sweet 175 

Ramsdell 's Red 175 

Ramsdell' s Red Pumpkin Sweet. 175 

Ramsdell' s Red Sweeting 175 

RAMSDELL SWEET 175 

Ramsdell' s Sweeting 175 

Randall's Red Winter 175 

RASPBERRY 176 

Ray Apple 146 

RED AND GREEN SWEET 177 

Red and Green Sweeting 177 

Red Astracan 178 

RED ASTRACH AN 178 

Red Astrakhan 178 

Red Beitigheimcr 17 

Red Bellflower (synonym of Ohio 

Nonpareil ) 148 

Red Bellflower (synonym of 

Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Red Bietigheimer 19 

Red Bough 177 

Red Cheek (synonym of Rasp- 
berry) 177 

Red Cheek (synonym of Maiden 

Blush) 139 

Red Cheek (synonym of Fall 

Orange) 60 

Red Gilliflower (synonym of 

Scollop Gilliflower) 197 

Red Gillinower (synonym of 

Striped Gilliflower) 207 

RED GRAVENSTEIN 180 

Red Gravenstein (synonym of 

Banks) 14 

Red Hawthornden 96 

RED HOOK 180 

Red Joaneting 142 

RED JUNE 181 

Red Juneating (synonym of 

Margaret) 142 

Red Juneating (synonym of Red 

June) 181 

Red Juneating (synonym of 

Early Strawberry) 55 

Red June, Carolina 181 

Red June of South 142 

Red Juneting 142 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



285 



Red Pearmain (synonym of 

Kaighn) 113 

Red Pearmain (synonym of 

Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Red Phoenix (synonym of 

Kaighn) 113 

Red Phoenix (synonym of Long 

Red Pearmain) 125 

Red Pippin (synonym of 

Kaighn) 113 

Red Pippin (synonym of Long 

Red Pearmain) 125 

Red Pumpkin Sweet 175 

Red Pumpkin Sweeting 175 

Red Reinette 83 

Red Shropsavine 203 

Red Spitzenberg (synonym of 

Kaighn) 113 

Red Spitzenberg (synonym of 

Long Red .Pearmain) 125 

Red Spitzenberg (synonym of 

Richard Graft) 186 

Red Spitzenburg 113 

RED TRANSPARENT 182 

Red Transparent (synonym of 

Vineuse Rouge) 233 

RED TYPE OF TWENTY OUNCE. . . 229 

Red Vandervere 231 

RED WINE 182 

Red Winter Pearmain (synonym 

of Kaighn) 113 

Red Winter Pearmain (synonym 

of Long Read Pearmain) 125 

REED 183 

Reindell's Large 175 

Reinette A Gobelet 241 

Reinette Belle de Boskoop 25 

Reinette Blanche . . 241 

Reinette Blanche d'Espagne 

(synonym of White Spanish 

Reinette) 241 

Reinette Blanche d'Espagne 

(synonym of Fall Pippin) .... 62 

Reinette de Blenheim 21 

Reinette d'Espagne 241 

Reinette d' Holland 101 

Reinette d'Hollande 101 

Reinette de Landsberg 119 



Reinette de T raver ............. 

Reinette Grenade Anglais e ...... 

Reinette Landsberger ........... 

Reinette Liubski .......... . ..... 

Reinette Monstrueuse ........... 

Reinette Orange de Cox . ....... 

Reinette Quarrendon ............ 

Reinette Tendre ................ 

Reinette von Montfort .......... 

Renet Liubskui ................. 

REPKA ......................... 

Remboure d'Ete ................ 

Reschestwenskoe ............... 

Revelstone ..................... 

Revelstone Pippin .............. 

Rhode Island Sweet ............ 

Riabinouka .................... 

Ribbed Gillinower ............. 

Ribbed Pippin .................. 

RIBSTON ....................... 

Ribstone ....................... 

Ribstone Pippin ................ 

Ribstone Pepping ............... 

Ribston Pippin ................. 

Richard ....................... 

RICHARD GRAFT ................. 

Ridge (synonym of Ribston) . . . 
Riepka ... ..................... 

Ripp Apfel ..................... 

Rock hill's Russet ............... 

Rode Wyn Appel ............... 

ROLFE ......................... 

ROMAN STEM ................... 

Romenskoe .................... 

ROMNA ........................ 

Romna (synonym of Hibernal) . 
Romnenskoe ................... 

RONK ......................... 

Roschdestvenskoe .............. 

Roschdestwenskoe ............. 

ROSE RED ...................... 

Roshdestrenskoe .............. 

Rother Astrakhan .............. 

Rother Gravensteiner .......... 

Rother Jacobs .................. 

Rother Jacobs Apfel ............ 

Rother Weinapfel .............. 

Rotherwein Appel .............. 



184 
184 
119 
130 

25 

42 
142 
241 

25 
130 
183 
213 

19 
248 
233 
172 

39 
197 

83 
j84 
184 
184 
184 
184 
186 
186 
184 
!8 3 

85 
184 
203 
j87 
188 
189 
T 8 9 

97 
189 

I90 

19 

19 

190 

19 

178 

180 

142 

142 

182 

182 



286 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



Rough and Ready 168 

Round Catshead 29 

Round Sweet 172 

Round Top 56 

Rubets Vinogradnui 244 

Rubes Vuinogradnui 244 

Russam (synonym of Kaighn) . . 113 
Russam (synonym of Long Red 

Pearmain) 125 

Russian Emperor 3 

Russian Gravenstein 6 

Rusty Core 148 



Sabine 85 

Sabine of the Flemmings 85 

Safstaholm 191 

SAFSTAHOLMS 191 

Sdfstaholmsdple 191 

Sdfstaholmsdpple 191 

SAILEE RUSSET 192 

Saille Sweet 177 

SAILLY AUTUMN 192 

Saint-Germain 241 

St. Hilaire 98 

St. John Strawberry 55 

ST. LAWRENCE 192 

Saint-Lawrence 193 

Saint Laurent 193 

ST. PETER 194 

SANDY GLASS 195 

Sanguineus 65 

Sapson 203 

Sapsonvine 203 

Sassafras Sweet 94 

SAXTON 196 

Scalloped Gilliflower 197 

Scalloped Gillyflower 197 

Scarlet Pearmain (synonym of 

Kaighn) 113 

Scarlet Pearmain (synonym of 

Long Red Pearmain) 125 

SCARLET PIPPIN 196 

Schafnase 29 

Scharlottenthaler Golba 222 

Schoone van Boskoop 25 

Schoone von Boskoop 25 

SCHUYLER SWEET , . , . , 197 



SCOLLOP GILLIFLOWER 197 

Scollop Gilliflower (synonym of 

Striped Gilliflower) 207 

Scolloped Gilliflower 197 

Scott 168 

SCOTT BEST 198 

Seek-No-Further (synonym of 

Cooper) 40 

Seek-No-Further (synonym of 

Green Seek-no-Further) 88 

Seever's Red Streak 230 

SENECA FAVORITE 198 

Seneca Favorite (synonym of 

Quince [of Coxe] ) 174 

Seneca Spice 17^ 

Shaker's Yellow 53 

Shannon 149 

SHARP 199 

Sharpe's Early 212 

Sharpe's Spice 64 

Sheepnose (synonym of Egg 

Top) 56 

Sheepnose (synonym of Long 

Red Pearmain) 125 

SHERMAN 200 

Sherman's Favorite 200 

Sherman's Sweet 200 

Sherwood's Favorite 33 

Shiawasse Beauty 201 

SHIAWASSEE 69, 201 

Shiawasse e Beauty 201 

Shiawassie Beauty 201 

Shore ditch White 96 

Shropshire vine 203 

Siberian August 112 

SlNE-QUA-NON 202 

Skvosnoi krasnoi 182 

Skwosnoi Krasnoi 182 

Skwosnoi Schotoi 248 

Sleeper's Yellow 53 

SLINGERLAND 202 

Slingerland's Fall Pippin 202 

Slingerland Pippin 202 

Small Admirable i 

Small's Admirable I 

Smithfield Spice 49 

Smokehouse (synonym of Van- 
devere Pippin) 231 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



287 



Smyrna 33 

Snow 65 

Solotoc Renet 79 

SOMERSET (N. Y.) 203 

Sops in Wine 203 

SOPS OF WINE 203 

Sourbough (synonym of Cham- 
plain) 30 

SOUR BOUGH 204 

Soiir Bough (synonym of Cham- 
plain) 30 

Sour Bough (synonym of Tart 

Bough) 220 

Sour Harvest 168 

Speckled 60 

SPECTATOR 204 

Spiced Oxeye 231 

Staalclubs 231 

Staalcubs 230 

Stalcubs 230 

STARKEY 205 

STARR 206 

Steklianka pesotchnaya 195 

Stewart's Nonpareil 112 

Stillman 207 

STILLMAN EARLY 207 

Stillman's Early 207 

Stoke Tulip 3 

Straat 208 

Strawberry (synonym of Sops of 

Wine) 203 

Strawberry (synonym of Che- 

nango) 33 

Strawberry (synonym of Late 

Strawberry) 120 

Strawberry (synonym of Richard 

Graft) 186 

Strawberry 207 

Striped Ashmore 231 

Striped BellHower 207 

STRIPED FAMEUSE 68 

STRIPED GILLIFLOWER 207 

Striped Harvest 93 

Striped Juneating 142 

Striped Pearmain 125 

Striped Quarrendon 142 

STRIPED RED JUNE 182 

Striped Shropshire . , . 55 



Striped Vandervere 231 

STROAT 208 

Strode 208 

STRODE BIRMINGHAM 208 

Strode's 208 

Strode's Birmingham 208 

Strohmer 85 

Stromling 85 

STUMP 209 

Stymer's 210 

STYMUS 210 

SUFFOLK BEAUTY 210 

Suislepper 219 

Summer Bellefleur 211 

SUMMER BELLFLOWER 211 

Summer BellHower (synonym of 

Autumn Bough) 10 

Summer Hagloe 92 

SUMMER PEARMAIN 211 

Summer Pippin (synonym of 

Champlain) 30 

Summer Pippin (synonym of 

Fall Pippin) 62 

Summer Pippin (synonym of 

Holland Pippin) 101 

SUMMER QUEEN 212 

SUMMER RAMBO 213 

Summer Rambo (synonym of. ... 

Grosh) 89 

Summer Rain'bour 213 

SUMMER REDSTREAK 214 

SUMMER ROSE 215 

Summer Russet 218 

SUMMER SPITZENBURG 215 

Summer Spitzenburgh 215 

SUMMER SWEET 216 

Summer Sweet (synonym of 

Hightop Sweet) 98 

Summer Sweeting (synonym of 

Summer Sweet) 216 

Summer Sweeting (synonym of 

Hightop Sweet) 98 

Summer Traveller 142 

Superior White 157 

Susy Clark 181 

Svinsovka 121 

Swedish Borsdorf of Patten .... 5 
SWEET BOUGH , . . . , 216 



288 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



SWEET FALL PIPPIN 218 

Sweet Golden Pippin 12 

Sweet Harvest 217 

Szveet June 98 

Sweet Ly man's Pumpkin 172 

Sweet Pippin 100 

Sweet Rambo 89 

SWEET RUSSET 218 

Sweet Russet (synonym of 

Pumpkin Russet) 170 

Sweet Russet (synonym of 

Cheeseboro) 33 

Sweet's Harvest 212 

Sweet Swaar 12 

Sweet Wine 64 

Swett's Harvest 212 

Sivinez 121 

Swinsovska 121 

SWITZER 2l8 

SYLVESTER . . 220 



Taffitai 239 

Tallow 128 

Tallow Apple 128 

Tallow Pippin 128 

Tars Thorn 45 

TART BOUGH 220 

Tart Bough (synonym of Early 

Harvest) 51 

Tart Bough (synonym of Cham- 
plain) 30 

Teignmouth 223 

Tennessee Early Red 55 

Tete d'Ange 29 

Tc te de Chat 29 

Tetoffsky 220 

Tetofski (synonym of July).... 1 12 
Tetofski (synonym of Tetofsky). 220 

TETOFSKY 220 

Tetofsky (synonym of July) .... 112 

THALER 222 

THOMPSON 222 

Thompson Seedling No. 24 222 

Thompson No. 24 222 

Thompson's Seedling No. 29 1 1 1 

Thompson's Seedling No. 38.... 90 
TINMOUTH , 223 



PAGE. 

Tinmouth Sweet 223 

Titovca 224 

TITOVKA 224 

Titowka 224 

Titus Apple 224 

Titus Riga 224 

Tom Harryman 85 

Tompkins 49 

Tom Put 225 

TOM PUTT 225 

Transparente de Astracan 239 

Transparente d'Ete 239 

Transparent de Muscovie 239 

Transparente de Muscovie d'Ete. 239 
Transparente de Saint-Leger 

(synonym of Vineuse Rouge). 233 
Transparente de Saint-Leger 
(synonym of Yellow Trans- 
parent) 248 

Transparente de Zurich 239 

Transparente Jaune (synonym of 

Vineuse Rouge) 233 

Transparente Jaune (synonym of 

Yellow Transparent) 248 

Transparente Rouge 233 

Transparente Verte 233 

Transparent Muscovie 239 

Trovers 184 

Travers Apple 184 

Trovers Peppin 184 

Travers Pippin 184 

Travers Reinette 184 

Trenton Early 81 

Tsarskui Schip 45 

TUFTS 226 

Tufts Baldwin 226 

Tufts Seedling 226 

Turn Off Lane 174 

TWENTY OUNCE 227 

Twenty Ounce Pippin 227 

TYRE BEAUTY 229 



Uncle Sam's Best 64 

Underdunk 30 

UTTER , 229 

U tier's Large Red 230 

U tier's Red 230 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



289 



PAGE. | 

Vandervere (synonym of Van- 

devere) , . . , 230 

Vandervere (synonym of Van- 

devere Pippin) ... 231 

Vandervere Pippin 231 

Vandeveer 230 

VANDEVERE . . 230 

VANDEVERE PIPPIN 231 

Vandevere Yellow 231 

Van Duym's Pippin 62 

Fan Dyne Apple .. . . .-. 77 

Fan Dyn's Pippin 62 

Fan Kleek's Sweet. 100 

Fargul 6 

Vermilion d'Ete 178 

Vermont 30 

Vermont Pippin 223 

Vermont Pumpkin Sweet 172 

Vermont Sweet 172 

VICTORIA 231 

Victoria Sweet 231 

Victoria Sweeting 231 

VICTUALS AND DRINK 233 

Vilikui Mogul 87 

VINEUSE ROUGE 233 

Finnoe Krasnoe Osennee 182 

Finograd . . . 244 

Virginia June 142 

Virginia Sweet 177 

Foronesh No. 21 247 

W abash BellHower 125 

Walter Pease 161 

Walworth 30 

Warden's Pie Apple 203 

Ward's Pippin 21 

Warren Pennock 53 

Washington (synonym of Sops 

of Wine) 203 

Washington (synonym of Wash- 
ington Strawberry) 234 

Washington (synonym of Sweet 

Bough) 217 

Washington Co. Seedling 234 

Washington of Maine 234 

WASHINGTON STRAWBERRY 234 

WATER 236 

Waterloo 178 



Watkins Early 211 

Watson's Vandervere 231 

Watson's Vandevere 231 

WEALTHY 236 

Weinapfel Rother 182 

Weinappel Rother 182 

Weiser Hawthornden 96 

Wells 148 

Westbrook . 60 

WESTERN BEAUTY 239 

Western Beauty (synonym of 

Grosh) . . . . 89 

Western Beauty (synonym of 

Ohio Nonpareil) 148 

Wheelers Kernel . 96 

White Apple (synonym of Haw- 
thornden) . .- . 96 

White Apple (synonym of Parry 

White) 157 

White Astracan 239 

WHITE ASTRACHAN 239 

White Borodovka 15 

White Graft of Wisconsin . 60 

White Hawthorndean 96 

White Hawthornden 96 

White June 1 18 

WHITE JUNEATING 240 

White Newell 60 

White Seek-No-Further 88 

WHITE SPANISH REINETTE 241 

White Spice 49 

WILLIAMS . . . ....... 242 

Williams Early 242 

Williams Early Red 242 

Williams Favorite 242 

Williams Favorite Red 242 

Williams Red 242 

Willis Sweet 244 

Willis Sweeting 244 

Wilsons June 181 

Windower 231 

Wine (synonym of Egg Top)... 56 
Wine (synonym of Fall Wine) . . 64 
Wine (synonym of Richard 

Graft) 186 

Wine (synonym of Twenty 

Ounce) 227 

Wine of Cole 64 



290 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



WINE RUBETS 244 

Winter Chandler 31 

Winter Golden Sweet 13 

Winter Pearmain (synonym of 

Long Island Pearmain) 124 

Winter Pearmain (synonym of 

Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Winter Seek-No-Further 88 

WINTHROP GREENING 245 

WOLF RIVER 245 

Wolf River (synonym of Alex- 

der) 3 

Wolman's Harvest 215 

Woodstock (synonym of Blen- 

heim) 21 

Woodstock (synonym of Dyer). 49 

Woodstock Pippin 21 

Woolman's Early 215 

Woolman's Harvest 215 

Woolman's Striped Harvest .... 215 
Woolverton 127 

WORKAROE 246 

Wunderapfel 3 



Yankee Apple 172 

Yellow Bough 217 

YELLOW CALVILLE 247 

Yellow Flat 118 

Yellow Harvest 51 

Yellow June (synonym of White 
Juneating) 240 



Yellow June (synonym of Kirk- 
bridge) 118 

Yellow Juneating 51 

Yellow May 240 

Yellow Summer Pearmain 166 

Yellow Sweeting 81 

YELLOW TRANSPARENT 247 

Yellow Transparent (synonym 

of Thaler) 222 

Yellow Vandervere 231 

YOPP 249 

Yopp's Favorite 249 

YORK 249 

York and Lancaster 193 

York Pippin (synonym of Fall 

Pippin) 62 

York Pippin (synonym of Golden 

Pippin I) 78 

York Pippin (synonym of White 

Spanish Reinette) 241 

York Russet (synonym of 

Cheeseboro) 33 

York Russet (synonym of 

Pumpkin Russet) 170 

York Russeting 33 

Zarskischip 45 

Zarski Schip 45 

Zarski Zars 45 

Zolotoi Renet 79 

Zour Bough 168 

Zuzoff of Tuttle 5 



CRABAPPLES. 



Amber Crab 269 

Baccata fructa oblonga 261 

BAILEY CRIMSON 251 

Bailey's Crimson 251 

Briar Sweet 251 

BRIER 251 

Brier's Sweet 251 

Brier Sweet (synonym of Brier) 251 
Brier Sweet (synonym of Van 
, Wyck) 268 

CHERRY 252 



CORAL 252 

CURRANT 253 

Current Crab 253 

DARTMOUTH 253 

EXCELSIOR 254 

FLORENCE 255 

GIBB 256 

Golden Beauty 269 



INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



291 



Hislop 257 

HYSLOP 257 

LARGE RED SIBERIAN 258 

LARGE YELLOW SIBERIAN 258 

MARENGO 259 

Marengo No. i 259 

Mar en go Winter Crab 259 

MARTHA 259 

MINNESOTA 260 

Montreal 261 

MONTREAL BEAUTY 261 

OBLONG 261 

Oblong-Fruited Siberian Crab.. 261 

Oblong Siberian Crab 261 

ORANGE 261 

I 

PAUL IMPERIAL 262 

PICTA STRIATA 263 

Pieta 263 

Pieta Striata 263 

Pomme Groseille 253 



PAGE. 

QUAKER 263 

QUEEN CHOICE 264 

Queen's Choice 264 

RED SIBERIAN 264 

SEPTEMBER 264 

Siberian Crab (synonym of Red 
Siberian) 264 

Siberian Crab (synonym of Yel- 
low Siberian) 269 

SOULARD 265 

TRANSCENDENT 266 

Transcendant 267 

VAN WYCK 267 

Van Wyck (synonym of Brier) . 251 

Van Wyck Siberian 268 

Van Wyck Sweet 268 

WHITNEY 268 

Whitney No. 20 268 

YELLOW SIBERIAN 269 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

Volumes J and 2, 



(Accepted names appear wholly or in part in roman type; synonyms in italic.) 



VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Abe Lincoln i?8 

Aberdeen 227 

Accidental 227 

Acuba-leaf Reinette 5 2 

Acuba-leaved Reinette .. 5 2 

ADIRONDACK I 

ADMIRABLE * 

lEsopus Spitzemberg 120 

&sopus Spitzenberg 120 

2Esopus Spitzenburg 120 

JEsopus Spitzenburgh 120 

Aiken 41 

Aikens Winter (of Downing) 4 1 

Aikin's Red 41 

Aken 41 

AKIN .. 41 

Akin Red 41 

Akin Seedling 41 

Akin's Red 41 

Albemarle 146 

Albemarle Pippin ,.;.'* 18, 146 

Albertin 3 

ALBION 2 

ALEXANDER 17, 1 8, 20, 25 3 

ALEXANDER GROUP 25 

A lexander the First 3 

A lexandre 3 

Alleghany 227 

ALLINGTON 42 

Allington Pippin 42 

ALLISON 43 

Almindelig 181 

AMASSIA . . 44 

Amber Crab 269 

293 



294 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

American no 

American Beauty Anonym of Sterling) 45, 319 

American Beauty (synonym of Sheriff) 308 

AMERICAN BLUSH 45 

American Blush (synonym of Hubbardston) 161 

American Fall . 62 

American Fall Pippin 241 

American Gloria Mundi 77 

American Golden 83 

American Golden Pippin 83 

American Golden Russet 89 

American Golden Russet (of New England) 164 

American Mammoth 77 

American Mother 143 

American Newtozvn Pippin 146 

American Nonpareille 161 

American Pearmain 211 

AMERICAN PIPPIN 45 

American Red 178 

American Red Juneating 55 

American Seek-No-Further 273 

American Summer 211 

American Summer Pearmain 211 

AMOS 46 

Amos Jackson 46 

AMSTERDAM 5 

Amsterdam Sweet 5 

ANDREWS 46 

Andrews Winter 46 

Anglesea Pippin 178 

ANIS 26 

ANISIM 5 

Anisim (of Peterson) 5 

Antenovka 6 

Antonowka 6 

ANTONOVKA 6 

Antony 6 

Api 181 

Apt eller 181 

Api Fin 181 

Api Ordinaire 181 

Api Petit 181 

Api Rose 181 

Api Rouge 181 

APORT 6 

APORT GROUP 20, 25 

Aport (synonym of Aport Orient) 7 

Aporta 3 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 295 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Aporta Nalivia, 3 

APORT ORIENT 7 

Apart Oriental 7 

Apple of Commerce 66 

Apple of the Well 363 

Apy Rouge 181 

Arabka 32 

ARCTIC 24 7 

Arkad Krasiwui 14 

Arkad Krasivui 14 

Arcad Krasivui 14 

ARKANSAS 24, 47 

Arkansas Baptist * . 140 

ARKANSAS BEAUTY 49 

ARKANSAS BLACK . 24, 49 

Arkansas Black (synonym of Arkansas) 47 

Arkansas Black Tivig 47, 5 

Arkansaw 47 

ARNOLD 50 

Arnold's Beauty 50 

Aromatic Spike No. 354 233 

Arsapple 1 16 

ARTHUR 51 

Astracan Blanch 239 

Astracan d'Ete 239 

Astracanischer Sommcr 239 

Astracan Rouge 178 

Astrachan 178 

Astrachan Red 178 

Astrakhan Rouge 178 

Astrachan White 239 

Astrachan Rouge 178 

Astravaskoe 155 

Aubertin 3 

AUCUBA 52 

Acubcefolia 52 

AUGUST 9 

August (synonym of July) 112 

August Apple 53 

AUGUSTINE 10 

August Sweet 216 

August Sweeting 216 

Aunt Dorcas 145 

Aunt Ginnie 75 

Aurora 227 

Austin 236 

Autumnal Bough 10 

Autumnal Swaar (synonym of Autumn Swaar) n 



296 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Autumnal Swaar (synonym of Autumn Sweet Swaar) .... 12 

Autumnal Sweet I2 

Autumnal Sweet Swaar 12 

AUTUMN BOUGH I5 I0 

Autumn Bough (synonym of Sweet Bough) 216 

Autumn Pearmain (synonym of Winter Pearmain) 378 

Autumn Pearmain (synonym of Long Island Pearmain) . . 124 

Autumn Pippin 62 

Autumn Rose 190 

Autumn Seeknofurther 88 

Autumn Strawberry 120 

AUTUMN STREAKED 10 

AUTUMN SWAAR 1 1, 12 

Autumn Szvaar (synonym of Autumn Sweet Swaar) 12 

Autumn Sweet 12 

Autumn Sweet Bough 10 

AUTUMN SWEET SWAAR 12 

Avery Sweet 175 

BABBITT 53 

Babouskino 83 

Babuscheno 83 

Babuschkino 83 

Babushkino 83 

Baccata fructa oblonga 261 

Bachelor 88 

Back Creek 146 

Baer 158 

BAILEY CRIMSON (Crab) 251 

Bailey's Golden Sweet 54 

BAILEY SPICE 13 

Bailey's Spice 13 

BAILEY SWEET 54 

Bailey Sweet (synonym of Sweet Winesap) 333 

BAKER 55 

BAKER SWEET 13 

Baker's Sweet 13 

BALDWIN 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, 24, 32, 56 

Baldwin Rosenapfel 56 

Baldwin's Rother Pippin 56 

Ball Apple 250 

Baltimore (synonym of Roseau) 292 

Baltimore (synonym of Gloria Mundi) 77 

Baltimore (synonym of Vandevere Pippin) 231 

Baltimore Pippin (synonym of Ben Davis) 69 

Baltimore Pippin (synonym of Gloria Mundi) 77 

Baltimore Red 69 

Baltimore Red Streak 69 

Banana 377 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 297 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 
PAGE. PAGE. 

BANANA SWEET 60, 377 

BANKS 14 

Banks Gravenstein 14 

Banks Red Gravenstein 14 

BAPTIST 61 

BARBEL 61 

Bard Apple 49 

Baroveski 151 

Barowiski 151 

Barretts Spitzenburgh 225 

BARRINGER 62 

BARRY 63 

Batchellor 88 

BATULLEN 64 

BAXTER 64 

Baxter's Red 64 

BEACH 66 

Beard Burden 49 

Beaute de Kent 15 

BEAUTIFUL ARCAD 14 

Beautiful Arcade 14 

Beautiful Pippin 184 

Beauty 324 

Beauty of America 45, 319 

BEAUTY OF KENT 15 

Beauty of Queen 3 

Beauty of the West (synonym of Western Beauty) 239 

Beauty of the West (synonym of Grosh) 89 

Beauty Red 40 

Bee de Lievre 264 

Beel Solotofskaja 82 

Beitigheimer 17 

BELBORODOOSKOE 15 

Belle Bonde . . . . 75 

Belle Bonne 75 

Belle d' Angers 21 

Belle de Boscoop 25 

Belle de Boskoop 25 

Belle d' Orleans 3 

Belle de Rome 290 

Belle Dubois 77 

BELLE ET BONNE 67 

Belle Fille 264 

Belle Flavoise 381 

BeUe-fleur 381 

Belle-fleur jaune 381 

Belle-Flower 381 

BelleHower Improved 204 



298 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Belle Josephine (synonym of Gloria Mundi) 77 

Belle Josephine (synonym of White Spanish Reinette) 241 

Belle of Boskoop 25 

Bellerdovskoe 15 

Belle Rose 168 

Bell-Flower 381 

BellHower 381 

Bellnower of the West 148 

Bell's Early 203 

Bell's Favorite 203 

Bellyband 67 

BELMONT 67 

Belmont Late 67 

Belpre Russet , 293 

BEN DAVIS 17, 18, 19, 21, 24, 68 

Ben Ford 45 

Benniger 15 

BENNINGER 15 

Bennington 203 

BENONI 16 

BENTLEY 71 

Bentley's Sweet 71 

Bergamot 6 

BERGEN 72 

Berry 227 

Berry Apple 39 

Bersford 269 

BESS POOL 72 

Best Pool 72 

BETHEL 19, 24, 72, 321 

BETHLEHEMITE 74 

Bethlemite 74 

Bielborodovskce 15 

BlETIGHEIMER 17 

Big Hill (synonym of Nickajack) 227 

Big Hill (synonym of Pryor) 269 

Big Rambo (synonym of Western Beauty) 239 

Big Rambo (synonym of Grosh) 89 

Big Romanite (synonym of Greyhouse) 153 

Big Romanite (synonym of Pennock) 255 

Big S^veet 233 

, Big Vandevere 231 

BILLY BOND 75 

BIRTH 18 

Bishop's Pippin of Nova Scotia 381 

BISMARCK 25 19 

Bismark J 9 

Black American 79 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 299 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 
PAGE. PAGE. 

BLACK ANNETTE 76 20 

Black Apple (synonym of Black Jersey} 79 

Black Apple (synonym of Detroit Red) 46 

Black Baldzvin 60 

BLACK BEN DAVIS 76 

Black Ben Davis (synonym of Gano) 135 

Blackburn 88 

Black Detroit 46 

BLACK GILLIFLOWER 12, 16, 17, 18, 32, 77 

Black Jack 153 

BLACK Jersey 79 

BLACK LADY APPLE 182 

Black Pennock 153 

Black Spits 77 

Black Spitzenberg 132 

Black Spy 189 

Black Sweet 219 

Black Twig 247 

Black Vandervere 153 

Black Vandevere 153 

Blair ~ 208 

Blanche 241 

Blanche d'Espagne 241 

Blanche Glacee d'Ete , 239 

BLENHEIM 20 

Blenheim Orange 21 

Blenheim Pippin 21 

Blenheimsrenett 21 

BLOOM 69 

Blooming Orange 21 

Blue Baldwin 60 

BLUE PEARMAIN 17, 18, 19, 24, 80 

BLUE PEARMAIN GROUP 24 

Blunien Calvill 85 

BLUSHED CALVILLE 22 

Blushed June 181 

Blush June 181 

Boatman's Seedling 359 

Bogdanoff (synonym of Bogdanoff Glass) 81 

Bogdanoff (synonym of Grandmother) 83 

BOGDANOFF GLASS 81 

Bogdanoff Steklianka 83 

Bohannon 118 

BOIKEN 82 

Boiken Apfel 82 

Bonford 269 

BONUM 23 

BOROVINKA , 24 



300 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Borovinka Angluskaia 24 

Borovitsky (synonym of Oldenburg) 25 151 

Borovitsky (synonym of Borovinka) 24 

Borowicki 151 

Borowitski 151 

Borowitsky 151 

BORSDORF 83 

Borsdorfer (synonym of Borsdorf) 84 

Borsdorfer (synonym of Anisim) 5 

BOSKOOP 25 

BOSTON RUSSET 85 

Boston Russet (synonym of Roxbury) 293 

BOTTLE GREENING 24, 85 

BOUCKEN 86 

Bough 216 

Bough, Early Sweet 216 

Bough Sweet 26, 216 

Bow Apple 216 

Bowers Apple 329 

BOYS DELIGHT 86 

Bracken 240 

Bracy's Seek-No-Further 88 

Brandywine 213 

Bread and Cheese 273 

BRESKOVKA 26 

Briar Sweet - 251 

BRIER (Crab) 251 

Brier Sweet (synonym of Brier) 251 

Brier Sweet (synonym of Van Wyck) 268 

BRILLIANT 69 

BRISTOL 86 

Bristol (synonym of Red Canada) 276 

Broad River ... .\ 289 

Brooke Pippin 146 

Brown' Golden Sweet 343 

BROWNLEES 86 

Brownlees Russet 86 

Brownlees Seedling Russet 86 

BROWN SWEET 87 

BUCKINGHAM 18, 88 

Buckley 33 

Buckram 97 

Buchanan 149 

Buler 174 

BULLOCK 15, 89 

Bullock (synonym of Hunt Russet) 164 

Bullock's Pippin (synonym of Bullock) 89 

Bullock's Pippin (synonym of Ewalt) 124 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 301 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Bullripe 49 

B UNKER HILL 27 

Burlington 225 

Burlington Greening 282 

Burlington Spitzenberg 225 

BUTTER 27 

Butter Pippin 78 

Byers 88 

Byers Red 88 

Cabane du Chien 98 

Cabashaw 227 

CABASHEA (Winter) 91, 176 

CABASHEA 28 

C abashed (synonym of Twenty Ounce Pippin) 349 

Cabashie 28 

Calkin's Pippin 30 

Calville Butter 56 

Calville de Gravenstein 85 

Calville Grafensteiner 85 

Calville Krasmui 22 

Cambour des Lorrains 213 

Camoisas du roi d'Espagne 241 

Camoise Blanche 241 

Camoisee Blanche 241 

CAMPFIELD 91 

Camuesar 241 

Camuezas 241 

Camusar 241 

CANADA BALDWIN 25, 92 69 

Canada Peach 159 

Canada Pippin (synonym of Canada Reinette) 93 

Canada Pippin (synonym of White Pippin) 368 

Canada Red (synonym of Red Canada) 276 

Canada Red (synonym of Roseau) 292 

Canada Redstreak 276 

CANADA REINETTE 32, 93 

Canada Reinette (synonym of Cheeseboro) 33 

Canadian Reinette 93 

Canadisk Reinet 93 

Canfield 91 

CANNON Pearmain 95 

Capp Mammoth 206 

Cardinale 181 

CARLOUGH 95 

Carnation Apple 96 

Carolina (synonym of Nickajack) 227 

Carolina (synonym of White Juneating) 240 

Carolina June 181 



302 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Carolina Red 181 

Carolina Red June 181 

Carolina Red Streak 69 

Carolina Spice 227 

Caroline (synonym of Nickajack) 227 

Caroline (synonym of White Juneating) 240 

CARPENTIN 96 

Carpentin Reinette 96 

Carthouse 138 

CATHEAD 29 

Cathead (synonym of Cheeseboro) 33 

Cathead (synonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

Cathead Greening 29 

Catshead 29 

Catshead Greening 29 

Cattell Apple 148 

Caux 114 

Cayuga Red Streak 227 

CAYWOOD 96 

CELESTIA 29 

Chaltram Pippin 227 

Champion 99 

Champion Red 99 

CHAMPLAIN 30 

CHANDLER 31 

Chandler's Red 31 

CHARLAMOFF 32 

Charlamoski 32 

Charlamovskoe 32 

Charlamowiski 151 

Charlamowski d'Automne 151 

Charlamowskircher Nalleoid 151 

Charlamowskoe 32 

Charlamowsky 151 

Charles Apple 199 

Charlottenthaler 222 

Charlottenthaler Apple 222 

Charlottenthaler Golba 222 

Charmant Blanc 213 

Chase 166 

Chatham Pippin 227 

Cheat (synonym of Domine) 109 

Cheat (synonym of Wells) 363 

Cheatan Pippin 227 

Cheataw 227 

Cheesborough 33 

CKEESEBORO 33 

Cheeseboro's Russet 33 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 303 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Cheeseborough 33 

Cheeseborough Russet 33 

CHENANGO 33 

Chenango Strawberry . 33 

CHERRY (Crab) 252 

Chimney Apple 65 

Christ Birth 18 

Christ Birth Apple 18 

Christmas 18 

Christmas Apple 181 

Christ's Golden Reinette 114 

Choice Kcntuck 311 

Cider 3H 

Cider Apple 31 1 

Cinnamon 6 

CLAPPER FLAT 34 

CLARKE 35 

Clarke Beauty 35 

CLAYTON 96 

Cling Tight 109 

Clothes-yard Apple 145 

CLYDE 36 

Clyde Beauty 36 

Coalbrook 225 

Cobbett's Fall (synonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

Cobbeti's Fall (synonym of White Spanish Reinette).... 241 

Cobbett's Fall Pippin (synonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

Cobbett's Fall Pippin (synonym of White Spanish 
Reinette) 241 

CODLING 117 

Codlin, Keswick 117 

Coe's Spice 49 

COFFELT 97 

Coffelt Beauty 97 

Coggeswell 98 

COGSWELL 98 

Cogswell Pearmain 98 

Coleman 227 

Cole's Quince 174 

COLLAMER 36 

Collamer Twenty Ounce 36 

COLLINS 99 

Collins' Red 99 

COLTON 37 

Colton Early 37 

COLVERT 38 

Combermere Apple 206 

Compound 329 



304 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Cotnpte Orloff 233 

Comte Woronzoff 3 

Concombre Ancien (synonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

Concombre Ancien (synonym of White Spanish Reinette) 241 

Conford 269 

Conic June 118 

Connecticut Seek-No-Further 364 

CONSTANTINE 39 

Coon 107 

Coon Red 107 

COOPER 16 40 

COOPER MARKET 100 

Cooper's Red (synonym of Cooper Market) 101 

Cooper's Red (synonym of Etowah) 123 

Cooper's Redling 101 

Copmanthorpe Crab 114 

Copp's Mammoth 77 

Corail 3 

CORAL (Crab) 252 

CORNELL 40 

Cornell Fancy 41 

Cornell's Favorite 41 

Cornell's Savewell 299 

CORNER 41 

CORNISH GILLIFLOWER 138 

Cornish Gillinoiver (synonym of Scollop Gilliflower) 197 

Corse's St. Lawrence 193 

Cos Orange 42 

Coss Champion 99 

Costard 29 

Costard Ray 29 

Count Orloff 233 

Coustard 29 

Cox ORANGE 42 

Cox's Orange Pippin 42 

Cox's Pomona 165 

CRANBERRY PIPPIN 300 43 

Crandall Seedling .' 107 

Crane's Pippin 244 

CREAM 44 

Crimson Beauty 196 

Crimson Pippin (synonym of Scarlet Pippin) 196 

Crimson Pippin (synonym of Detroit Red) 46 

Crimson Scarlet Pippin 196 

CROTTS 102 

CROW EGG 44 

CROWNS 102 

Cuir, De 264 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 305 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Gumming' s Rambo 89 

CURRANT (Crab) 3 2 53 

Current (Crab) 253 

Curtis Greening 331 

Cut Wine 244 

Czarskui Schip 45 

CZAR THORN 45 

Dahlonega 227 

Dame de Menage 206 

DANVERS Sweet 103 

Danvers Winter 103 

Danvers Winter Sweet 15, 103 

Dark Baldwin 60 

DARTMOUTH ( Crab) 253 

DEACON JONES 104 

DEADERICK 45 

Dean's Codlin 165 

De Bretagne 93 

De Cuir 264 

De Glace d'Ete 239 

De Glace Hative 239 

Deiltz 201 

De La Madeleine Rouge 55 

Delaware 273 

Delaware Red Winter 189 

Delaware Winter 189 

De Lorraine 213 

Demary ." . 73 

DEMOCRAT 105 

De Muscovie d'Ete 239 

De Neige 65 

De Notre-Dame 213 

De Rambourg 213 

De Rambure 213 

De Rateau 62 

De Ratteau 241 

Der Carpentin 96 

De Revel (synonym of Yellow Transparent) 248 

De Revel (synonym of Vineuse Rouge) 233 

Derrick and Ann 186 

Derrick's Graft 186 

Der Schwere Apfel 326 

De Seigneur d'Automne 29 

D'Espagne (synonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

D'Espagne (synonym of White Spanish Reinette) 241 

Deterding's Early 178 

Detroit (synonym of Ortley) 244 

Detroit (synonym of Detroit Red) 46 



306 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Detroit Black 46 

DETROIT RED " 12 46 

Detroit of the West 244 

D'Eve 141 

De Vin du Conn 227 

Dewit Apple 107 

De Witt 107 

Dickenson 106 

DICKINSON 106 

Die Haarlemer Reinette 93 

Diets Sommerkonig 85 

Die Weiberreinette 93 

DISHAROON 107 

Dix-huit Onces 227 

DOCTOR 17, 107 

Doctor Dezvitt 107 

DOCTOR WALKER 108 

Dodge's Black 79 

Dodge's Early Red 203 

DOMINE 17, 109 

Domine (synonym of Wells ?) 363 

Dominie 109 

Doppelte Casselar Reinette 114 

D'Or d'Angleterre 141 

DOUBLE ROSE no 

Douse 95 

Downing's Winter Maiden Blush 152 

Dows 95 

Dowse 95 

Dredge's Fame 21 

Du Bois in 

Duchess 151 

Duchesse d'Oldenbourg 151 

Duchess No. 3 158 

Duchess of Oldenburg 48, 151 

Duchess of Oldenburgh 151 

Ducks Bill 3?8 

DUDLEY 48 

Dudley Winter 48 

Duitsch Mignonne 114 

DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE in 

Duke of Wellington 112 

Du Marechal 65 

DUMELOW 1 12 

Dumelow's Crab 112 

Dumelow's Pippin 112 

Dumelozv's Seedling 112 

Dumpling 208 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 307 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

DUNCAN 113 

Durable Trois ans 1 16 

Dutches* 151 

Dutches* of Oldenberg 151 

Dutch Greening 253 

DUTCH MIGNONNE 32, 1 14 

Dutch Mignonne (synonym of Blenheim) 21 

Dutch Minion 114 

Duverson's June H 1 

DUZENBURY 115 

DYER 49 

Early Baldwin 168 

Early Bough 216 

EARLY CHANDLER 16 

Early Colton 37 

Early Congress 85 

Early French Reinette (synonym of Early Harvest) 51 

Early French Reinette (synonym of Sweet Bough) 216 

Early Golden Sweet 81 

EARLY HARVEST 15, 17, l8 5 

Early Jack 106 

Early Jennetting 240 

EARLY JOE 5 2 

Early July Pippin 51 

Early June (synonym of Early Harvest) 5 1 

Early June (synonym of Egg Top) 56 

Early June of South 141 

Early Margaret '. I4 1 

Early May 240 

EARLY PENNOCK 53 

Early Red .- 141 

Early Red Juneating 141 

Early Red Margaret I4 T 

Early Red Pippin 93 

Early Redstreak 93 

Early Red Streak 93 

EARLY RIPE 54 

EARLY STRAWBERRY 15, 17 54 

Early Striped Juneating 141 

Early Summer Pearmain 211 

Early Sweet 98 

Early Sweet Bough 216 

Early Sweetheart 216 

Early Tart Harvest 168 

Early Washington 203 

Edelborsdorfer 84 

Edgar County Red Streak 357 

Edgar Red Streak 357 



308 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Edgerly Sweet 54 

EDWARDS 115 

Edzvards (synonym of Nickajack) 227 

Edwards Favorite 115 

Edward Shantee 227 

Egg Jop 44 

EGG TOP 5 (5 

Eighteen Ounce 227 

Eighteen Ounce Apple 227 

EISER 1 16 

Eiser Rouge 1 16 

ELGIN PIPPIN 56 

Elgin Pippin (synonym of White Spanish Reinette) 241 

ELLSWORTH 117 

Empereur Alexandre I 3 

Empereur Alexandre de Russie 3 

Empereur de Russie 3 

Emperor Alexander 3 

Englese Orange Appel 154 

Englische Granat-Reinette 184 

Englischer Pepping 57 

English Beauty of Pennsylvania 109 

English Borovinka 24 

ENGLISH CODLING 117 

English Golden 143 

English Golden Pippin 141 

English Golden Russet 143 

English Jannetting 230 

English King 3 

ENGLISH PEARMAIN 16 

English Pearmain (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) .... 125 

ENGLISH PIPPIN 57 

English Pippin (synonym of Longfield) 123 

English Pippin (synonym of Golden Reinette) 142 

English Rambo (synonym of Grosh) 89 

English Rambo (synonym of Domine) 109 

English Rambo (synonym of Wells) 363 

English Red Streak (synonym of Domine) 109 

English Red Streak (synonym of Redstreak) 278 

English Red Streak (synonym of Wells) 363 

English Redstreak 278 

ENGLISH RUSSET 1 18 

English Russet (synonym of Long Island Russet I) 194 

English Spitzemberg 225 

English Spitsenberg 225 

English Sweet 58, 175 

English Sweeting 175 

English Vandevere 312 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 309 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

English Winter Red Streak (synonym of Domine) 109 

English Winter Red Streak (synonym of Wells) 363 

Episcopal 62 

Episcopate < 241 

Eppes Szueet 103 

Epse's Sweet 103 

Equinetely 88 

Ernst's Apple 149 

Ernst's Pippin 149 

Esopus 120 

Esopus Spitzemberg 121 

Esopus Spitzenberg 121 

Esopus Spitzenberg (New) 172 

ESOPUS Spitsenburg 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 24, 120 

Esopu* Spittsenburgh 121 

Essex Pippin 184 

ETOWAH 123 

Etowah (synonym of Cooper Market) 101 

ETRIS 123 

Eve 56 

Eve Apple (synonym of Egg Top) 56 

Eve Apple (synonym of Margaret) 141 

Everbearing 108 

EVENING PARTY 123 

EWALT 124 

EXCELSIOR (Crab) 254 

Faldwalder 125 

FALIX 125 

FALLA WATER 18, 32, 125 

Fall Bough 10 

Fall de W aides 125 

Fallcnwalder 125 

Fall Geneting 59 

Fall Gennetting 59 

FALL GREENING 58 

Fall Green Sweet 233 

FALL HARVEY 58 

Fall Jenetting 59 

FALL JENNETING 59 

Fall Jennetting 59 

FALL ORANGE 12, 60 

FALL PIPPIN 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 24 61 

FALL PIPPIN GROUP 24 

Fall Pippin (synonym of Fall Harvey) 5& 

Fall Pippin (synonym of Holland Pippin) 101 

Fall Pippin (synonym of White Spanish Reinette) 241 

Fall Queen (syonym of Buckingham) 88 

Fall Queen (synonym of fraas) 91 



310 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Fall Queen of Kentucky 88 

Fall Romanite 273 

Fall Strawberry 120 

Fall Stripe 196 

Fall Swaar 1 1 

Fall Sivaar of the West 1 1 

Fall Vandervere 231 

FALL WINE 63 

Fall Winesap 89 

FAMEUSE 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 25 65 

Fameuse (synonym of Utter) 230 

Fameuse Baldwin 98 

FAMEUSE, GREEN 69 

FAMEUSE GROUP 20, 25 68 

FAMEUSE NOIRE 69 

FAMEUSE SUCRE 69 

FAMILY 127 

FANNY 69 

FARRIS 128 

Faust's Rome Beauty 290 

Fay's Russet 164 

Fetch 56 

Femme de Menage 206 

FERDINAND 129 

FERRIS 130 

Feuilles D'Aucuba 52 

Filliken 153 

Fin d'Automne 3 

Fine Winter 373 

Fink 336 

Fink's Seedling 336 

FlSHKILL 32 70 

Fishkill Beauty 70 

Five-Quartered Gilliflower 197 

Flanders Pippin 206 

Flat 34 

Flat Spitzenburg 345 

Flint Russet 170 

FLORENCE 130 

FLORENCE (Crab) 255 

FLORY 131 

Flory Bellflower 131 

Floiver (of Genesee) 73 

Flushing (synonym of Flushing Spitsenburg) 132 

Flushing (synonym of Newtown Spitzenburg) 225 

Flushing Seek-No-Further 88 

Flushing Spitzenberg 132 

FLUSHING Spitzenburg 132 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 311 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Flushing Spitzenburg 132 

Flushing Spitzenburg (synonym of Roseau) 292 

Flushing Spitzenburgh 132 

FORD 71 

FOREST 133 

Forever Pippin 33 

Formosa 184 

Formosa Pippin 184 

Fornwalder 125 

Forsythe's Seedling 227 

Fourth of July 112 

Fowler 311 

Praise 55 

FRAKER 133 

Fraker's Seedling 133 

FRANCHOT 71 

Frank 33 

Frankfort Queen 88 

Frank Rambour 213 

FRENCH PIPPIN 24, 134 

French Pippin (synonym of Holland Pippin) 101 

French Pippin (synonym of Roman Stem) 188 

French Pippin (synonym of Newark Pippin) 223 

French Rambo 89 

French Reinette 215 

French Russet 264 

French Spitzenburgh 215 

French Spitzenburg of Vermont 292 

Fuller 311, 

FULLERTON SWEET 71 

Funkhouser 69 

Gait 67 

GANG 21, 135 

GARDEN ROYAL 72 

Gardener's Apple 143 

GARDNER SWEET PEARMAIN 73 

Gate 67 

Gay's Romanite 255 

Gelber Belleneur 381 

Gelber Englischer Schdnbluhender 381 

Gelee d'Ete 239 

General Chandler 31 

GENESEE FLOWER 73 

Genet 271 

Geneton 271 

Geneva Pearmain 30 

GENEVA PIPPIN 136 

Geniton 271 



312 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Gennetin 271 

Genneting 271 

Gennetting (synonym of Rails) 271 

Gennetting (synonym of White Juneating) 240 

Germaine 378 

German Calville 6 

German Calville 324 6 

German Green 93 

German Spitzenberg 153 

Georgia June 181 

GIBB (Crab) '. 256 

Gibbon's Smokehouse (synonym of Vandevere Pippin).... 231 

Gibbons Smokehouse (synonym of Smokehouse) 312 

GIDEON 74 

GIDEON SWEET 24, 137 

Gideon White 74 

Gillet's Seedling 290 

GlLLIFLOWER l6 

Gilliflozver 77, 138 

GILPIN 17, 32, 138 

Ginet 271 

- Ginetting 240 

GINNIE 75 

GlVENS 140 

Glace de Zelande 239 

Glade d'Ete 239 

GLADSTONE 25 75 

Glazenwood 77 

Glazenwood Gloria Mundi 77 

GLENLOCH 140 

GLORIA MUNDI 76 

Glory of York 184 

Gloucester Pippin 21 

Golden Apple 83 

Golden Beauty 269 

Golden Gray 328 

GOLDEN MEDAL 141 

GOLDEN PIPPIN 16, 141 

GOLDEN PIPPIN (I) 78 

GOLDEN PIPPIN (II) 79 

Golden Pippin (synonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

Golden Pippin (synonym of Golding) 83 

Golden Pippin (synonym of Belmont) 67 

Golden Pippin (synonym of Ortley) 244 

GOLDEN PIPPINS 78 

GOLDEN RED 142 

GOLDEN REINETTE 142 79 

Golden Rennet 142 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 313 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 
PAGE. PAGE. 

GOLDEN RUSSET 17, 18, 143, 295 

Golden Russet (synonym of Bullock) 89 

Golden Russet (synonym of Perry Russet) 257 

Golden Russet, American 89 

Golden Russet (not of New York} 164 

Golden Russet of Massachusetts. 164 

Golden Russet of New England 164 

Golden Russet of New York 143 

Golden Russet of Western New York 143 

Golden Spice 49 

GOLDEN SWEET 81 

Golden Sweet (synonym of Northern Sweet) 147 

Golden Sweeting 81 

GOLDEN WHITE 82 

GOLDING 82 

Gold Medal 141 

Goldreinette von Blenheim 21 

Good Peasant (synonym of Longfield) 123 

Good Peasant (synonym of Anisim) 5 

Gov. Seward's 227 

Gowden 227 

Gowdie 227 

Grafen-Apfel 85 

Grafensteiner 85 

Graham's Red Warrior 227 

Granat-Reinette 184 

Grand Alexander 3 

Grand Ale.vandre 3 

Grand Due Constantin 39 

Grand Duke Constantine 25 39 

GRANDMOTHER 83 

Grand M other 83 

Grandmother's Apple ' 145 

Grand Sultan (synonym of Vineuse Rouge) 233 

Grand Sultan (synonym of Yellow Transparent) 248 

GRANITE BEAUTY 145 

Grantham 108 

GRAVENSTEIN 12, 15, 17, 18 84 

Gravensteiner 85 

Gravenstein Rouge 180 

Gravenstine 85 

Grave Slige 85 

Grave Slije 85 

Gray Apple (synonym of McAfee) 196 

Gray Apple (synonym of Pomme Grise) 264 

Gray Baldzvin 60 

Grayhouse 153 

Gray Romanite (synonym of Greyhouse) 153 

Gray Romanite (synonym of Rambo) 273 



314 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Gray's Keeper 196 

Greasy Pippin (synonym of Ortley) 244 

Greasy Pippin (synonym of Lowell) 128 

GREAT BARBE 145 

GREAT MOGUL 87 

Great Pearmain 378 

Green Bellflower 244 

Greening 145, 282 

Green Mountain Pippin (synonym of Fallawater) 125 

Green Mountain Pippin (synonym of Virginia Greening) . . 352 

GREEN NEWTOWN 17, 1 8, 24, 145, 149 

Green Newtown Pippin 146 

Green Newton Pip pen (synonym of Rhode Island Green- 
ing) 282 

GREEN PIPPIN 16 

GREEN SEEK-NO- FURTHER 88 

GREEN SWEET 150 

Green Sweet (synonym of Repka Malenka) 282 

Green Sweet (synonym of Victuals and Drink) 233 

GREEN SWEETING 151 

Green Sweeting (synonym of Green Sweet) 151 

Green Transparent 233 

GREENVILLE 152 

Green Winter Pearmain 378 

Green Winter Pippin 146 

GREYHOUSE 153 

GRIMES 1 8, 19, 23, 153 

Grimes Golden 154 

Grimes Golden Pippin 154 

Grindstone 45 

Grise 264 

Gros-Alexandre 3 

Gros Api Rouge 181 

GROSH 89 

Grosh (synonym of Summer Rambo) 213 

Crash's Mammoth 89 

Groskoe Selenka Griiner 233 

Gros Pomier 91 

Gros Pommier 9 1 

Gros-Rambour d'Ete 213 

Gros Rambour d'Hiver 206 

Grosse Casselar Reinette 114 

Grosse Reinette d'Angleterre 93 

Grosser Mogul 87 

Grosse-Schafnase 29 

GRUNDY 90 

Gul. Bellefleur ,. 381 

HAAS 91 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 315 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 
. PAGE. PAGE. 

HAGLOE 92 

Hagloe Crab 92 

Hampers American 178 

Hampshire Greening 282 

Hang-On 339 

Hard Red 153 

Hardwick 326 

HARGROVE 155 

Harmony 53 

Harrigan 208 

Harvest (synonym of Early Harvest) 51 

Harvest (synonym of Primate) 168 

Harvest Apple 215 

HARVEST REDSTREAK 93 

Harvey 58 

HASKELL 93 

Haskell Sweet 94 

Hass 91 

Haus Miitterchen 206 

Haverstraw Pippin 30 

Hawkins Pippin 73 

HAWLEY 15, 24 94 

Haivley (synonym of Hawthornden) 96 

Hawthorndean 96 

HAWTHORNDEN 96 

Hays 373 

Hays Apple 373 

Hays Wine 373 

Hays Winter 373 

Hays Winter Wine 373 

HAYWOOD 155 

HAZEN 156 

Heaster 158 

Heicke's Summer Queen 53 

Heister 158 

HELEN 183 

H mpstead 321 

Hendrick 333 

Hendrick Sweet 333 

HENNIKER 156 

Henrick 333 

Henrick Sweet 333 

Henry Sweet 333 

Henshaw 88 

Herbstbreitling 213 

Herbst Strening 10 

Herbst StreHling 10 

HEREFORDSHIRE 157 



316 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Herefordshire Beefing 157 

Herefordshire Pearmain 378 

Herefordshire Redstreak 278 

Herr's June 141 

Hertfordshire Pearmain 378 

HIBERNAL 26 96 

HICKS 97 

HIESTER 158 

HIGHLAND BEAUTY 159, 183 

Highland Pippin 168 

HIGHTOP SWEET 97 

High Top Sweet 98 

High Top Sweet (synonym of Amsterdam) 5 

High Top Sweeting 98 

HILAIRE 69, 98 

HILTON , 99 

Himbeerapfel Lievlander 129 

Himbeerapfel Livlandcr 129 

Hislop 257 

HOADLEY 99 

Hogan > 109 

HOG ISLAND SWEET 100 

Hogpen 60 

Holden 60 

Holden Pippin 60 

HOLLAND PIPPIN 101 

Holland Pippin (synonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

Holland Pippin (synonym of Domine) 24, 109 

Holland Pippin (synonym of Holland Winter) 159 

Holland's Red Winter '. 375 

HOLLAND WINTER 159 

Hollow Cored Pippin 244 

Hollow Core Pippin 244 

Hollow Crown Pearmain (synonym of Wine) 373 

Hollow Crown Pearmain (synonym of Long Island Pear- 
main) 124. 

HOLMES 161 

HOLMES SWEET 161 

Hominy 203 

Honey Greening 16, 151 

Honey Siveet 380 

HOOK 103 

Hoop 153 

Hoopes 153 

Hoopes Pearmain 153 

Hoops 153 

Hopsey 153 

Hopson 153 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 317 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Horning 203 

Horse 91 

Hoss 91 

House (synonym of Greyhouse) 153 

House (synonym of Fall Wine) 64 

Howard 227 

HOWARD BEST 103 

Howard Russet 33 

Howard's Best 103 

Howard's Best Russian 103 

Howard's Sweet 54 

Howe Apple 245 

Hower 64 

Hoypen 60 

Hubbard 227 

HUBBARDSTON 17, l8, l6l 

Hubbardston Nonsuch (synonym of Hubbardston) 161 

Hubbardston Nonsuch (synonym of Sutton) 324 

Hudson Red Streak . 125 

HUNTER PIPPIN 104 

HUNT RUSSET 164 

Hunt's Fine Green Pippin 146 

Hunt's Green Newtown Pippin 146 

HUNTSMAN 18, 165 

Huntsman's Favorite 165 

Hurlburt 105 

HURLBUT 104 

Hurlbut (synonym of Ramsdell Sweet) 175 

Hurlbut Stripe 105 

Hurlbut Sweet 175 

Hurlbutt 105 

HYDE KING 166 

Hyde's King (of the West) 166 

HYSLOP (Crab) 257 

Illinois Greening 331 

Imperial Vandervere 231 

Imperial White 1 57 

Imperatrice Eugenie 21 

Imperatrice Josephine 77 

Indian 196 

Indiana Jannetting 271 

Indiana Vandevere 231 

Indian Queen 53 

Ingraham 167 

INGRAM 24, 167 

Ingram Seedling 167 

Inman 244 

ISHAM 106 



318 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Isham Sweet 106 

Isle of Wight Orange (synonym of Marigold) 202 

Isle of Wight Orange (synonym of Orange Pippin) 154 

Isle of Wight Pippin (synonym of Marigold) 202 

Isle of Wight Pippin (synonym of Orange Pippin) 154 

JACK 106 

Jack Apple 106 

JACKSON 168 

Jackson (synonym of Amos) 46 

Jackson (synonym of Chenango) 33 

Jackson Red 227 

Jackson Seedling 168 

Jackson Winesap 311 

Jacks Red 135 

Jacobs 169 

JACOBS SWEET 169 

Jacobs Win ter Sweet 169 

James River (synonym of Limbertwig) 193 

James River (synonym of Willow) 370 

Janet 271 

Janetting 271 

Januarea 93 

JARVIS 107 

Jefferies 108 

JEFFERIS 108 

JEFFERSON COUNTY 109 

Jefferson Pippin 271 

Jeffries 108 

Jellynoiver 197 

Jeniton 271 

Jenneting 240 

Jennett 271 

Jennetie 271 

Jennetting 109 

Jennetting (synonym of White Juneating) 240 

Jennings 166 

Jenniton 271 

Jersey Black 79 

Jersey Greening (synonym of Ortley) 244 

Jersey Greening (synonym of Rhode Island Greening} .... 282 

JERSEY SWEET 12 no 

Jersey Sweeting no 

JEWETT Red 19, 170 

Jewett's Fine Red 170 

Jewctt's Red 170 

Joaneting 240 

Joe Berry 225 

Joe Precoce S 2 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 319 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Johnathan I7 2 

John May 161 

Johnson 278 

Johnson's Fine Winter 385 

Jolly Gentleman 3 

JONATHAN 17, 1 8, 24, 32, 172 

JONATHAN BULER 174 

Jonathan of Buler 174 

Jonathan of the North 5 

Jones Early Harvest 181 

Jones Pippin 60 

Jones Seedling 43 

Josephine (synonym of Gloria Mundi) 77 

Josephine (synonym of White Spanish Reinette) 241 

Josie Moore 219 

JUDSON Ill 

JULY 112 

July Apple 168 

July Early Pippin 51 

July, Fourth of 112 

July Pippin 51 

June (synonym of Margaret) 141 

June (synonym of Red June) 181 

Juneateing 240 

Juneating 109 

Juneating (synonym of White Juneating) 240 

Juneting 240 

Juniata 234 

KAIGHN 183 113 

Kaighn's Spitzemburg 113 

Kaighn's Spitzenberg 113 

Kaighn's Spitzenbergh 113 

Kaighn's Spitzenburg (synonym of Kaighn) 113 

Kaighn's Spitzenburg (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) .. 125 

Kaighn's Spitzenburgh 113 

Kaign's Spitzenburg 113 

Kaiser A lexander 3 

Kajaboivka 114 

KALKIDON 114 

Kalkidonskoe 114 

Kalkidouskoe 114 

Kalkidovskoe 114 

Kahil jeltui 247 

Kalvil scholti 247 

Kanada Reinette 94 

Kanada-renett 93 

Kansas 175 

KANSAS GREENING 175 



320 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

KANSAS KEEPER 175 

Karaboff 1 14 

KARABOVKA 114 

Karabowka 115 

Kelley's Sweet 219 

Kelly White 67 

Kempster's Pippin 21 

Kennebcc Seedling 245 

Kent Beauty 15 

Kent Fillbasket 115 

Kentish Filbasket 115 

KENTISH FILLBASKET 115 

Kentish Pippin 15 

KENT PIPPIN 16 

Ken tucky Beliftoiver 125 

Kentucky Gilliftower 125 

Kentucky Pippin 69 

Kentucky Queen 88 

Kentucky Red Streak 357 

Kentucky Streak 69 

KES WICK 1 16 

Keswick Codlin 117 

Keswick Codling 117 

Kettageska 178 

Keystone 153 

Khalkidonskoe 114 

Kinderhook Pippin 77 

King (synonym of Buckingham) 88 

King (synonym of Tompkins King) 176, 345 

King (synonym of Twenty Ounce Pippin) 349 

King Apple 345 

King George the Third 84 

King of Tompkins County 345 

King Philip 172 

Kingsbury Russet (synonym of Cheeseboro) 33 

Kingsbury Russet (synonym of Pumpkin Russet) 170 

KlNNAIRD l8, 176 

Kinnaird's Choice 176 

Kinnaird's Favorite 176 

Kinnard 176 

Kinnard's Choice 176 

KlKKBRIDGE 1 18 

Kirkbridge White 1 18 

Kirkes Golden Reinette 142 

KlRKLAND 177 

KlTTAGESKEE l8, 178 

Kleine Graue Reinette 96 

Kleiner Apt 181 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 321 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Knight's Red June , 181 

Korallen Apfel 3 

Kountz 225 

La Belle Fameuse 65 

LACKER 179 

Lacquier 179 

Ladies Favorite of Tennessee 88 

Ladies Sweet (synonym of Lady Sweet) 184 

Ladies Sweet (synonym of Sweet Winesap) 333 

Ladies Sweeting 184 

LADY 15, 17, 32, 180 

Lady Apple 181 

Lady Blush 139 

Lady de Grey's 115 

LADY FINGER 183 118 

Lady Finger (synonym of Kaighn) 183 113 

Lady Finger (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Lady Finger Pippin 183 

LADY GROUP 182 

Lady Henniker 156 

Lady Pippin 66 

Lady's Apple 242 

LADY SEEDLINGS 183 

Lady Suffield 126 

Lady Sutherland 126 

Lady's Sweet 184 

Lady's Sweeting 184 

LADY SWEET 184 

Lady Szveet (synonym of Sweet Winesap) 333 

Lady Sweeting 333 

Lady Washington (synonym of Yellow Bellflower) 381 

Lady Washington (synonym of Cooper) 40 

La Fameuse 65 

Lambertwig 193 

Lammas 142 

Lancaster Queen 212 

LANDON 185 

LANDSBERG 119 

Landsberger Reinette 119 

Landsburg . ... 119 

Landsburger Reinette 119 

Lane Albert ' 268 

Lane's Prince Albert 268 

Langerfeldskoe 123 

Langford 186 

LANKFORD 18, 186 

Lankford's Seedling 186 

Lansberger Reinette 119 



322 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Lansinburg 188 

LANSINGBURG 187 

Lansingburgh 188 

Lansingburg Pippin 188 

Laquier 179 

Large Bough 216 

Large Early 51 

Large Early Bough 216 

Large Early Harvest 51 

Large Early Yellow Bough 216 

Large Fall 241 

Large Fall Pippin 241 

Large Golden Pippin (synonym of Champlain) 30 

Large Golden Pippin (synonym of Golden Pippin) 78 

LARGE LADY APPLE 182 

Large Newtown Pippin 146 

Large Rambo (synonym of Rambo) 273 

Large Rambo (synonym of Grosh) 89 

Large Red and Green Sweeting 177 

LARGE RED SIBERIAN ( Crab ) 258 

Large Red Sweeting 177 

Large Romanite 255 

Large Striped Pearmain 196 

Large Striped Winter Pearmain 196 

Large Summer Rambo 89 

Large Sweet Bough 216 

Large Vandervere 23 1 

Large White Juneating 51 

Large Winter Red 373 

Large Yellow Bough 216 

Large Yellow Newton Pippin 146 

Large Yellow Newtown Pippin 146 

LARGE YELLOW SIBERIAN (Crab) 258 

La Rue 64 

Late Baldwin 56 

Late Bough 10 

Late Chandler . .31 

LATE DUCHESS 25 

Late Golden Sweet 13 

LATE STRAWBERRY 120 

LATHAM 121 

LA VICTOIRE 188 69 

La Victoria Seedling 188 

LAWVER '8, .189 

LEAD 121 

Lead Apple , 121 

Leanham 227 

Leather Apple of Turic 264 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 323 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Lecker 179 

Leder 264 

LEEDS BEAUTY 196 

LEE SWEET 191 

LEHIGH Greening 134, 192 

Lexington Queen 88 

Lievland Raspberry 129 

Lille Api 181 

LILLY OF KENT 193 

Lily of Kent 193 

Lima 227 

Limber Tivig 193 

Ll MBERTWIG 193 

LIMBERTWIG (small or red) 193 

LIMBERTWIG (large or green) 194 

Lincoln 245 

LINCOLN PIPPIN 122 

Lincoln Pippin (synonym of Yellow Bellflower) 381 

Lincoln Pippin (synonym of Winthrop Greening) 245 

Lincolnshire Pippin 96 

LlNDENWALD 122 

Lineous Pippin 381 

Linnoeus Pippin 381 

Lippincott 215 

Litsey 108 

Little Pear-main 89 

Little Red Romanite (synonym of Gilpin) 138 

Little Red Romanite (synonym of Romanite) 289 

Little Repka 282 

Little Seedling 282 

Liveland Raspberry 129 

Livesleys Imperial 126 

Livland Raspberry 129 

Livre 206 

Lock's Favorite 361 

Lodge's Early 215 

Logan's Northern Pippin 213 

Long Bois 181 

LONGFIELD 26 122 

Longfield's Apple 123 

Long Island 60 

Long Island Graft 60 

LONG ISLAND PEARMAIN 124 

LONG ISLAND PIPPIN 16 

LONG ISLAND RUSSET (I) 17, 194 

LONG ISLAND RUSSET (II) 195 

Long Island Seek-No-Further 130 

Long John (synonym of Kaighn) 113 



324 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Long John (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Long Pearmain (synonym of Kaighn) 113 

Long Pearmain (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Long Pippin 183 

LONG RED PEARMAIN 125 

LONG STEM OF PENNSYLVANIA 196 

LONG STEM 125 

Long Stem Sweet 13 

LONGWORTH 125 

Long-worth Red Winter 125 

Lopside 153 

Lop-sided Pearmain 153 

Lop-side Pearmain 153 

Lord Kingston 96 

Lord Nelson 21 

LORD SUFFIELD 126 

Lothringer Rambour 89 

Lothringer Rambour d'Ete 213 

Lou 126 

Louis XVIII 55 

LOUISE 20, 25 69, 126 

Louise, Princess 127 

LOWELL 16, 24 128 

Lowell Pippin 128 

LOWLAND RASPBERRY 129 

LUBSK QUEEN 129 

Lubsk Reinette 130 

Lucius Apfel 21 

Lyman's Large Yellow 171 

Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet 171 

LYSCOM 130 

MABIE 24 131 

McAdow's June 112 

MCAFEE 196 

McAfee Red 196 

McAfee's Nonesuch 196 

McAfee's Nonsuch 196 

McAfee's Red 196 

McAffee 197 

McAffee's Nonesuch ' 197 

MCCARTY 132, 173 

McClcllan 135 

McLouds Family I2 7 

MACDONOUGH U 2 

MclNTOSH 17, 18, 20, 25 69,132 

Mclntosh Red 133 

Mackie's Clyde Beauty 36 

Mack inlay 197 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 325 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

McKlNLEY IQ7 

McKlNNEY IQS 

McLELLAN 134 

McLelan 135 

McLouds Family 127 

McMahan i 136 

McMahan White 136 

McMAHON 136 

McMahon White 136 

Macomber 187 

Magdalene 142 

MAGENTA 198 

Magnum Bonum 23 

MAGOG 138 

Magog Red Streak 138 

MAIDEN BLUSH 17, 18 139 

MAIDEN FAVORITE 141 

Maiden's Apple 141 

Maiden's Blush (synonym of Hawthornden) 96 

MAKEFIELD 312 

MALA CARLE 199 

Malcarle 199 

Mai Carle 199 

Male Carle 199 

MALINDA 199 

Malin owskoe 177 

Mamma Beam 67 

Mamma Bean 67 

Mammoth (synonym of Gloria Mundi) 77 

Mammoth (synonym of Golden Pippin) 78 

Mammoth Black Tivig (synonym of Arkansas) 47 

Mammoth Black Twig (synonym of Arkansas Black).... 50 

Mammoth Black Tung (synonym of Paragon) 247 

Mammoth Pippin 77 

Mammoth Rambo 89 

MANCHESTER 200 

Manks Codling 379 

MANN 201 

Maralandica : 51 

MARENGO (Crab) 259 

Marengo No. i 259 

Marengo Winter Crab 259 

MARGARET 141 

Margaret Early 142 

Margaret Early Red 142 

Margaretha Apfel 142 

Mar get Apple 142 



3 2 6 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Marguerite I42 

Marietta Russet 293 

Marietta Seek-No-Further 364 

MARIGOLD 202 

Marigold (synonym of Orange Pippin) 154 

Mangold Creed's 154 

Marigold Pippin (synonym of Marigold) 202 

Marigold Pippin (synonym of Orange Pippin) 154 

Marie Carle 199 

Maroquin 264 

Marrozv-bone 225 

MARTHA ( Crab) 3 259 

Martin 135 

Marygold (synonym of Marigold) 202 

Marygold (synonym of Orange Pippin) 154 

MASON ORANGE 204 

Mason's Improved 204 

Mason's Orange 204 

Massachusetts Golden Russett 164 

MASTEN 204 

Masten's Seedling 204 

Matchless 225 

Matthews Stripe 131 

Maudlin 142 

May 153 

May Apple 153 

May Seek-No-Farther 153 

May Seek-No-Further 153 

Meachem Sweet 146 

Mela Carla 199 

Mela de Carlo 199 

Mela di Carlo 199 

Mela Januera 94 

Melinda 199 

MELON 15, 24, 204 

Melon (synonym of Gloria Mundi) 77 

Melon Apple 204 

Melon de Norton 204 

Melon, Norton 204 

Melting Pippin 244 

Menage 206 

MENAGERE 206 

Menagerie 206 

Mere de Menage 206 

Merit 88 

MERRILL 207 

Merrill's 207 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 327 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Merrill's Apple 207 

Metzgerapfel 381 

Merger's Calvill 381 

Michel Miller 158 

Michigan Beauty 201 

MIDDLE ; 207 

MILAM 1 208 

MILDEN 209 

Milding 209 

Millcreek (synonym of Smokehouse) 312 

Millcreek (synonym of Vandevere Pippin) 231 

Millcreek Vandevere 312 

Millcreek Vandervere 23 1 

MILLER ' 142 

Miller (synonym of Hiester) 158 

Miller Seedling 142 

MlLLIGEN 142 

MILWAUKEE 25, 211 

MINISTER 212 

Minister Apple 212 

MlNKLER l8, 213 

MINNESOTA (Crab) 260 

MISSING LINK 214 

Mississippi 77 

Missouri 215 

Missouri Janet 271 

Missouri Keeper 215 

Missouri Orange 215 

MISSOURI Pippin 18, 215 

Missouri Pippin (synonym of Nickajack) 227 

Missouri Red 227 

Missouri Superior 197 

Mr. Gladstone 75 

Mittle 207 

Mobbs 227 

MONMOUTH 2l6 

Monmouth Pippin 217 

MONROE SWEET 24 

Montgomery Sweet 10 

Monstreuse Pippin 77 

Monstrous Pippin 77 

Monstrous Rambo 89 

Montreal (synonym of Montreal Beauty) 260 

Montreal (synonym of St. Lawrence) 193 

MONTREAL BEAUTY (Crab) 261 

Montreal Peach 159 

MOON 218 

Moore's Late Sweet 219 



328 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Moore's Shanty 219 

Moore's Sweet 219 

Moore's Sweeting 219 

MOORE SWEET 219 

Moor's Sweeting 219 

Moose ' 145 

Morgan's Favorite , 227 

Morris Red 324 

MOSHER 143 

Mosher Sweet 143 

MOTHER 15, 24 143 

Mother Apple 143 

Mother of America 143 

Mountaineer 145 

Mountain Flora 77 

Mountain Pippin (synonym of Fallawater) : . . 125 

Mountain Pippin (synonym of Newtown Pippin) 146 

MOUNTAIN SWEET 145 

MOUSE 145 

MOVER . 220 

Moyer Prize 220 

Mudhole 125 

Mumper Vandevere 213 

MUNSON 146 

Munson Sweet 146 

Munson Sweeting 146 

Musgrove 89 

Musgrove's Cooper (synonym of Grosh) 89 

Musgrove 's Cooper (synonym of Western Beauty) 239 

Mushroom 24 

Musk Spice 64 

Mygatt's Bergamot 49 

Myer's Nonpareil 148 

Naliwi Jabloky 239 

Naylor Rambo 89 

Neige 65 

Neige-Framboise de Gielen 65 

Neisley's Winter 255 

Neisley's Winter Penick 255 

NELSON 221 

Nelson Sweet 221 

Ne Plus Ultra 88 

NERO 222 

Neustadt's gelber Pepping 146 

Never Fail 271 

Neverfail 271 

NEWARK PIPPIN 223 

Newark Sweeting 91 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 329 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Neiv Brunswick 151 

Newby 107 

New England Golden Russet 164 

New England Russet 164 

New England Seeknofurther 364 

New Greening 331 

N. J. Red Streak 53 

NEWMAN 24, 224 

Newman Seedling 224 

New Missouri 197 

New Rhode Island Greening 331 

Newton's Pippin 146 

Nezvton Spitzemberg 225 

Newton Spitzenburgh 225 

Newton Yellow Pippin 146 

Newtown Greening 83 

NEWTOWN PIPPIN 1 1, 15, 16, 19, 146 

Newtown Spitzemberg 225 

Newtown Spitzenbergh 225 

NEWTOWN SPITZENBURG 15, 17, 225 

Newtown Spitzenburgh 225 

NEW WATER 226 

New York Bellftower 60 

Neiv York Gloria Mundi 77 

Neiv York Greening 146 

New York Greening (synonym of Golding) 83 

New York Pippin (synonym of Ben Davis) 69 

New York Pippin (synonym of Newtown Pippin) 146 

Niack Pippin (synonym of Sweet Bough) 217 

NlCKAJACK l8, 227 

Nickejack 227 

Nodhead 170 

Nonesuch (synonym of Red Canada) 276 

Nonesuch (synonym of Hubbardston) 161 

Nonpareil 148 

Nonpar eille 184 

Nonpareille de Hubbardston 161 

Nonsuch (synonym of Hubbardston) 161 

Nonsuch (synonym of McAfee) 197 

Nonsuch (synonym of Red Canada) 276 

Normanton Wonder 1 12 

North American Best 168 

Northampton 21 

North Carolina .'" 227 

Northern Golden Sweet 147 

Northern Golden Sweeting 147 

NORTHERN SPY 12, 15, 17, 18, 21, 24, 37, 229 

NORTHERN SPY GROUP 24 



33 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 
PAGE. PAGE. 

NORTHERN SWEET 147 

Northern Sweeting (synonym of Munson) 146 

Northern Sweeting (synonym of Northern Sweet) 147 

North Star 48 

NORTHWESTERN Greening 24, 233 

North West Greening 233 

Northwick Pippin 21 

Norton's Melon 204 

Norton Watermelon 204 

No. 3 M 121 

No. 4 M 155 

No. 6 M 83 

No. 9 M 24 

No. ii M 189 

No. 14 M 5 

No. 18 M 5 

No. 21 M 115 

No. 22 M 22 

No. 23 M 7 

No. 24 M 195 

No. 26 M 6 

No. 54 M 87 

No. 56 M 123 

No. 57 M 123 

No. 80 M , 195 

No. 94 M. 114 

No. 105 M 32 

No. 134 M 224 

No. 139 M 183 

No. 140 M 45 

No. 147 M 222 

No. 152 M 27 

No. 161 M 18 

No. 161 123 

No. 205 115 

No. 206 45 

No. 210 244 

No. 224 6 

No. 230 224 

No. 236 6 

No. 245 24 

No. 252 7 

No. 262 32 

No. 288 177 

No. 333 182 

No. 340 129 

No. 343 182 

No. 351 170 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 331 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

No. 372 195 

No. 410 282 

No. 418 282 

No. 442 247 

No. 444 130 

No. 453 14 

No. 457 39 

No. 467 61 

No. 469 83 

No. 472 155 

No. 477 18 

No. 540 114 

No. 587 5X 

No. 599 189 

No. 964 10 

No. 978 82 

No. 979 82 

No. 981 82 

No. 12 Orel 7 

No. 21 Veronesh 247 

No. 51 Vor 79 

No. 84 Vor 83 

Nyack 30 

Nyack Pippin 30 

OAKLAND 234 

Oakland County Seek-No-Further 234 

Oats 51 

OBLONG (Crab) 261 

Oblong-Fruited Siberian Crab 261 

Oblong Siberian Crab 261 

OCCIDENT 24, 235 

Oel - 236 

OEL AUSTIN 24, 236 

OGDENSBURG 147 

Ohio Beauty (synonym of Western Beauty) 239 

Ohio Beauty (synonym of Grosh) 89 

Ohio Favorite 244 

OHIO NONPAREIL 148 

Ohio Nonpareil (synonym of Gravenstein) 85 

Ohio Nonpariel 148 

OHIO PIPPIN 149 

Ohio Wine (synonym of Fall Wine) 64 

Ohio Wine (synonym of Kaighn) 113 

OKABENA 150 

Okobena 150 

OLDENBURG 17, 18, 25, 26 150 

Oldenburg, Duchess of 151 

OLDENBURG GROUP 25 



332 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Oldenburgh 151 

Old English Pearmain 378 

Old Golden Pippin 141 

Old Haivthorndean 96 

Old Nonsuch 276 

Old Pearmain 378 

OLIVE 237 

OLIVER 238 

Oliver's Red 238 

OLYMPIA 24, 60, 239 

Olympia Baldwin 239 

Omensk 189 

ONTARIO 21, 24, 240 

OPALESCENT 242 

Oporto 7 

ORANGE 153 

ORANGE (Crab) 261 

Orange (synonym of Fall Orange) 60 

Orange (synonym of Lowell) 128 

Orange (synonym of Orange Pippin) 154 

Orange Blenheim 21 

Orange de Cox 42 

ORANGE OF NEW JERSEY 153 

ORANGE OF PENNSYLVANIA 153 

ORANGE PIPPIN 154 

Orange Pippin (synonym of Marigold) 202 

Orange Pippin (synonym of Blenheim) 21 

Orange Russet 154 

ORANGE SWEET 154 

Orange Sweet (synonym of Mttnson) 146 

Orange Sweet (synonym of Golden Sweet) 81 

Orange Sweeting (synonym of Golden Sweet) 81 

Orange Sweeting (synonym of Orange Sweet) 154 

Orleans 161 

Orloff 233 

Orlovskoe 233 

Orlowskoe 233 

ORNAMENT 243 

Ornament de Table 243 

Ornement de Table 243 

Orsimui 97 

ORTLEY 244 

Ortley Apple 244 

Ortley Pippin 244 

Osgood's Favourite 131 

Osimoe 97 

Oskaloosa 106 

OSTRAKOFF 155 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 333 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Ostrakoff Glass 155 

Ostrekoff 155 

Ostrekoff's Glass . . 155 

Ostrekovskaya Steklianka 155 

Ostrekoivskaja Steklianka 155 

Ostrokoff 155 

Ostrokoff's Glass 155 

Ox Apple 77 

Ox-Eye (synonym of Buckingham) 88 

Ox Eye (synonym of Newtown Spitzenburg) 225 

Oxeye (synonym of Vandevere) 230 

Oxheart (synonym of Cheeseboro) 33 

Oxheart (synonym of Twenty Ounce Pippin) 349 

Owen's Golden Beauty 240 

Ozark 135 

Ozark Pippin 45 

PALOUSE 156 

PALMER 246 

Palmer Greening 361 

Palmer of N. Z 246 

Paper 30 

Paper-skin 30 

Paradies Apfel 85 

Paradise Winter 380 

Paradise Winter Szveet 380 

PARAGON 24, 246 

Paragon (synonym of Arkansas) 47 

Pariser Rambour Reinette 94 

Park (synonym of McAfee) 197 

Park (synonym of Park Spice) 248 

Park (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Par k Apple 248 

Parks Keeper 197 

PARK SPICE 248 

PARLIN 248 

Parlin's fieauty 248 

Parmain d'Angleterre 378 

Parmain d'Hiver 378 

Parmain-Pepping 378 

PARRY WHITE 157 

PARSON 249 

Parson's Sweet 249 

Paternoster Apple , 1 14 

Patersons Sweet 54 

PATTEN 158 

Patten's Duchess No. 3 158 

Patten Greening 158 

Patterson's Sweet 54 



334 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

PAUL IMPERIAL (Crab) 262 

PAWPAW 250 

Pawpaw Seedling 250 

PAYNE 250 

Payne Late Keeper 250 

Payne's Keeper 250 

Pay ton , 135 

PEACH 251 

PEACH (Montreal) 159 

Peach Apple of Montreal 159 

Peach of Kentucky 251 

Peach of Montreal. . . . 159 

PEACH POND 160 

Peach Pond Sweet 160 

Peach Pound Sweet 160 

Pear Apple 174 

Pear Lot 244 

PEARMAIN 252 

Pearmain (synonym of Winter Pearmain) 378 

Pear main (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Pearmain d'Hiver 378 

Pearmain Herefordshire 378 

PEARSALL , 161 

Pear sail's Sweet 161 

Pear-Tree Lot 244 

PEASE 161 

Pease, ' Walter 161 

PEASGOOD NONSUCH 162 

Peasgood's Nonesuch 162 

Peau 264 

Peck 253 

Pecker 56 

PECK Pleasant 12, 24, 32, 253 

Peck's Pleasant 253 

Peewaukee 258 

Pelican 255 

Penick 255 

Pennick 255 

PENNOCK 17, 255 

Pennock's Red Winter 255 

Pennsylvania Cider 311 

Pennsylvania Red-Streak 373 

Pennsylvania Vandevere 231 

Pipin de Kent 15 

Pepin de New- York 69 

Pepin d'Or 141 

Pepin Parmain d'Angleterre 378 

Pepin Parmain d'Hiver 378 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 335 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Pepin Ribston 184 

Pepping Englischer 57 

Peremenes 379 

Perle d'Angleterre 21 

Pcrmaine 379 

Permein 379 

PERRY REDSTREAK 162 

Perry Red Streak 162 

PERRY RUSSET 256 

PETER 25 163 

Petersburgh Pippin 146 

Peterson's Charlamoff 32 

Petit Api 181 

Petit Api Rose 181 

Petit Api Rouge 181 

Petit Apis 181 

Petite Reinette Grise 96 

Petrovskoe 195 

Petrowskoe 195 

PEWAUKEE 25, 258 

Pfeifer 262 

Pfeiffer 262 

Pfund 206 

Philadelphia Pippin (syonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

Philadelphia Pippin (synonym of White Spanish Reinette) 241 

Philadelphia Sweet 10 

Philip Rick 172 

Phoenix (synonym of Pennock) 255 

Phoenix (synonym of Rome) 290 

Phoenix 3 

Phonix 3 

Picard 260 

Picard's Reserve 260 

Pickard 260 

PICKARD RESERVE 260 

Packard's Reserve 260 

Pickaway Rambo 89 

PICTA STRTATA ( Crab) 263 

Pie Apple (synonym of Holland Pippin) 101 

Pie Apple (synonym of Sops of Wine) 203 

Pieta 263 

Pieta Striata . 263 

PIFER 262 

Pilliken 153 

Pirn's Beauty of the West 125 

Pineapple 257 

Pineapple Rutset 257 

Pine's Beauty of the West 125 



336 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

PINE STUMP 263 

Piper 262 

PIPPIN 263 

Pippin (synonym of Newtown Pippin) 146 

Pippin, Bullock 89 

Pippin Kent 15 

Pittstown Pippin 79 

Pitser Hill 269 

Platarchium 379 

Plodowitka Caudkaja 170 

Plodowitka Cuadkaja 170 

PLUMB CIDER 164 

Plum Cider 164 

Pointed Pipka 32 

Polecat 212 

Polhemus 219 

Pomme Astrachan 239 

Pomme d'Api 181 

Pomme d'Api Rouge 181 

Pomme d'Apis 181 

Pomme d' Astrachan 239 

Pomme de Blenheim 21 

Pomme de Caen 94 

Pomme de Charles 199 

Pomme de Cuir 269 

Pomme d'Ete of Canada 51 

Pomme de Fameuse 65 

Pomme de Per 292 

Pomme de Hawthornden 96 

Pomme de Laak 1 14 

Pomme de Neige 65 

Pomme de Notre-Dame 213 

Pomme d' Orange 154 

Pomme de Transylvania 64 

Pomme Fameuse 65 

Pomme Finale 199 

Pomme Graefenstein 85 

Pomme Gree 264 

Pomme Gris 264 

POMME GRISE 264 

Pomme Grise d'Or 328 

Pomme Groseille 2 53 

Pomme Peche 159 

Pomme Rose 181 

Pommeroy 184 

Pomme Royal 49 

Pomme Royale 49 

Pomme Roye (synonym of Pennock) 255 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 337 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Pomme Roye (synonym of Dyer) 49 

Pomme Water 49 

Pommewater in Illinois 49 

POMONA 164 

Pomona Brittannica , 3 

Pomone d'Apis 181 

Pompey 233 

Poplar Bluff 311 

Popular Bluff 311 

PORTER , 12, 15 166 

Portugal 94 

Possaris Nalivia 6 

Potter's Large 1 16 

Potter's Large Grey Seedling 1 16 

Potter's Large Seedling 116 

Poughkeepsie Russet (synonym of English Russet) 118 

Poughkeepsie Russet (synonym of Perry Russet) 257 

Pound (synonym of Fallawater) 125 

Pound (synonym of Nickajack) 227 

Pound (synonym of Gloria Mundi) 77 

Pound Pippin 62 

Pound Royal (synonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

Pound Royal (synonym of Golden Pippin) 78 

Pound Royal (synonym of Lowell) 128 

Pound Royal (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Pound's July 217 

POUND SWEET 266 167 

Pound Sweet (synonym of Moore Sweet) 219 

Pound Sweet (synonym of Pumpkin Sweet) 171 

Powers 168 

Prager Reinette Franche de Grandville 264 

Pratt 266 

PRATT SWEET 266 

President Napoleon 3 

Pride of Genesee 73 

Pride of Hudson 62 

Pride of Texas 337 

Pride of the Hudson 62 

PRIESTLY 267 

Prifstley 267 

Priestley's American 267 

PRIMATE 167 

Primiting 240 

PRINCE ALBERT 268 

Prince Albert (Lane} 268 

Prince Bismark 19 

Princesse Noble 142 . 

Prince of Wales 21 



338 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Prince's Early Harvest 51 

Prince's Harvest 51 

Prince's Large Pippin of New York 62 

Prince's Large Red and Green Sweeting 177 

Prince's Red and Green Sweet 177 

Prince's Yellow Harvest 51 

Princess Louise 127 

Prinzessin-Apfel 85 

Prior's Late Red 269 

Prior's Red 269 

PROLIFIC BEAUTY t 16 

Prolific Beauty (synonym of Pennock) 255 

Prolific Beauty (synonym of Blue Pearmain) 80 

Prolific Sweet 170 

PROLIFIC SWEETING 169 

Prussian 38 

PRYOR 269 

Pryor Red 269 

Pryor's Pearmain 269 

Pryor' s Red 269 

PUMPKIN RUSSET 170 

PUMPKIN SWEET 16, 17, 18 171 

Pumpkin Sweet (synonym of Cheeseboro) 33 

Pumpkin Sweet (synonym of Pumpkin Russet) 170 

Pumpkin Sweeting (synonym of Pumpkin Sweet) 172 

Pumpkin 'Sweeting (synonym of Pumpkin Russet) 170 

Putman's Russet 293 

Putnam Russet 293 

Putnam's Savewell 299 

Pyrus Astracanica 239 

QUAKER ( Crab) ^ . 263 

Quaker, (synonym of Streaked Pippin) 321 

Queen (synonym of Buckingham) 88 

Queen (synonym of Summer Queen) 212 

Queen (synonym of Williams) 242 

Queen Anne (synonym of Lowell) 128 

Queen Anne (synonym of Mother) 143 

QUEEN CHOICE ( Crab) 264 

Queen of Hayzvood 155 

Queens 84 

Queen's Choice 263 

QUINCE (of Cole) 174 

QUINCE (of Coxe) '. 17 174 

Quince Apple 174 

Rag Apple 146 

RALLS 18, 24, 270 

RALLS GROUP 24 

Rails Genet 271 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 339 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Rails Janet 271 

RAMBO 17, 18, 32, 273 

Rambouillet 273 

Ramboulette 273 

Ramboulrette 109 

Rambour 213 

Rambour Barre 379 

Rambour Blanc 213 

Rambour d'Amerique 213 

Rambour d'Ete i 213 

Rambour Franc 213 

Rambourg Aigre 213 

Rambour Gros 213 

Rambour Lorraine 89 

Rambour Raye 213 

Rambu 213 

Ramsdale's Sweeting 175 

Ramsdell 175 

Ramsdell Red Sweet 175 

Ramsdell 's Red 175 

Ramsdell 's Red Sweeting 175 

RAMSDELL SWEET 175 

Ramsdell' s Red Pumpkin Sweet 175 

Randall's Red Winter 175 

RASPBERRY 176 

Raule Jannet 271 

Raule's Genet 271 

Raule' s Janet 271 

Raule's Janette 271 

Raule's Jannetting 271 

Raule's Jen-netting 271 

Raul's Gennetling 271 

Rawle's Genet 271 

Rawle's Janet 271 

Rawle's Jennet 271 

Rawle's Jenneting 271 

Rawle's Jennette 271 

Ray Apple 146 

Reagan 135 

RED AND GREEN SWEET 177 

Red and Green Sweeting 177 

Red Astracan 178 

RED ASTRACHAN 15, 17, 18, 25, 26 178 

Red Astrakhan 178 

Red Baldwin Pippin 56 

Red Beitigheimer 17 

Red Bellfloiver (synonym of Ohio Nonpareil) 148 

Red Bellflower (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 



34 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Red Ben Davis 135 

Red Bietigheimer 19 

Red Bough 177 

RED CANADA 15, 24, 37, 275 

Red Canada of Ontario 292 

Red Cathead 267 

Red Cheek (synonym of Monmouth) 217 

Red Cheek (synonym of Raspberry) 177 

Red Cheek (synonym of Maiden Blush) 139 

Red Cheek (synonym of Fall Orange) 60 

Red Cheeked Pippin 217 

Red Cheek Pippin 217 

Red Codlin 132 

Red Doctor 107 

Red Riser , 1 16 

Red Everlasting 153 

Red GilliHower (synonym of Black Gilliflower) 77 

Red Gilliflower (synonym of Scollop Gilliflower) 197 

Red Gilliflower (synonym of Striped Gilliflower) 207 

Red Gloria Mundi 88 

RED GRAVENSTEIN 180 

Red Gravenstein (synonym of Banks) . 14 

Red Hawthornden 96 

Red Hazel 227 

RED HOOK 180 

Red Horse 88 

Red Joaneting 142 

RED JUNE 181 

Red Juneating (synonym of Margaret) 142 

Red Juneating (synonym of Red June) 181 

Red Juneating (synonym of Early Strawberry) 55 

Red June, Carolina 181 

Red June of South 142 

Red Juneting 142 

Red Lady Finger 183 

Red Limbertwig 193 

Redling 101 

Red Neverfail 271 

Red Ox 255 

Red Pearmain (synonym of Kaighn) 113 

Red Pearmain (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Red Pennock 255 

Red Phoenix (synonym of Kaighn) 113 

Red Phoenix (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Red Pippin (synonym of Ben Davis) 69 

Red Pippin (synonym of Nickajack) 227 

Red Pippin (synonym of Streaked Pippin) 321 

Red Pippin (synonym of Kaighn) 1 13 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 341 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Red Pippin (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Red Pound 64 

Red Pumpkin Sweet 175 

Red Pumpkin Siveeting 175 

Red Reinette 83 

Red Rock 188 

Red Romanite 289 

Red Romanite of Ohio 138 

RED RUSSET 278 

Red Russet (synonym of Pryor) 269 

Red Shropsavine 203 

RED SIBERIAN (Crab) .- 264 

Red Spitzenberg (synonym of Kaighn) 113 

Red Spitzenberg (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Red Spitzenberg (synonym of Richard Graft) 186 

Red Spitzenburg 113 

REDSTREAK 278 

Red Streak 278 

Red Siveet Pippin 219 

Red Sweet Winesap 333 

RED TRANSPARENT 182 

Red Transparent (synonym of Vineuse Rouge) 233 

RED TYPE OF TWENTY OUNCE 229 

RED TYPE OF WESTFIELD Seek-No-Further 366 

Red Vandervere 231 

Red Vandevere 312 

Red Warrior 227 

RED WINE 182 

Red Winter 276 

RED WINTER PEARMAIN 183 

Red Winter Pearmain 279 

Red Winter Pearmain (synonym of Westfield Seek-No- 
Further') 364 

Red Winter Pearmain (synonym of Kaighn) 113 

Red Winter Pearmain (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) . . 125 

RED WINTER PIPPIN 183 

Red Winter Sweet 219 

REED 183 

Reindell's Large 175 

REINETTE 279 

Reinette a feuille d'Acuba 52 

Reinette A Gobelet 241 

Reinette Belle de Boskoop 25 

Reinette Blanche 241 

Reinette Blanche d'Espagne (synonym of White Spanish 

Reinette) 241 

Reinette Blanche d'Espagne (synonym of Fall Pippin).... 62 

Reinette Canada 94 



34 2 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 



VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Reinctte Carpcntin 96 

Reinette de Blenheim 21 

Reinette de Caen 94 

Reinctte de Canada 94 

Reinette de Canada a'Cotes 94 

Reinette de Caux 1 14 

Reinette de Darnetal 264 

Reinette d'Espagne 241 

Reinette d'Holland 161 

Reinette de Landsberg 119 

Reinette de Netv York 146 

Reinette d'Or 114 

Reinette de Traver 184 

Reinette Doree , 114 

Reinette du Canada 94 

Reinette du Canada a'Cortes 94 

Reinette du Canada Blanche 94 

Reinette Grenade Anglaise : 184 

Reinette Grise 264 

Reinette Grise Brownlees 86 

Reinette Grise de Darnetal 264 

Reinette Grise Double 265 

Reinette Grise de Grandville 265 

Reinette Grise d'Hiver 265 

Reinette Grise Extra 265 

Reinette Grise Franchaise 264 

Reinette Grosse de Angleterre 94 

Reinette Landsberger 119 

Reinette Liubski 130 

Reinette Monstrueuse 25 

Reinette Monstreuse de Canada 94 

Reinette Orange de Cox : 42 

Reinette Pepin 280 

REINETTE PIPPIN 280 

Reinette Quarrendon 142 

Reinette Tendre 241 

Reinette toute Grise 265 

Reinette von Canada .*. . . 94 

Reinette von Montfort 25 

Reipka Melenkaya 282 

Renet Liubskui 130 

REPKA 183 

REPKA MALENKA 281 

Rcmboure d'Ete 213 

ReschestwenskOe 19 

Revelstone 248 

Revelstone Pippin 233 

Rhode Island . 282 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 343 



VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

RHODE ISLAND Greening 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 24, 282 

RHODE ISLAND Greening Group 24 

Rhode Island Russet 257 

Rhode Island Seek-No-Further 130 

Rhode Island Sweet 172 

Riabinouka 39 

Ribbed Gilliflozver 197 

Ribbed Pippin 83 

RIBSTON 17 184 

Ribstone 184 

Ribstone Pippin 184 

Ribston Pepping 184 

Ribston Pippin 184 

Richard 186 

RICHARD GRAFT 186' 

Richardson's Red 66 

Richfield Nonsuch 276 

Rickman's Red 227 

RIDGE 287 

Ridge (synonym of Ribston) 184 

Ridge Pippin 287 

Riepka / 183 

Ripp Apfel 85 

Roa Yon 184 

Robinson 316 

Rock :.. 289 

Rock Apple , 188 

Rockhill's Russet 184 

ROCK PIPPIN 288 

Rock Remain 271 

Rock Rimmon 271 

Rode Wyn Appel 203 

ROLFE 187 

Rolland , 67 

Roman Beauty 290 

ROMANITE 289 

Romanite (synonym of Gilpin) 138 

Romanite (synonym of Greyhouse) 153 

Romanite (synonym of Pennock) "255 

Romanite (synonym of Rambo) 273 

Romanite of the South 289 

Romanite of the West 138 

Romanite, South 289 

Roman Knight 255 

ROMAN STEM 17, 18 188 

ROME 32, 290 

Rome Beauty 290 

Romenskoe 189 



344 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

ROMNA 189 

Romna (synonym of Hibernal) 97 

Romnenskoe 189 

RONK 190 

Roschdestvenskoe 19 

Rose tide stwenskoe 19 

ROSEAU 292 

ROSE-COLORED LADY APPLE 182 

ROSE RED 190 

Rose Sweet 333 

Roshdestrenskoe 19 

Rosseau 292 

Ross Greening 352 

Rother Astrakhan 178 

Rother Riser 1 16 

Rother Riser Apfel 116 

Rother Gravensteiner 180 

Rother Jacobs 142 

Rother Jacobs Apfel 142 

Rother Weinapfel 182 

Rotherwein Appel 182 

Rouge de Pryor 269 

Rouge Rayee (synonym of Eiser) 116 

Rouge Rayee (synonym of Redstreak) 278 

Rough and Ready 168 

Round Catshead 29 

Round Sweet 172 

Round Top 56 

Rox 294 

ROXBURY 15, 16, 17, 18, 23, 293 

Ro.vbury Russet 293 

Roxbury Russeting 293 

Rox Russet 294 

Royal Janette 271 

Royal Red of Kentucky 375 

Rubets Vinogradnui 244 

Rubes Vuinogradnui 244 

Rubicon 250 

Ruckman ' 227 

Ruckman's Red 227 

Russam (synonym of Kaighn) H3 

Russam (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Russet 294 

RUSSET BALDWIN 59 

Russet, Boston or Roxbury 294 

Russet, Golden 143 

Russet Pearmain ' 164 

Russet Seek-No-Further 364 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 345 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

RUSSIAN BALDWIN 295 

Russian Emperor 3 

Russian Gravenstein 6 

Rusty Core 148 

RUTLEDGE 296 

Sabine 85 

Safstaholm 191 

SAFSTAHOLMS 191 

Sdfstaholmsdple 191 

SAILEE RUSSET 192 

Saille Sweet 177 

SAILLY AUTUMN 192 

Saint-Germaine 241 

St. Helena Russet 94 

St. Hilaire 98 

St. John's Strawberry 55 

ST. LAWRENCE 17, 18 192 

Saint-Lawrence 193 

Saint Laurent 193 

ST. PETER 194 

SALISBURY 297 

Salisbury Pippin 297 

Salisbury Winter 297 

SALOME 24, 297 

SANDY GLASS 195 

Sanguineus 65 

Sapson 203 

Sapsonvine 203 

Sassafras Sweet 94 

SAVEWELL 299 

SAXTON 196 

Scalloped Gilliflower 197 

Scalloped Gillyflower 197 

SCARLET BEAUTY 24 

SCARLET CRANBERRY 299 

Scarlet Pearmain (synonym of Kaighn) 113 

Scarlet Pearmain (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

SCARLET PIPPIN 25 196 

Schafnase 29 

Scharlottenthaler Golba 222 

SCHODACK 30O 

Schoner von Boskoop 25 

Schoolmocker 301 

Schoone van Boskoop 25 

SCHOONMAKER 3I 

SCHUYLER SWEET 19? 

Schwere Apfel 326 

SCOLLOP GILLIFLOWER 197 



346 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Scollop Gilliflower (synonym of Striped Gilliflower) 207 

Scolloped Gilliflower 197 

SCOTT 301 

Scott (synonym of Baker) 55 

Scott (synonym of Primate) 168 

SCOTT BEST ; 198 

Scott's Red Winter 302 

Scott's Winter 302 

SCRIBNER 303 

Scribner's Spitzenberg 303 

Scribner's Spitzenburgh 303 

Scudamore's Crab 278 

Scudamous Crab 278 

Seek-No-Farther 273 

Seeknofurther 364 

Seek-No-Further (synonym of Rambo) 273 

Seek-No-Further 303 

Seek-No-Further of Del., N. J., and Penn 273 

Seek-No-Further (synonym of Cooper) 40 

Seek-No-Further (synonym of Green Seek-No-Further) . 86 

Seever's Red Streak 230 

Senator 238 

SENECA FAVORITE 198 

Seneca Favorite (synonym of Quince [of Coxe] ) 174 

Seneca Spice 174 

SEPTEMBER ( Crab) 264 

SHACKLEFORD 304 

Shackleford's Best 304 

Shaker's Yellozv 53 

SHANNON (I) 305 

SHANNON (II) 306 

Shannon (synonym of Ohio Pippin) 149 

Shannon Pippin 305 

SHARP 199 

Sharpe's Early 212 

Sharpe's Spice 64 

SHEDDAN 306 

Sheepnose (synonym of Bullock) 89 

Sheepnose (synonym of Lady Finger) 183 

Sheepnose 307 

Sheepnose (synonym of Egg Top) 56 

Sheepnose (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Sheep Shire 131 

Sheep's Nose 89 

Sheep's Snout 89 

SHERRIFF 308 

SHERMAN 200 

Sherman's Favorite . 200 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 347 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Sherman's Sweet 200 

Sherwood's Favorite 33 

Shiawasse Beauty 201 

SHIAWASSEE 25 69, 201 

Shiawassee Beauty 201 

Shiawassie Beauty 201 

Ship pens Russet 294 

SHIRLEY 308 

Shoreditch White 96 

Shropshirevine 203 

Siberian August 112 

Siberian Crab 17 

Siberian Crab (synonym of Red Siberian) 264 

Siberian Crab (synonym of Yellow Siberian) 269 

SlNE-QUA-NON 202 

SKANK 309 

Sklanka 81 

Sklanka Bogdanoff 81 

Skunk 321 

Skvosnoi Krasnoi 182 

Skwosnoi Krasnoi 182 

Skwosnoi Schotoi 248 

Sleeper's Yellow S3 

SLEIGHT 310 

Sleight's Lady Apple 310 

Slight's Lady Apple 310 

SLINGERLAND 202 

Slingerland's Fall Pippin 202 

Slingerland's Pippin 202 

Small Admirable I 

Small's Admirable I 

SMITH CIDER 18, 310 

Smithfield Spice 49 

Smith's 311 

Smith's Cider 311 

SMOKEHOUSE , 15, 312 

Smoke House 312 

Smokehouse (synonym of Vandevere Pippin) 231 

Smyrna 33 

Snorter 197 

Snow 65 

Sol Carter 88 

Splotoc Renet * 79 

SOMERSET ( N. Y. ) 203 

Sondergleichen von Hubbardston 161 

Sops in Wine 203 

SOPS OF WINE 203 

SOULARD (Crab) 265 



348 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Sourbough (synonym of Champlain) 30 

SOUR BOUGH 204 

Sour Bough (synonym of Champlain) 30 

Sour Bough (synonym of Tart Bough) 220 

Sour Harvest 168 

Southern Romanite 289 

Speckled 63 

SPECTATOR 204 

Spiced Oxeye 231 

Spiced Ox Eye 225 

SPICE SWEET 12 

Spitzenberg 121 

Spitzenberg Newtown 225 

Spitsenburg 314 

Spitzenburgh (synonym of Esopus Spitzenburg) 121 

Spitzenburgh (synonym of Newtown Spitzenburg) 225 

Spitzenburgh Nezvtown 225 

SPRING PIPPIN 314 

Springport 314 

Springport Pippin 314 

Spy 229, 315 

Staalclubs (synonym of Newtown Spitzenburg) 225 

Staalclubs (synonym of Vandevere Pippin) 231 

Staalcubs 230 

Stalcubs 230 

STANARD 315 

Steward's Seedling 315 

Stannard 315 

Stannard's Seedling 315 

STARK 316 

STARKEY 205 

Starke Apple 316 

STAR LADY APPLE 182 

STARR 206 

Stayman 318 

Stayman's Winesap 318 

STAYMAN WINESAP 318 

Steele's Red 324 

Steele's Red Winter (synonym of Baldwin) 56 

Steele's Red Winter (synonym of Red Canada) 276 

Steele's Red Winter (synonym of Sutton) 324 

Steel's Red -. 276 

Stehly 158 

Steklianka Bogdanoff 81 

Steklianka pesotchnaya IQ5 

STERLING 319 

Sterling Beauty 45> 3 r 9 

Stettin Pippin 114 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 349 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Stevenson Pippin 197 

Stewart's Nonpareil '. 112 

Stillman 207 

STILLMAN EARLY 207 

Stillman' s Early 207 

Stine 197 

Stoke Tulip 3 

STONE 24, 320 

Stone (synonym of American Pippin) 45 

Stor Casseler Reinet 1 14 

Star Kasselrenett 114 

Storr's Wine 197 

STOWE 321 

Stowe's Winter 321 

Straat 208 

Strawberry (synonym of Sops of \Vine) 203 

Strawberry (synonym of Chenango) 33 

Strawberry (synonym of Late Strawberry) 120 

Strawberry (synonym of Richard Graft) 186 

Strawberry 207 

STREAKED PIPPIN 321 

Striped Ashmore 231 

Striped Bellflower 207 

STRIPED FAMEUSE 68 

STRIPED GILLIFLOWER 16 207 

Striped Harvest 93 

Striped Juneating 142 

Striped Pear main (synonym of McAfee) 197 

Striped Pearmain (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) 125 

Striped Quarrendon 142 

Striped Rambo 273 

Striped Red June 182 

Striped Rhode Island Greening (synonym of Domine) . . . 109 

Striped Rhode Island Greening (synonym of Wells) 363 

Striped Shropshire 55 

STRIPED SWEETING 16 

Striped Sweet Pippin 197 

Striped Vandervere 231 

Striped Winter Pearmain 197 

STROAT 208 

Strode 208 

STRODE BIRMINGHAM 208 

Strodc's 208 

Strode' s Birmingham 208 

Strohmer 85 

Stromling 85 

Stuart 323 

STUART GOLDEN 323 



350 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Stuart's Golden 323 

STUMP 209 

Stump (synonym of Stuart Golden) 323 

Stymer's 210 

STYMUS 210 

SUFFOLK BEAUTY 210 

Sugar Barbel 61 

Suislepper 219 

Summer Belllefleur 21 1 

SUMMER BELLFLOWER 211 

Summer Bellflozver (synonym of Autumn Bough) 10 

Summer Hagloe 92 

Summerour 227 

SUMMER PEARMAIN 15 211 

SUMMER PIPPIN 1 1 

Summer Pippin (synonym of Champlain) 30 

Summer Pippin (synonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

Summer Pippin (synonym of Holland Pippin) 101 

SUMMER QUEEN 16 212 

SUMMER RAMBO 213 

Summer Rambo (synonym of Grosh) 89 

Summer Rambour 213 

SUMMER REDSTREAK 214 

SUMMER ROSE 15 215 

Summer Russet 218 

SUMMER SPITZENBURG 215 

Summer Spitzenburgh 215 

SUMMER SWEET 216 

Summer Sweet (synonym of Hightop Sweet) 98 

Summer Sweeting (synonym of Summer Sweet) 216 

Summer Sweeting (synonym of Hightop Sweet) 98 

Summer Traveller 142 

Superior White 1 57 

Sussex Scarlet Pearmain 379 

Susy Clark 181 

SUTTON 32, 324 

Suit on Beauty (synonym of Dnmelow) 112 

if;S Sutton Beauty (synonym of Sutton) 324 

Svinsovka 121 

SWAAR 15, 16, 17, 18, 326 

Swaar Apple 326 

Swaysie Pomme Gris 328 

Swaysie 328 

Swaysie Pomme Grise 328 

SWAZIE 328 

Sivazie Pomme Grise 328 

Swazie's Pomme Gris 328 

Swazy 328 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 351 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 
PAGE. PAGE. 

Swazy Pomme Gris 328 

Szuedish Borsdorf of Patten 5 

SWEET AND SOUR 329 

SWEET BOUGH 12, 15, 16 216 

SWEET FALL PIPPIN 218 

Sweet Golden Pippin 12 

SWEET GREENING 151, 331 

Sweet Harvest 217 

Sweet June 98 

SWEET KING 333 

Sweet Ly man's Pumpkin 172 

Sweet Maiden's Blush 91 

Siveet Pear main 333 

Siveet Pippin (synonym of Moore Sweet) 219 

Sweet Pippin (synonym of Hog Island Sweet) loo 

Sweet Rambo 89 

Sweet Rhode Island Greening 331 

SWEET RUSSET 333 

SWEET RUSSET . 218 

Szveet Russet (synonym of Pumpkin Russet) 170 

Sweet Russet (synonym of Cheeseboro) 33 

Sweet's Harvest 212 

Szveet Swaar 12 

Sweet Wine 64 

SWEET WINESAP 333 

Szveet Wine Sap 333 

SWENKER 335 

Swett's Harvest 212 

Swines 121 

Sivinzovska 121 

SWITZER 2l8 

Sylvan Russet 294 

SYLVESTER 220 

Taffitai 239 

Tollman's Sweet 343 

Tollman Sweet 343 

Tollman Sweeting 343 

Tallow 128 

Tallow Apple 128 

Tallow Pippin 128 

Talman's Sweet 343 

Talman Sweet 343 

Talman's Sweeting 343 

Talman Sweeting : 343 

Tars Thorn 45 

Tart Bough (synonym of Early Harvest) 51 

Tart Bough (synonym of Champlain) 30 

TART BOUGH . 220 



35 2 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Teignmouth 223 

Teller 206 

Tennessee Early Red 55 

Tenon Hills 67 

Terry's Redstreak 273 

Tete d'Ange 29 

Tete de Chat 29 

Tetoffsky 220 

Tetofski (synonym of July) 112 

Tetofski (synonym of Tetofsky) 220 

TETOFSKY 25, 26 220 

Tetofsky (synonym of July) 112 

Tewkesbury Blush 336 

Tewkesbury Winter Blush 336 

Tewksberry Winter Blush 336 

TEWKSBURY 336 

Tewksbury Blush 336 

Tewksbury Winter Blush 336 

Texan Red 375 

TEXAS 337 

THALER 222 

Thomas 208 

THOMPSON 222 

Thompson No. 24. 222 

Thompson's Seedling No. 24 222 

Thompson's Seedling No: 29 1 1 1 

Thompson's Seedling No. 38 90 

Timothy 339 

Timothy Titus Sort 339 

TlNMOUTH 223 

Tinmouth Sweet 223 

Titovca 224 

TlTOVKA 224 

Titowka 224 

TITUS 339 

Titus (synonym of Titus Pippin) 339 

Titus Apple 224 

TITUS PIPPIN 338 

Titus Riga 224 

TOBIAS 340 

Tobias Apple 340 

TOBIAS BLACK 341 

TOBIAS PIPPIN 342 

Tolman 343 

TOLMAN Sweet '. 16, 17, 18, 343 

Tolman 's Siveeting 343 

Toma Red 345 

Tom Harryman 85 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 353 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Tommy Red 345 

Tompkins 49 

Tompkins County King 345 

TOMPKINS KING 17, 18, 19, 345 

Tom Put 225 

TOM PUTT 225 

Tom's Red , 345 

Tom Woodward Pippin 244 

Transcendant (Crab) 267 

TRANSCENDENT (Crab) 266 

Transparente de Astracan 239 

Transparente d'Ete 239 

Transparent de Muscovie 239 

Transparente de Muscovie d'Ete 239 

Transparente de Saint-Leger (syn. of Vineuse Rouge) 233 

Transparente de Saint-Leger (syn. of Yellow Transparent). 248 

Transparente de Zurich 239 

Transparente Jaune (synonym of Vineuse Rouge) 233 

Transparente Jaune (synonym of Yellow Transparent) .... 248 

Transparente Rouge 233 

Transparente Verte 233 

Transparent Muscovie 239 

Trovers' 184 

Trovers Apple 184 

Trovers Peppin 184 

Trovers Pippin 184 

Trovers Reinette 184 

Treanham 227 

Trenham 227 

Trenton Early 81 

True Spitzenburgh 121 

Trumpington 273 

Tsarskui Schip 45 

TUFTS 24 226 

Tufts Baldwin 226 

Tufts Seedling 226 

Tulpahocken 125 

Tulpehocken 125 

Turn Off Lane 174 

TWENTY OUNCE 17, 18, 193 227 

TWENTY OUNCE PIPPIN 349 

Twenty Ounce Pippin (synonym of Twenty Ounce) 227 

Twitty's Paragon 247 

TYRE BEAUTY 229 

Ulster Seedling 172 

Uncle Sam's Best 64 

Underdunk 30 

UTTER 229 



354 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

U tier's Large Red 230 

U tier's Red 230 

V 'alandingham 197 

Vandervere (synonym of Newtown Spitzenburg) 225 

Vandervere (synonym of Smokehouse) 312 

Vandervere of New York 225 

Vandervere (synonym of Vandevere) 230 

Vandervere (synonym of Vandevere Pippin) 231 

Vandervere Pippin 231 

Vandeveer 230 

VANDEVERE 18 230 

Vandevere (synonym of Newtown Spitzenburg) 225 

Vandevere, English 312 

Vandevere of New York 225 

VANDEVERE PIPPIN 231 

Vandevere Yellozv '. 231 

Van Duym's Pippin 62 

Van Dyme 244 

Van Dyne 244 

Van Dyne Apple 77 

Van Dyn's Pippin 62 

VANHOY 351 

Van Hoy 351 

Van Hoy No Core 351 

Van Kleek's Sweet 100 

Van Vleet 161 

VAN WYCK (Crab) 267 

Van Wyck (synonym of Brier) 251 

Van Wyck Siberian 268 

Van Wyck Sweet 268 

Vargul 6 

Varick 105 

Vermilion d'Ete 178 

Vermont 30 

Vermont Pippin 223 

Vermont Pumpkin Sweet 172 

Vermont Stveet 172 

Verte de Vile de Rhodes 283 

Verte de Rhode Island 283 

Vickers 186 

Victoire, La 188 

VICTORIA 24 231 

Victoria Pippin 69 

Victoria Red 69 

Victoria Sweet 231 

Victoria Sweeting 231 

VICTUALS AND DRINK 233 

Vilikui Mogul 87 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 355 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 
PAGE. PAGE. 

VINEUSE ROUGE 233 

Vinnoe Krasnoe Osennee 182 

Vinograd 244 

VIRGINIA GREENING 352 

Virginia June 142 

Virginia Pippin (synonym of Newtown Pippin) 146 

Virginia Pippin (synonym of Virginia Greening) 352 

Virginia Sweet 177 

Voronezh No. 21 247 

WABASH 353 

W abash Bellfiower (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) . . . 125 

Wabash Bellfiower (synonym of Wabash) 353 

WABASH RED 353 

Wabash Red Winter 353 

WAGENER 21, 24, 354 

Wahr Reineite 94 

Walb 227 

WALBRIDGE 356 

Walker 35 

WALKER BEAUTY 358 

Walker's Winter 358 

Walker Yellow 358 

Wall 227 

WALLACE HOWARD 359 

Wallbridge 357 

Walter Pease 161 

Waltz Apple 253 

Wahvorth 30 

Wander 227 

WANDERING SPY 360 

Warden's Pie Apple 203 

Ward's Pippin 21 

Warren Pennock 53 

Warren Pippin (synonym of Ortley) 244 

Warren Pippin (synonym of Yellow Bellflower) 381 

Washington (synonym of Sops of W r ine) 203 

Washington (synonym of Washington Strawberry) 234 

Washington (synonym of Sweet Bough) 217 

Washington County Seedling 234 

Washington of Maine .* 234 

WASHINGTON ROYAL 361 

WASHINGTON STRAWBERRY 234 

WATER , 236 

Waterloo 178 

Watermelon 204 

Watkins Early 21 1 

Watson's Vandervere 231 

Watson's Vandevere 231 



356 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Watts Apple 253 

WATWOOD 362 

Waxen ..... 67 

Waxen Apple 67 

WEALTHY 17, 19, 25 236 

WEALTHY GROUP 25 

Weinapfel Rather 182 

Weinappel Rother 182 

Weiser Hawthornden 96 

Weisser Metzgerapfel 381 

Well Apple (synonym of Domine) 109 

Well Apple (synonym of Titus Pippin) 339 

Wellington 112 

Wellington's Reinette 112 

WELLS 363 

Wells (synonym of Domine) 109 

Wells (synonym of Ohio Nonpareil) 148 

Wells Apple 363 

Wcsse Antillische Winterreinette 94 

Westbrook 60 

Westchesler Seek-No-Further 130 

Western Baldwin (synonym of Babbitt) 53 

Western Baldwin (synonym of Pawpaw) 250 

WESTERN BEAUTY 239 

Western Beauty (synonym of Hyde King) 166 

Western Beauty (synonym of Grosh) 89 

Western Beauty (synonym of Ohio Nonpareil) 148 

West field 364 

Westfield Seek-No-Farther 364 

WESTFIELD Seek-No-Further . . . .- -. . .12, 16, 17, 18, 32, 364 

WESTFIELD Seek-No-Further; Red type 366 

Wheelers Kernel 96 

White 67 

White Apple (synonym of Hawthornden) 96 

White Apple (synonym of Parry White) 157 

White Astracan 239 

WHITE ASTRACHAN 25 239 

White Bellefleur 244 

White BellHower 244 

White Borodovka 15 

White Crow 197 

White Detroit 244 

White Graft of Wisconsin 60 

White Hawthorndean 96 

White Hawthornden 96 

White June 1 18 

WHITE JUNEATING 240 

White Newell . 60 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 357 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 
PAGE. PAGE. 

WHITE PEARMAIN 367 

WHITE PIPPIN 24, 368 

White Pippin (synonym of Canada Reinette) 94 

White Pippin (synonym of Ortley) 244 

White Robinson 380 

WHITE SEEK-NO-FURTHER 15 

White Seek-No-Further (synonym of Green Seek-No- 
Further) 88 

WHITE SPANISH REINETTE 241 

White Spice 49 

White Winter Pearmain 367 

White Zurdel 387 

WHITNEY (Crab) 268 

Whitney No. 20 268 

Wilcox's Winter 302 

Wild Apple 384 

WILLIAMS 242 

Williams Early 242 

Williams Early Red 242 

Williams Favorite 242 

Williams Favorite Red 242 

Williamson 109 

Williams Red 242 

WILLIS SWEET 244 

Willis Sweeting 244 

WILLOW 1 8, 370 

Willow Leaf 370 

Willow Leaf Pippin 244 

Willow Twig 370 

WlLLSBORO 372 

Wilsons June 181 

Windower 231 

WINDSOR 372 

Windsor Chief 372 

WINE IS, 373 

Wine (synonym of Jonathan) 172 

Wine (synonym of Newtown Spitzenburg) 225 

Wine (synonym of Egg Top) 56 

Wine (synonym of Fall Wine) 64 

Wine (synonym of Richard Graft) 186 

Wine (synonym of Twenty Ounce) 227 

Wine Apple 373 

Wine of Cole 64 

WINE RUBETS 244 

WINESAP 17, 24, 374 

WINESAP GROUP 24 

Winesap (synonym of Jonathan) 172 

Winesap (synonym of Roseau) 292 



358 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Wine Sop 375 

Wine Sweet 380 

WINTER BANANA 377 

Winter Belle Bonne 67 

Winter Blush (synonym of Fallawater) 125 

Winter Blush (synonym of Rock Pippin of Eastern New 

York) 288 

Winter Chandler 31 

Winter Genneting 271 

Winter Golden Sweet 13 

WINTER HOG ISLAND SWEET 378 

W'inter Horse 227 

Winter Jannetting 271 

Winter King 345 

Winter Nonsuch 276 

Winter Peach 251 

WINTER PEARMAIN 378 

Winter Pearmain (synonym of McAfee) 197 

Winter Pearmain (synonym of Milam) 208 

Winter Pearmain (synonym of Long Island Pearmain) . . . 124 

JVinter Pearmain (synonym of Long Red Pearmain) .... 125 

Winter Pippin 197 

Winter Pippin of Geneva 136 

Winter Queen 88 

Winter Queening 88 

Winter Rose 227 

Winter Russet (synonym of English Russet) 118 

Winter Russet (synonym of Perry Russet) 257 

WINTER ST. LAWRENCE 379 

Winter Seek-No-Further 88 

Winter Sweet Paradise 380 

Winter Wine 373 

WINTHROP GREENING 245 

WISMER 380 

Wismer's Dessert 380 

Wisner's Dessert 380 

WOLF RIVER .20, 25 245 

Wolf River (synonym of Alexander) 3 

Wolman's Harvest 215 

Wonder 227 

Woodman's Song 244 

Woodpecker 56 

Woodstock (synonym of Blenheim) 21 

Woodstock (synonym of Dyer) 49 

Woodstock Pippin 21 

Woodzvard's Pippin 244 

Woolman's Early 215 

Woolman's Harvest 215 



COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 359 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

PAGE. PAGE. 

Woolmaris Long ; < ; . . . 244 

Woolman's Long Pippin 244 

Woolman's Striped Harvest 215 

Woolnary Long 244 

Woolverton * . . 127 

WORKAROE 246 

World's Wonder 227 

Wunderapfel 3 

Wyandotte 196 

Yankee Apple 172 

Yeats 316 

Yellow Bellcneur . 381 

Yellow Belleflower 381 

YELLOW BELLFLOWER 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 381 

YELLOW BELLFLOWER GROUP 383 

Yellow Bough' 217 

YELLOW CALVILLE 247 

Yellow Flat 118 

YELLOW FOREST 384 

Yellow German Reinette 142 

YELLOW HARVEST 12 

Yellow Harvest (synonym of Early Harvest) 51 

Yellow Janett 271 

Yellow June (synonym of White Juneating) 240 

Yellow June (synonym of Kirkbridge) '. 118 

Yellow Juneating 5 1 

Yellow May 240 

Yellow Newton's Pippin 146 

YELLOW NEWTOWN 17, 1 8, 24, 145, 150, 385 

Yellow Newtown (synonym of Canada Reinette) 94 

Yellow Newtown Pippin 146 

Yellow Pippin (synonym of Newark Pippin) 223 

Yellow Pippin (synonym of Ortley) 244 

YELLOW SIBERIAN (Crab) 269 

Yellow Summer Pearmain 166 

Yellow Sweeting 81 

YELLOW TRANSPARENT 17, 25 247 

Yellow Transparent (synonym of Thaler) 222 

Yellow Vandervere 231 

YOPP 18 249 

Yopp's Favorite (Synonym of Yopp) 249 

Yopp's Favorite (synonym of Yellow Newtown) 146 

YORK 249 

York and Lancaster 193 

YORK IMPERIAL 18, 19, 32, 385 

YORK PIPPIN 24 

York Pippin (synonym of Fall Pippin) 62 

York Pippin (synonym of Golden Pippin I) 78 



360 COMBINED INDEX TO VARIETIES. 

VOL. I. VOL. II. 

York Pippin (synonym of White Spanish Reinette) 241 

York Russet (synonym of Cheeseboro) 33 

York Russet (synonym of Pumpkin Russet) 170 

York Russeting 33 

Zarskischip 45 

Zarski Schip 45 

Zarski Zars 45 

Zeeke 197 

Zolotoi Renet 79 

Zour Bough 168 

ZURDEI 387 

Zusoff of Tuttle 5